Mediterranean Electronic knowledge Atlas

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Article List
    Sociology
    Deathm Emotion, Gender and Identity in Greece
    The article examines emotion and identity in connection with Greek death cult in an attempt to clarify certain political phenomena in the Mediterranean area. The cult of the dead is a common cultural pattern in the area. Why is this cult so persistent? What is death cult and how does it manifest itself? The article delves into its lasting importance in the Greek part of the cultural area, where the author has conducted several periods of fieldwork. To illustrate the persistence of this cultural pattern, the characteristic aspects connected with death cult in Greek tradition are discussed: The comparison is based on festivals, which are dedicated to deceased persons and domestic death rituals combined with ancient sources. Based on them an analytical survey of the relationship between the death cult dedicated to deceased mediators in ancient and modern society, as it is manifested through laments, burials and the following memorial rituals is made. The modern domestic rituals people perform for their own dead influence the official ideological rituals, and vice versa, the domestic rituals reflect public performances. A study of modern cult practices reveals many parallels with the official cult of the ancients, and suggests ways in which modern rituals can throw new light upon the ancient rituals and vice versa. The article seeks to demonstrate how new ideologies must adjust to older rituals and beliefs and how public and domestic rituals are connected. The article finally suggests how these similarities might represent a common way of expression within a larger context in which the Mediterranean cultural meaning of emotion is central.?
    Keyword: Modern and Ancient Greece, Death Cult, Death Rituals, Gender, Laments. Burials, Gifts, Communication
    Author: Evy Johanne H?land
    Poblication Year: 2014
    Language: English
    Country: Greece
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    European History
    Opposing Hegemony
    Greek and Indian tradition share several common features. Many of them come from an ancestral relationship, others are historically or structurally motivated. This paper analyzes two female heroines in two dramas who oppose a higher will, Antigone in Sophocles
    Keyword: Tyrannical, Gods, Divine, Human(s), Significant Names, Nature, Law, Worship, Conflicting Ideologies, Tradition, Necessity
    Author: Andreas L. Katonis
    Poblication Year: 2014
    Language: English
    Country: Greece
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    Dreaming the -Great Sea-
    This essay focuses on the European tradition of utopian discourses on the Mediterranean as a space where religious, ethnic, and cultural differences could be reconciled as well as a region conducive to more humanistic relationships. The author traces the emergence of this discourse in selected texts spanning from the 19th century to the contemporary period, contextualizing them against a background that witnessed the early colonial encroachment of France, the imperialism of the interwar era, and the post-Cold war period. Among the texts considered are writings by the followers of the utopian socialism of Saint-Simon, the cultural production of the authors gravitating around Cahiers du Sud and the Centre Universitaire M?diterran?en, and contemporary Continental philosophers. Often harking back to earlier discourses on the Mediterranean formulated during the interwar, these philosophers revisit the region as a space of legacies and forms of knowledge to counter the totalizing assumptions of post-Maastricht Europe. The essay concludes by considering the reception on this utopian Western discourse on the part of Arab and Islamic commentators.?
    Keyword: Mediterraean Utopia, Colonialism,
    Author: Norma Bouchard
    Poblication Year: 2014
    Language: English
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Human Geography
    A Matrix for Mediterranean (Area) Studies
    The multipolar, dynamic and heterogeneous Mediterranean area is an object of analysis in different disciplines. The French historian Fernand Braudel developed one of the most comprehensive scientific approaches, defining the Mediterranean as a space of unity and coherence, with a long-term continuity (longue dur?e). Studies in political science, especially in international relations (IR), have been limited to debates between schools of thought, explaining global challenges, or using local case studies for theoretical testing. Work in area studies has been reduced to (comparative) analysis of local specificities. The fundamental changes within the societies of the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean provoked by the uprisings since the end of 2010 call for new scientific approaches in Mediterranean Studies. By combining IR and area studies, and by simultaneously analysing large-scale developments (macro) and smaller, local, sub-regional developments (micro), we can not only explore the interdisciplinary dynamics in social sciences, but also place the Mediterranean area within the international system, and deepen our knowledge about its specificities at the same time.?
    Keyword: Mediterranean Studies, Area Studies, Arab Spring, Euro-Mediterranean Relations, Interdisciplinarity
    Author: Isabel Sch?fer
    Poblication Year: 2014
    Language: English
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Women
    A Hybrid Face: the Franco-Maghrebi Stardom of Sami Bouajila
    The idealised embodiments of national identity have been represented by film stars throughout the history of cinema. However, stars are increasingly becoming the site of cross-cultural contestations in the globalised and transnational film industry. Since the 1990s, French cinema has witnessed an unprecedented surge of actors of Maghrebi origin, offering a challenge to the traditional modes of representation. This article explores the phenomenon of Franco-Maghrebi stardom, with a view to establishing Sami Bouajila as a new type of transnational star. Embodying positive images of integration, he has evolved from a proto-son searching for a father(land) in French society, towards a more mature stardom incorporating at once Arabic heritage and French identity. To articulate these aspects of his stardom, this article will particularly focus on the case study of Dr?le de F?lix, a Bouajila vehicle that opens up a greater readiness to accept a hybrid identity with ties to both France and North Africa in a contemporary context.?
    Keyword: French cinema, Stardom, Sami Bouajila, Maghrebi, Dr?le de F?lix
    Author: Eun-Jee Park
    Poblication Year: 2014
    Language: English
    Country: France
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    European History
    Travel Books and Urban Identity. British Travellers in Messina, 1770-1815
    Patrick Brydone
    Keyword: Messina, British travellers, Grand Tour, Sicily, Mediterranean urban identities
    Author: Diletta D-Andrea
    Poblication Year: 2014
    Language: English
    Country: Italy
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Anthropology
    Horse, Bow and Arrow
    An often discussed group of artefacts are the so-called
    Keyword: Scythians, Arrowheads, Early Iron Age, Greece, Northern Pontic
    Author: Anja Hellmuth
    Poblication Year: 2014
    Language: English
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Sociology
    Global Civil Society and the Egyptian 2011 Uprising
    The Arab Spring refers to the series of mass uprisings that swept the Arab world in December 2010 and beyond. It resulted in regime changes and mass domestic turmoil across the region. Several factors have been used to account for the Arab Spring, such as domestic despotism and corruption, the impact of social media, and external pressures. This article purports to assess the transnational dimension of the Arab Spring through an examination of the role of global civil society, represented in international human rights groups, in the march toward the Egyptian January 2011 uprising.?
    Keyword: Global Civil Society, Egyptian Uprising, Boomerang Effect, Human, Rights, Democracy, Networking
    Author: Gamal M. Selim
    Poblication Year: 2014
    Language: English
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Sociology
    The Myth of the -New Phoenicians-
    Most previous studies have assumed the following hypothesis: the Lebanese diaspora continues to have strong attachments to the homeland based on close networks of personal connections, and almost all Lebanese have a strong interest in foreign countries through such networks. That is why the Lebanese have come to be commonly known as the
    Keyword: Lebanese Diaspora, Migration, Economic Polarization, Opinion Poll
    Author: Masaki Mizobuchi
    Poblication Year: 2013
    Language: English
    Country: Lebanon
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Greek Literature
    Cultural Diversity in Greek Religion
    The Anastenaria festival is celebrated in the village of Agia Elen? in Greek Macedonia in May. The main ritual during the festival is the ecstatic dance over red-hot coals by people who are possessed by their saint. Thus, the festival presents a ritual, which in many ways is in opposition to the official Orthodox religion. A particular theme in the festival, which has been compared with ancient sources, is the
    Keyword: Cultrual Diversity, Greek Religion, Festivals, Gender, Modern and Ancient Greece, Wedding
    Author: Evy Johanne H?land
    Poblication Year: 2013
    Language: English
    Country: Greece
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Science of Religion
    Staging the Extraordinary Emergence of Divine Entities in the Daily Life of a Visionary House in Beirut
    Catherine, a Maronite resident of Nab-a (Beirut), married and the mother of three children, claims that for the past twenty years she has
    Keyword: Beirut, rituals, saints, visionary, miracles
    Author: Nour Farra-Haddad
    Poblication Year: 2013
    Language: English
    Country: Lebanon
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Sociology
    Civil Soceity Activities in Turkey
    The democratization and stability of the Muslim world are two of the most crucial issues facing the world, especially after so called
    Keyword: Tureky, Hizmet Movement, Arab Spring, Civil Society Activities, Faith-based organizations
    Author: Idiris Danismaz
    Poblication Year: 2013
    Language: English
    Country: Turkey
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Sociology
    Naming People
    This paper examines the representation resulting from forenames, surnames and nickname practices. The paper provides an ethnographic analysis of naming practices as an everyday experience for the people of Gogofis, an Arvanite/Greek village in Attica, which is an hour
    Keyword: Greece, Albania, Arvanites, Naming, Identity
    Author: Simeon S. Magliveras
    Poblication Year: 2013
    Language: English
    Country: Greece
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    European History
    Away from Home
    The article aims to investigate the phenomenon of the so-called Greek colonization within the Mediterranean, beginning in the 8th century BC, from a neutral angle as a migration process. A framework for the identification of migrations in prehistoric or early historical contexts developed by S. Burmeister and based upon the synthesis of several studies dealing with migration movements is applied to the concrete case of Greek colonization in Sicily. It can be demonstrated that a number of commonly discussed aspects of the phenomenon are readily understandable through comparison with frequently occurring migration patterns. Moreover the application of the framework highlights those research fields which need more attention in order to understand the movement in all its depth. Furthermore the observation of the Greek migration through the applied framework makes it clear that essential information will not be found in the destination area but in the region and society from where the movement started.?
    Keyword: Greek colonization, migration, Sicily, Early Iron Age, Greece
    Author: Sebatian M?ller
    Poblication Year: 2013
    Language: English
    Country: Greece
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Etc Humanities Science
    The -Happiness Academy-
    Since 2003 and the human cloning scandal, the Raelian movement, a small organization but one known all over the world, has been particularly active in the media, on the Internet and on the international stage. Their -Happiness Academy-, organized in mid-summer in Slovenia in order to highlight the life of the movement, is a singular religious manifestation, bringing together Raelians from all over Europe around their prophet, Claude Vorilhon, alias Rael. First, this study analyses the results of a survey, conducted during this Raelian training in Lendava in 2010, and in Strunjan in 2011. It emphasizes all the efficiency of an Internet marketing strategy and the uniqueness of an event that represents both a relaxing holiday and a religious gathering. The researcher also questions the reasons for choosing these two sites and Slovenia from a transnational geographic, economic and juridical point of view (imprisonment for the act of -apology for human cloning- is practiced in some European countries like France). Second, the study focuses on the ephemeral, sacred side of the event but also on the originality of the experience and the practices that the Happiness Academy conducts, for example the sensual meditation and the worship rather subtly maintained around the -prophet- Rael and the Elohim (aliens supposed to have created the world). Finally, the researcher makes reference to the exploitation of the Internet by the Raelian movement, not only for the promotion of this event but also for an overall strategy based on the strengths of religious tourism (particularly when the organization targets states that could sell their land to build the embassy welcoming the Elohim when they come to earth).?
    Keyword: Raelian movement, new religion, religious tourism, marketing, Slovenia, Happiness Academy
    Author: Francois Xavier Bauduin
    Poblication Year: 2013
    Language: English
    Country: Slovenia
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    Antonio Gramsci-s Political Philosophy and European Integration
    This paper reviews competing contemporary perspectives on the political philosophy of Antonio Gramsci and relates them to the analysis of European integration today. The first part of the paper looks at the different conceptualizations of Gramsci
    Keyword: Antonio Gramsci, Hegemony, Philosophy of Praxis, Marxism, Italian History, European Regional Integration
    Author: Eduardo Zachary Albrecht
    Poblication Year: 2013
    Language: English
    Country: Italy
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    International Trade
    State Intervention in the Grain Trade of Malta (16th-20th Century)
    The article aims to investigate the phenomenon of the so-called Greek colonization within the Mediterranean, beginning in the 8th century BC, from a neutral angle as a migration process. A framework for the identification of migrations in prehistoric or early historical contexts developed by S. Burmeister and based upon the synthesis of several studies dealing with migration movements is applied to the concrete case of Greek colonization in Sicily. It can be demonstrated that a number of commonly discussed aspects of the phenomenon are readily understandable through comparison with frequently occurring migration patterns. Moreover the application of the framework highlights those research fields which need more attention in order to understand the movement in all its depth. Furthermore the observation of the Greek migration through the applied framework makes it clear that essential information will not be found in the destination area but in the region and society from where the movement started.?
    Keyword: Malta, Sicily, Grain Trade, British Colony,
    Author: Carmel Cassar
    Poblication Year: 2013
    Language: English
    Country: Malta
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Art & Physical Education
    Ashdod Ware Found at Khirbet Qeiyafa and Its Implications for Understanding the Tradition of Philistine Decorated Pottery
    This paper aims to present Ashdod Ware newly found at Khirbet Qeiyafa in the 2009-2010 seasons and to examine its implications for understanding the tradition of Philistine decorated pottery. Based on the Ashdod Ware found at Khirbet Qeiyafa, I argue that 1) Ashdod Ware can be subdivided into two phases: Ashdod Ware I and Ashdod Ware II, and 2) the decorated ceramic tradition of the Philistines from Iron Age I to Iron Age IIB (12th - 8th century BCE) can be subdivided into four different phases and can be understood as a battleship curve rather than as sequential (contra Ben-Shlomo et al. 2004). In addition, I tried to figure out the distribution of archaeological sites revealing Ashdod Ware I: it was first known only in Philistia and the Negev in the second half of the 11th century BCE and later it expanded to the north (Jezreel Valley and Beth Shean Valley) and to the east (Central Highlands) in the 10th century BCE.?
    Keyword: Pottery, Philistine decorated pottery, Iron Age, Ashdod Ware
    Author: Hoo-Goo Kang
    Poblication Year: 2013
    Language: English
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Women
    Labor Participation of Arab Women in Israe
    The low employment rate among Israeli Arab women has significant economic and social consequences for the Arab community in general and Arab women in particular. This study estimates the factors that affect the participation rate of Arab women in the Israeli labor force compared to that of Jewish women. Four categories of factors are identified: demographic and human capital characteristics, social and cultural norms, household characteristics and government policy on labor markets. Based on the results of the estimation, which helps to identify the key barriers to Arab women
    Keyword: Arab women, cost-benefit analysis, employment encouragement programs, professional training programs
    Author: Doron Lavee
    Poblication Year: 2013
    Language: English
    Country: Israel
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Italian Literature
    Italo-Maltese Relations(ca. 1150 -1936)
    During the Middle Ages, politically Malta forms part of the administration in Sicily, with the effective capital of Malta being Palermo. Rebel communities of Italians are exiled to Malta, whilst rebel residents of Malta are exiled to Italy. With the arrival of the Knights of St. John and the adoption of the Tuscan variant of Italian as the language of the administration, the contacts with mainland Italy increase: in the course of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries we not only have the Maltese intelligentsia producing literary compositions in Italian but we also find an influx of Italian artists and architects flocking to Malta and influencing the tastes and the training of the Maltese. In the eighteenth century we encounter the first grammars and dictionaries of the Maltese language. The nineteenth century witnesses the presence in Malta of the Italian Risorgimento exiles who spread the ideals of nationalism and romanticism amongst Maltese writers, politicians and intellectuals. However, the ascent of fascism in Italy in 1922 leads to the elimination of Italian as an official language of Malta in 1936, whilst Italy
    Keyword: Malta, Italy, Culture, Literature, Language
    Author: Arnold Cassola
    Poblication Year: 2012
    Language: English
    Country: Malta
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Italian Literature
    The Italian Labor Market: An Appraisal of the 2003
    This article looks at the major historical developments in the Italian labor market, with specific attention given to the
    Keyword: Biagi Law, White Paper on the Labor Market, Italian labor law, Labor Market Flexibility, European Employment Strategy
    Author: Eduardo Zachary Albrecht
    Poblication Year: 2012
    Language: English
    Country: Italy
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    European History
    The Battle Standard (Flag) with the Image of the Immaculate Conception
    When maritime communications lacked the sophisticated technologies of today, seafarers had to conceive signals so that they could communicate with each other at sea. Flags were one aspect of the code language in use during early modern times all over the Mediterranean Sea. Flags were not only used to denote the nationality or religion of the owner of the vessel but also as signals, in particular when ships sailed in convoy or squadron formation. A successful encounter at sea depended on good coordination. For this reason, a particular flag was devised to be used in time of battle. It was known as the battle standard, and was raised to signal the beginning of combat. This article focuses on this particular flag and explores its use by both Christians and Muslims. Particular reference is made to the battle flags used by the Knights of Malta. The General of the Knights
    Keyword: Battle Standard, Immaculate Conception, Corsairing, Knights of Malta, Signals Flags
    Author: Simon Mercieca
    Poblication Year: 2012
    Language: English
    Country: Malta
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Science of Religion
    Religious Roots of a Political Ideology
    Albeit overtly secular, Zionist ideology was inspired by religious thought. While traditional religions often supported the nationalist cause, the relationship of Judaism and Zionism is vastly different. Adepts of traditional Judaism immediately rejected Zionism, and this rejectionist attitude has not vanished to this day. On the other hand, Christian, mainly Protestant theologians had developed the idea of the ingathering of the Jews in the Holy Land several centuries prior to the first Zionist congress in 1897. This explains why the initially socialist oriented secular project of social transformation has undergone sacralization, becoming a focal point of Evangelical Christian Zionists. These Evangelical contributions to Zionism and the Zionist state must be taken into account in analyses of the State of Israel, its position in the modern Middle East and the policy-making of those countries where such Evangelical circles wield significant influence.?
    Keyword: Zionism, Christian Zionism, Israel, Judaism, Evangelical
    Author: Yakov M. Rabkin
    Poblication Year: 2012
    Language: English
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Italian Literature
    Literature in Trieste, Where the Frontier Disappeared
    I devote this paper to use the history of Trieste and its border to examine how representations of difference have affected the politics of sovereignty during the twentieth century. Focusing on the history of the
    Keyword: other, frontier, identity, Trieste, literature
    Author: KIM, Heejung
    Poblication Year: 2012
    Language: English
    Country: Italy
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Etc language Literature
    Inventors of the First Alphabetic System
    During the Middle Bronze Age (1900-1500 BCE) some Asiatics, called Canaanites, who would have learned Egyptian writing, hieratic and hieroglyphic Egyptian scripts, left the earliest specimens of alphabetic writing. Yet they could reconstruct and remember the general form of the letters they had learned through the meaning of the names, on the basis of their acquaintance with Egyptian writing systems. The appearance of the alphabet is a remarkable advance in civilization, outdating the clumsy writing systems of the Near East. At the time of its creation, it was a practical expedient to counter the lack of a native writing system among Canaanites who had migrated to the Nile Delta as foreign workers. This new device was never regarded as an improvement or a replacement for the sophisticated systems of Egypt or Mesopotamia. No large scale writing or official use was involved at the time of its creation. The alphabetic system, however, enables ordinary people to read and write even the simplest of words and sentences and left far reaching consequences for human civilization.?
    Keyword: alphabet, hieroglyph, hieratic, Proto-Sinaitic, Wadi el-Hol, Serabit el-Khadem, Semites, acrophonic principle, disruptive innovation
    Author: BAE, Chulhyun
    Poblication Year: 2012
    Language: English
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    European History
    An Archaeology of the Verticalist Mediterranean
    In modern Europe, the Mediterranean Sea has become an abridged or forgotten sea. At present, under the pressure of
    Keyword: Mediterranean, Europe, postcolonial thought, meridian thought, verticalism
    Author: Luigi Cazzato
    Poblication Year: 2012
    Language: English
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Economics
    Banking on Ethics vs the Ethos of Banking
    This paper will discuss the development of Islamic banking in the GCC as a concrete industry ? and not as a concept ? by looking at business practices from a practitioner
    Keyword: Islamic banking, Islamic finance, GCC, Ithmaar Bank, corporate governance
    Author: Kifah Salameh
    Poblication Year: 2012
    Language: English
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    International Trade
    The Shipbuilding Industry and Trade Exchanges between the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and the Countries of the Baltic and the Black Sea (1734-1861)
    This paper aims to explain the development of the Neapolitan fleet and of the shipyards of Naples and Castellammare, which played an important role in the overall social and political reorganization of Southern Italy. This area, which had become an independent kingdom in 1734, needed to create its own fleet and specific trade regulations and structures in order to become a legitimate part of the European political scene. When Charles of Bourbon occupied the kingdom of Naples in 1734, the situation was quite critical because it lacked the infrastructure and the fleet had been destroyed. When Charles became king of Spain in 1759, King Ferdinand decided to call admiral John Acton to come to Naples to reorganize the Navy: so for the new 74-gun vessels Acton decided to build a new royal shipyard in Castellammare. And this shipyard was reorganized in the second part of the Bourbon reign (1815 - 1861) for the construction of new steamships.?
    Keyword: shipyard of Castellammare, 74 and 80-gun vessels, steamships, guns of Sweden, masts of Riga (Russie)
    Author: Maria Sirago
    Poblication Year: 2012
    Language: English
    Country: Italy
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Spanish Literature
    Written Heritage in The Mediterranean
    Studies of written heritage have been encouraged during the last years in Europe. They have recently introduced new fields of study within its methodology such as palaeography and codicology, mainly in cataloguing documents. Many libraries have been updated through new catalogues and editions of its manuscripts collections in different ancient languages. Other collections have been restored or inventoried by specialists. The research group devoted to the study of original texts in languages developed in the Mediterranean basin since antiquity is trying to contribute to this field. A survey on the studies carried out during the last years in the CSIC is here presented.
    Keyword: Manuscripts, written heritage, Mediterranean languages, codicology, palaeography
    Author: Ma Teresa Ortega-Monasterio
    Poblication Year: 2011
    Language: English
    Country: Spain
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Spanish Literature
    Pedro I of Castile(1350-69)
    Pedro I of Castile ascended to the Castilian throne in 1350 at the age of fifteen following Alfonso XI
    Keyword: Pedro I of Castile, Anglo-Castilian Alliance, Edward Prince of Wales
    Author: Benjamin F. Taggie
    Poblication Year: 2011
    Language: English
    Country: Spain
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Italian Literature
    Umberto Saba, between Nature and Divine Providence
    In all his literary production, Umberto Saba returns repeatedly to the problem of God and how he perceives its importance. Suspended between Jewish family roots, a Christian environment and a disengaged context, he ends up complying with the last one. He avoids every opportunity of joining the divinity that he needs, without giving of himself to it. We can read the
    Keyword: Iitalian literature, Mediterranean culture, God, Love, Christianity, Jewish
    Author: Giorgio Baroni
    Poblication Year: 2011
    Language: English
    Country: Italy
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Greek Literature
    The Expansion of Mediterranean Judaism and the Synagogue at Delos
    This paper deals with the issue of the expansion of the Mediterranean Judaism in association with the Synagogue of Delos. After presenting in brief the expansion of the Jews in the Mediterranean Sea the research focuses on the history of the island of Delos and the presence of the Jews on it. The presence of the Jews on the island is associated with the building GD 80. The paper examines the question of the identification of the building as a synagogue focusing in elements as topography ? situation, chronology, inscriptions and secondary fittings or findings. It presents the various opinions of the scholars who dealt with the subject and attempted to testify if the building GD 80 is the oldest synagogue of the Diaspora. The paper proposes the examination of the synagogue of Delos in parallel with the synagogue of Ostia and those of the Diaspora and the comparison of it with the synagogues of the land of Palestine.
    Keyword: Expansion of Judaism, Delos, Synagogue, Diaspora
    Author: Christos G. Karagiannis
    Poblication Year: 2011
    Language: English
    Country: Greece
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Greek Literature
    Homer as a Point of Departure
    Contrary to the view-current among certain critics-that it is only decorative, the epic simile, starting from Homer and carried on by Virgil and Milton, performs many functions, functions that help to make an epic what it is. In the development of the epic in general and of the epic simile in particular, Homer, Virgil, and Milton, three mainstream epic poets, were linked by a similar tradition and shared close affinities in the way they employed this rhetorical device. While drawing on the Homer-Virgil tradition, using the epic simile as Homer, Virgil, and Milton did, Dante in The Divine Comedy took Homer as a point of departure. This paper discusses what functions Dante
    Keyword: epic simile, the Iliad, the Odyssey, Paradise Lost, The Divine Comedy, slow-motion sequence, bulk, sublimity, anthropomorphic, ineffable
    Author: Laurence K. P. Wong
    Poblication Year: 2011
    Language: English
    Country: Greece
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Tourism
    Moroccan Arrivals (Edith Wharton-s In Morocco)
    Abstract
    Keyword: Wharton, Morocco, colonialism, tourism, arrivant
    Author: John Culbert
    Poblication Year: 2011
    Language: English
    Country: Morocco
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Greek Literature
    The Hymns to the Gods in Plato
    This article focuses on the place and importance of hymns to the Gods in Plato
    Keyword: Musicology, Hymnology, Politics, Legislation, Ethics
    Author: Thierry Grandjean
    Poblication Year: 2011
    Language: English
    Country: Greece
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Turkish Literature
    Spatial Influence in the Meeting of Poet-Poetry and the Language of Cities
    Metin Turan, a contemporary Turkish poet, has concentrated on the relationship between the poet and space in his works. In his poetry collections entitled
    Keyword: Metin Turan, Poetry, Space, Identity, Environment
    Author: Medine S
    Poblication Year: 2011
    Language: English
    Country: Turkey
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    European History
    What Place Does the
    In Plato-s Republic, Socrates criticizes the poets who depicted the gods wrongly, as according to his concept of gods, hymns to them seem irrational, for gods are perfect in the best conditions. So it is noticeable that the description of the Ideas is very similar to that of gods, and that it is philosopher-rulers who can know the Ideas. Besides, the soul of a philosopherking is akin to the divine and to eternal being; therefore it can be said that gods and a philosopher
    Keyword: Hymn, God, Idea, Philosophy, Poet
    Author: KIM, Heon
    Poblication Year: 2011
    Language: English
    Country: Greece
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    European History
    The Ultimate Portraiture: God in Paradise Lost and in The Divine Comedy
    Arguably the two greatest poets of the Christian world, Milton and Dante have both written about God, respectively in Paradise Lost and in The Divine Comedy. Though equally influenced by the Bible and Christian thought and sharing many affinities, the two poets adopted different approaches in portraying the Supreme Being, a task that taxes the imaginative powers of the greatest of poets. While Milton
    Keyword: God, Milton, Paradise Lost, Dante, The Divine Comedy, Homer, Virgil, Anthropomorphism, Catch 22
    Author: Laurence K. P. Wong
    Poblication Year: 2011
    Language: English
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Women
    Women, Death and the Body in some of Plutarch
    This article focuses on some of Plutarch
    Keyword: Greek history, ancient and modern; Comparative approach; Women and gender-studies; Plutarch; Women; Death cult and Death-rituals; Body
    Author: Evy Johanne H?land
    Poblication Year: 2011
    Language: English
    Country: Greece
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Science of Law
    The Judicial Punishment of Decalvatio in Visigothic Spain:
    The Visigothic judicial punishment known as decalvation has been widely studied for more than a century, yet there exists no general agreement concerning its exact nature. Scholars concur that decalvation involved a shameful mutilation of the head and hair, but there is disagreement about whether the punishment involved scalping or merely shaving one
    Keyword: Visigothic, Isidore, Jews, Decalvation, Law
    Author: Jace Crouch
    Poblication Year: 2010
    Language: English
    Country: Spain
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Sociology
    The Italian Jewish Migration to Eretz Israel and the Birth of Italian Chalutz Movement
    This article analyzes the Italian Jewish
    Keyword: Italy, Jews, Zionism, Eretz Israel [Land of Israel],
    Author: Arturo Marzano
    Poblication Year: 2010
    Language: English
    Country: Italy
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Sociology
    Discovering the Diversities of Indonesian Islam in Contemporary Cairo
    This paper tries to clarify activities of the Indonesian Azharis in contemporary Cairo focusing on (1) the interactions within the Indonesian communities and (2) their relationships with Egyptian society. Though hundreds of students from Indonesia has been flowing into the Azhar university little has been written on this issue. The paper clarified that (1) Indonesian students were reproducing their Indonesian lifestyles within the regional organizations. These geographic divides, however, were overcame by some extracurricular activities: publishing the periodics and discussions. Through these activities the students recognized diversities of Indonesian Islam. Simultaneously the paper depict that (2) while the majority of the students were weak to adapt with environment of Cairo, some students were willing to communicate with the society. It can be pointed out that both experiences fostered their nation identity as Indonesian. It is in Cairo that Indonesian students recognize the diversities of Indonesian Islam and enhance their national identity.?
    Keyword: Diversities, Indonesian Islam, Studying Abroad, Azhar University in Cairo, Area Studies
    Author: KINOSHITA, Hiroko
    Poblication Year: 2010
    Language: English
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Women
    Greek Women, Power and the Body
    Based on studies in ancient Greek sources, mainly produced by men, combined with results from fieldwork carried out on contemporary Greek religious festivals, a comparison is made with similar ancient festivals through an analysis of the fertility-cult, which is important in the festivals. This is a useful way to try to consider the female part of society, since women are the central performers of the actual cult that plays an important role within the official male value-system. This is the value-system, from which the festivals and the society that they reflect, traditionally have been considered. The absence of the female value-system leaves previous analyses one-sided and incomplete. Therefore, a comprehensive analysis requires the female point of view to be included. Hence, the paper argues for the importance of changing our approach when working with ancient culture. Taking account of the female sphere, which still exists in Greece, provides us with a basis for considering the female part of society. But, by so doing, the official male perspective, which is similar to the Western male perspective generally applied within Greek studies, has to be deconstructed. So, by arguing for the importance of not using the general male model when presenting Greek women, the article tries to deconstruct the male ideologies
    Keyword: Modern Greece, Ancient Greece, Women, Gender, Gendered Valuesystems, Religious Festivals, Fertility-cult, Rituals
    Author: Evy Johanne H?land
    Poblication Year: 2010
    Language: English
    Country: Greece
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Turkish Literature
    Wolf-warriors, the Argonauts, and the foundation of Trebizond
    Trebizond (Greek Trapezus, Turkish Trabzon) is situated on the coast of the Black Sea, opposite to the actual Russian seaside resort Sochi, in the historical Pontic region or North East Anatolia (now Turkey). This paper tries to contribute to the tradition about the foundation of this city assuming a late Indo-European heritage feature playing a role as well as a deeper connection with Trebizond
    Keyword: Indo-European (IE), Trapezus (Trebizond), wolfing, wolf-warriors, the Argonauts, foundations
    Author: Andreas L. Katonis
    Poblication Year: 2010
    Language: English
    Country: Greece
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    Representing Change and Stagnation in the Arab World
    This article refutes a common approach to studying democratization in the Arab world using examples from Morocco and Egypt. Egypt is commonly regarded as a case for near-complete stagnation, whereas Morocco represents the more dynamic monarchies in the region. The article posits that the theoretical underpinnings frequently used in research hinder us to see and analyse change appropriately. Reform-minded agents that cooperate with the state should not be dismissed as
    Keyword: Transformation Processes, Political Sociology, Civil Society, Semi-Authoritarian State, Arab World
    Author: Sonja Hegasy
    Poblication Year: 2010
    Language: English
    Country: Morocco
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    French Foreign Policy towards Africa under Jacques Chirac
    Over the main changes that have occurred in Chirac
    Keyword: Chirac, France, Foreign Policy, Africa
    Author: SHIN, Won Yong
    Poblication Year: 2010
    Language: English
    Country: France
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Economics
    Population Growth and Economic Development in Southern Mediterranean Countries:
    The Southern Mediterranean (SM) countries, nine North African and Middle Eastern partners and one permanent observer which border the Mediterranean Sea (MS) as defined in the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (or Barcelona Declaration) launched in 1995, form one of the slowest growing regions in terms of economic and social development. Many development economists blame the slow development of SM countries on high population growth. Others, however, defend the view that high population growth could encourage economic growth through expansion of the labour force. The myth of Asia
    Keyword: Population Growth, Demographic Transition, Demographic Dividends, Migration and Economic Development
    Author: Wai Mun Hong
    Poblication Year: 2010
    Language: English
    Country: Algeria
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Language
    The use of Remigius commentary on Donatuss Ars minor in a Carolingian parsing grammar Magnus quae uox?
    Magnus quae uox? is a Carolingian parsing grammar written in the tenth or the eleventh century. It is a commentary on Donatus s Ars maior and Ars minor, but is presented in the form of parsing questions and answers. Among the sources of Magnus quae uox? the use of Priscian s Institutiones grammaticae and the commentaries on Donatus s works by the scotti peregrini and Remigius of Auxerre is prominent. In particular, the use of Remigiu s commentary on Donatus s Ars minor is significant in that Magnus quae uox? follows closely Remigius s style of commentary. Remigius s commentary on Donatus s Ars minor is different in style from the other commentaries used in Magnus quae uox? in that it retains the question and answer form of Donatus s text. The classroom like way of presentation seemed to have appealed to the author of Magnus quae uox? who was constructing his grammar using questions and answers.
    Keyword: Carolingian parsing grammars, DonatussArs minior, Remigius of Auxerre, the combination of commentary and parsing, Latin education
    Author: JANG, Jee Yeon
    Poblication Year: 2009
    Language: English
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    French Literature
    High Tension. A Fresh New Wave in French Horror?
    TEST
    Keyword: New wave, French horror
    Author: Philippe Met
    Poblication Year: 2009
    Language: English
    Country: France
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Italian Literature
    Study on the -Colloquial language- in B. Fenoglios works
    The Italian writer Beppe Fenoglio(Alba, 1922 1963) is one of the most representative authors in the world of modern literature. His autobiographical experience in the countryside of his native Langhe in the Piedmont, and his direct participation in the Resistance as a partisan are fundamental and important inspirations for his works. Therefore, his works can be divided in two main themes: peasant life and the Resistance. Also, his passion for the English literature gives him a power of imagination. Even though Fenoglio left just few works during his life, we can still find his novels and short stories published after his death together with drafts and variations as found in critical editions. This study analyses the processes of correctional works to examine the correctional techniques and directions of the author from the point of view of language with the help of rhetoric and pragmatics theories, considering that Fenoglio s work has already been studied from the point of contents. This research shows that the author deletes the words or phrases which repeats or have the same meaning, especially in near distance. Especially, in the colloquial part, the author has a tendency to eliminate the description part of the actions of the speakers. So, the colloquial part is only constructed through dialogues. As a result of this, the simplified colloquial part gives an effect of velocity for developing stories, not giving readers time to pause. Apart from this, the author uses the techniques of systematical dialogue format, appending, substitution and simile etc. for achieving completeness and focusing not only on the contents but also the language of his works.
    Keyword: Beppe Fenoglio, Colloquial language, Correctional works, Correctional works, Correctional techniques, Correctional directions, Pragmatics
    Author: LEE, Ki Chul
    Poblication Year: 2009
    Language: English
    Country: Italy
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Etc language Literature
    A contrative study of Korean and Romance language collocations: a corpus based study
    In this research we introduce our methodology of describing Korean collocations in multilingual perspective focusing on the contrastive aspects among languages. We selected 5000 Korean collocations based on the notion of restricted and bound collocations , and then tried to represent their equivalents in four target languages : Spanish, English, Italian and French. Based on our corpus of collocations, we present a contrastive analysis of lexico semantic and syntactic aspects of collocations among languages. We mainly focus on Korean and Spanish datas and then compare them with French and Italian collocations along with English datas.
    Keyword: contrastive linguistics, corpus, collocations, Romance language, lexical semantics
    Author: SHIN, Jayoung
    Poblication Year: 2009
    Language: English
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Economics
    Economic Reform Prospects for the Maghreb
    After the successes in macroeconomic stabilization, the Maghreb countries (Algeria, Lybia, Morocco and Tunisia) have pursued the implementation of economic and administrative reforms since the 1980s in order to liberalize the economic system and enter a phase of sustained growth acceleration. This has led to tensions between macroeconomic stabilization and modernization in the region. The present article focuses specifically on the prospects for economic policy reform in the Maghreb and the channels through which it could proceed in the presence of the major economic crisis we are experiencing. The article argues that under current economic circumstances, prospects for microeconomic reform in the Maghreb critically depend on the policy-makers capacity to maintain macroeconomic stability and to anchor microeconomic and institutional reforms. It also put forward that the most effective channel to anchor structural reforms may be to signal commitment to convergence towards the economic institutional setting developed by the European acquis communautaire. Finally, it underlines that the EU s role should be not just to avoid recurring to protectionism, but to deliver sufficient incentives to support economic reformist governments in completing the reform agenda. This also may prove much harder to introduce into EU Member States preferences under the current negative economic expectations.
    Keyword: Economics Policy, Magreb, Macroeconomy, reform
    Author: Gonzalo Escribano
    Poblication Year: 2009
    Language: English
    Country: Algeria
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Italian Literature
    The Emergence of the Mafia in Italy
    This paper argues that the emergence of the Mafia in Italy can properly be understood by examining Mafia as an institution that had an origin in a unique cultural setting. Special attentions are paid on the peculiarities of the micro environment of Italian society, which was the very soil of the development of Mafia. In addition, the Calvinist and Catholic values will be analysed and compared, which will indicate how the first promoted the production of a global feeling of rational society, whereas the latter adhered the individual sphere and society as a collectivity. In regard to the genesis of Mafia in Sicily, the cultural and moral retrogradation, the unsettlement of the mercantilist, the disappearance of the feudal system, and a huge input of the violent unemployed caused a dire need for protection and organization. The Mafia was the institution that was built up in response to these conditions.?
    Keyword: Mafia, Italy, Sicily, Institution, Clientelism
    Author: HUH, Yoo Hyae
    Poblication Year: 2009
    Language: English
    Country: Italy
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Italian Literature
    Lomero dei poveri
    Dialect poetry experienced a resurgence in the Ottocento as authors were making a return to their dialectical roots across Italy. Italian poets were composing poetry in the dialects of their regions in an attempt to elevate their local mother tongues to a status equal to Florentine. Of all the dialect poetry produced in the Ottocento, scholars most often forget the region of Sardinia; dialect poetry manifested itself throughout Sardinia in the oral tradition, which took the form of poesia a bolu, where poets recited improvisational poetry performed for an audience. Poesia a bolu competitions produced many exceptionally clever poets, but one of the most renowned was Melchiorre Murenu with his pungent language and biting sarcasm. One of his poems was so insulting that he was rumored to have died for it: Sas isporchizias de Bosa, one of Murenu s better known poems describes superficially the filth produced by the residents of the Sardinian town of Bosa. A more profound reading, however, reveals a significant social and economic commentary. With this poem, Murenu elevates the nearly forgotten genre of poesia a bolu to a higher level by employing social awareness as the impetus for political and economic change in the impoverished and neglected state of Sardinia in the Ottocento.?
    Keyword: Sardinia, Melchiorre Murenu, Italian poetry, dialects, 19th century
    Author: Kristina Clement
    Poblication Year: 2009
    Language: English
    Country: Italy
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Italian Literature
    The Mediterranean and its Literary Imagination: Sicily and Beyond
    Through the popular and artistic images of the Mediterranean it is possible to retrieve many writers voices , describing the mare nostrum from many points of view. The chant of aedo cieco follows Ulysses misadventures; the real setting of Lipari or Acitrezza narrates the hard work of merchants and fishermen, just like in the second novella of the quinta giornata in Boccaccio s Decameron and in Verga s Malavoglia. Mythology is also retrieved, involving the sea surface and the underwater creatures living there (mermaids and dolphins, Venuses and monsters). This is the case of Tomasi di Lampedusa and Stefano D Arrigo. Also, there is the suggestive set of writings on sea mythology. The sea is considered as the cradle of western civilization, up to the 20th century (Saba and Quasimodo). The anxiety of departure, through a hostile and dangerous sea, is another famous theme in Foscolo: Similar and opposite at the same time is the image of the Mediterranean as a cross separating people from their native land and a site where childhood memories can find a place (Brancati). Many Mediterranean Seas are described in the metaphoric sea chant tuned by many artists of Southern Europe.?
    Keyword: Mediterranean, etymology, poetry, fiction, Italy
    Author: Verdirame Margherita
    Poblication Year: 2009
    Language: English
    Country: Italy
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Sociology
    The Negative Effect of the peace Treaties in Building Trust in the Arab Israeli conflict:
    TEST
    Keyword: Building confidence, Step by step Diplomacy, Intifada (Shake off), Bilateral Talks, The Palestinians Rights, Israel, Palestine Liberation Organization, Peace Process, Ten Years, The Jordanian Journalism
    Author: Saad Abu dayeh
    Poblication Year: 2009
    Language: English
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Human Geography
    The Major Factors for the Development of Beirut as a leading seaport on the Eastern Mediterranean in the Nineteenth Century
    In the early nineteenth century, Beirut was no more than a small sea village with its small population and dilapidated facilities. Beirut had golden opportunities to seize political and economic advantages on the eastern Mediterranean region in the course of the nineteenth century, although there were other competing cities which already had vested rights in the region. The starting point of this research begins with the question of why Beirut became the most prominent sea port on the eastern Mediterranean in the nineteenth century and how it kept its leading position in this region. For the explanation of this emergence of Beirut as a political and economic center of the eastern Mediterranean area during this period, not only external factors which favored Beirut but also internal factors such as local struggles to guarantee Beiruti s political and economic advantages will be employed.
    Keyword: Beirut, Lebanon, Urban History, 19th Century, Eastern Mediterranean Seaport
    Author: SONG, Sang Hyun
    Poblication Year: 2009
    Language: English
    Country: Lebanon
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Greek Literature
    The Lord of Morea And its Narrative Models
    The article discusses the plot and characters of Alexandros Rangavis
    Keyword: Alexandros Rangavis, The Lord of Morea, The Chronicle of Morea, Walter Scott, Ivanhoe, Homer, Odyssey
    Author: Paschalis Michael
    Poblication Year: 2008
    Language: English
    Country: Greece
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Science of Law
    A Court for Homicide presented in Drako
    The 12th line of Drako?s law can be restored as follows: d]i /kazen de tos basileas aitio[n] phon[o] ? [ak?n(or akonta) kai autocheira](16 or 18 letters) ? [b]oul / eusanta It is not so easy to decide whether a case is ?akousios phonos? or ?ak?n?, and whether an actor causing another?s death is ?autocheir? or ?bouleusas.? In the same context, we can confer to the text of the Athenian Constitution (LVII,3) that the case of ?akousioi? and ?bouleusis? came before the court at the Palladion.
    Keyword: Draco-s Law, Palladion, akousios phonos, ak?n, autocheir, bouleusis
    Author: CHE, Jayoung
    Poblication Year: 2008
    Language: English
    Country: Greece
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    The Cultural Dimensions of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership
    In this paper we argued that the viability of the EMP calls for an emphasis on its cultural component. Unless, Euro-Mediterranean cultural cooperation is upgraded to a level of the other
    Keyword: Euro-Mediterranean, multi-dimensional, the EMP, civilizations, cultural cooperation
    Author: Mohammad El-Sayed Selim
    Poblication Year: 2008
    Language: English
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Language
    The Slavic Expression
    This article traces the use of a Slavic idiomatic expression, corresponding to the English
    Keyword: Slavic languages, St. Methodius, Pomak dictionaries
    Author: Ivan Iliev
    Poblication Year: 2008
    Language: English
    Country: Slovenia
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Science of Religion
    An Integrative Study of the Moabite Religion during the Iron Age II Period
    This research includes the religion of ancient Near Eastern people and Jordanian archaeology ? regarding the religion of Moab during the Iron Age II period. Research of the Moabite religion includes essays or articles by A. H. van Zyl, Gerald L. Mattingly, Udo Worschech, and Paul J. Ray, Jr. However, they do not make an extensive study of Moabite religion by means of archaeological evidence. Furthermore, there are some new finds relating to the issue since Gerald L. Mattingly published his article such as the Moabite sanctuary at Khirbat al-Mudayna and recently excavated figurines in Jordan. For this reason, this article focuses on the Moabite religion, especially the Moabite national deity, Kemosh. In addition to the Hebrew Bible, the Mesha Inscription provides valuable information regarding the Moabite religious concepts and practices about Kemosh. The epigraphic evidence further reveals the existence of the Moabite cults other than Kemosh. The shrine from Khirbat al-Mudayna and the Moabite figurines also sheds light on the Moabites
    Keyword: Moabite Religion, Epigraphic Evidence, Archaeological Evidence, Iron Age II Period, Transjordan
    Author: JANG, Daegyu
    Poblication Year: 2008
    Language: English
    Country: Jordan
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Sociology
    Social Responsibility of the Media
    This paper looks into the concept of the
    Keyword: Berlusconi, Italy, Media, social responsibility, Public Interest
    Author: HUH, Yoo Hyae
    Poblication Year: 2008
    Language: English
    Country: Italy
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Sociology
    The Resurrection of the Count Juli?n in the Age of Globalization
    This paper explores how immigrants from Morocco have lived as
    Keyword: Morocco, Immigration, Identity, Fortress of Europe, Integration, EU
    Author: Juin Lim
    Poblication Year: 2008
    Language: English
    Country: Morocco
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Sociology
    The Importance of Algeria in the Mediterranean Region and the Opportunities it offers to the Republic of Korea
    In the past, the Mediterranean Sea played catalyst role to integrate the region. Different nations and communities, such as Phoenicians, Romans, Greeks, Arabs, and Turks, utilized the Mediterranean Sea to communicate their knowledge to others, to exchange goods and to show their military presence. The Sea was crucial in shaping their interests as well as economic and social ties. Yet at present geographical proximity among the states that border on the Mediterranean does not necessarily enhance the prospects for integration of the Mediterranean. Relationships among the neighbouring states are complex, and processes of the Mediterranean integration rather reflect ambivalent political and economic situations. One requires a new paradigm of regional integration for the Mediterranean area. Studies of Mediterranean history and civilization remind us their complementary and reciprocal interests which have served to develop the region. Institute for Mediterranean Studies, Pusan University of Foreign Studies, organized the 22nd Meeting,
    Keyword: The Historical Meaning of the Mediterranean Civilization
    Author: H.E. Rabah Hadid
    Poblication Year: 2008
    Language: English
    Country: Algeria
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Italian Literature
    이태리어와 국어 문법의 상과 시제, 서법
    시제란 일정한 시점을 기준으로 하여 상태의 시간적 위치를 구분하여 드러내는 문법 범주를 말한다. 문법 범주란 주로 문법 기능을 나타내는 요소, 곧 문법 형태소를 말한다. 시제를 고려할 때 빼놓을 수 없는 것이 바로 시간(time)인데 시간과 시제는 각각 별개의 것으로 엄격히 구별되 어야 한다. 시제는 일반 낱말 따위로 나타내는 단순한 ‘시간 표시’가 아 니고 각 언어에 체계적으로 갖추어진 시간 관계 문법 요소들로 나타내 는 문법 범주이다. 그래서 시간은 모든 인류에게 공통되는 자연적인 것 으로서 언어 없이도 존재 할 수 있지만 시제는 시간 관계를 동사의 형태 에 의해 나타내는 언어적 개념으로 언어에 따라 각기 다르다. 시제는 ‘사건이나 상태’를 대상으로 하며, 일정한 시점을 기준으로 시 간적 위치를 구분하는데 특히 중요한 것은 시제는 ‘문법범주’라고 하는 점인데 이는 시제가 어휘범주가 아니고 문법형태들의 대립 관계로 나타 나는 문법적 기능 요소라는 것이다. 결국, 시제는 문법 형태를 가지고 시간적 위치를 나타내는 것을 가리 킨다. 여기서 ‘문법 형태’란 서구어들의 전통 문법에서는 ‘굴절 형태’를 가리키는데 우리말에서는 ‘서술 보조소’라는 형태로 나타난다고 보고 있 다. 시제는 ‘현재’, ‘과거’, ‘미래’ 따위로 하위 구분하는 것이 예사이나 Comrie(1976:b)는 시간 표시의 문법 형태 없이 시간 부사 따위의 낱말로 시간적 위치를 나타내는 언어가 많다고 지적하며1) 만일 어떤 언어에서 일정한 문법 형태가 없고, 어휘적 범주로만 시간적 위치를 나타내게 된 다면, 그 언어에는 시제라는 문법 범주가 없다고 하였다. 국어문법에서도 일반적으로 서구에서와 마찬가지로 Jespersen식의 시 제 개념에 의해 문법 범주로서 시제를 이야기하였다. 대체로 1960년대까 지는 이러한 경향이 일반적이었다. 60년대에는 시제의 체계에 대한 분류 에 매달렸고 70년대 이후에는 시제를 둘러싼 여러 개념에 대한 논의가 시제의 중심 논제가 되었으며 여러 학자들이 각각의 다른 개념에서 생 겨난 각기 다른 시각을 피력해 왔다. 학자에 따라서는 국어의 시제를 오 로지 현재 시제 한 가지만이 있으며 ‘-았/었-’이나 ‘-겠-’은 각각 완료와 추정을 보이는 相이라고 주장하는 사람이 있다. 또한 나진석(1971)은 국 어의 시제는 ‘상의 범주’, ‘서법의 범주’ 및 좁은 뜻의 ‘때매김 범주’의 세 가지 하위 범주로써 형성된 삼원적 구조인데 이들은 ‘상+서법+때’의 순 서로 배열된다고 하고 상에는 ‘나아감’과 ‘끝남’이 두 가지, 서법도 ‘직설’ 과 ‘서상’의 두 가지 그리고 ‘이적’과 ‘지난적’의 두 가지로 나뉘어 도합 여덟 가지의 시제가 있다고 하였다. 남기심(1972)은 지금까지 시제를 보 이는 것으로 알려져 온 ‘-았-’, ‘-았었-’, ‘-겠-’, ‘-더-’ 등이 상이나 서법 을 나타내는 것일 뿐 시제를 나타내는 것이 아니라고 하였다. 장석진 (1973a) 술어동사의 동작성 혹은 정지성 같은 의미론적 특질과도 관련된 지속, 완료, 의도 같은 시상 혹은 양상을 함께 고려하지 않은 시제의 분 류는 별로 바람직하지 않은 것으로 보았다. 다른 많은 사람들이 이 문제 와 관련하여 회상, 경험, 추측 사실, 기능 등의 개념에 대해 언급하였다. 또한 회상이나 경험은 과거와 밀접한 관련이 있으며 추측, 가능성, 미 래도 역시 밀접한 관련이 있는 개념인데, ‘-겠-’을 추측도 나타내고 가능 성도 나타내며 미래도 나타내는 다의적인 존재로서 취급하는 경향이 있 다. 결국 이것은 시제와 결부된 modality의 문제를 거론하는 것이다. modality는 문법범주로서의 mood의 저변을 이루고 있는 의미론적인 측 면, 즉 화자가 어떤 명제에 대하여 가지는 심리적인 태도를 말하는데 정 도가 확실한 것은 현재가 되고 확실성이 적은 것은 추측이 되는데 추측 은 확인되지 않은 것이므로 현재 뿐 아니라 미래도 된다. 미래의 일은 확인되지 않은 것이므로 추측은 자연히 미래성을 포용하게 된다. 추측은 국어에서 ‘-겠-’으로 표현되는데 과거의 추측을 나타내는 것도 가능하다. “이제는 이미 도착했겠다”가 그 예이다. 그리고 ‘-겠-’은 의도를 표현하 기도 하는데 이러한 의미 해석이 미래성을 나타낸다는 기술이 가능하기 때문에 ‘과거’와 같은 확실한 시제에 비하여 나름의 시제 역할을 하지 못 하며 따라서 ‘미래’를 따로 설정할 필요가 없다는 주장이 많다. 이러한 이상의 고려에 따라 우리말은 미래 시제를 인정하지 않는 경향이 보다 확산되어 있는 듯하다. 자세한 미래 시제 기술의 문제점은 본문에서 다 루겠지만 본 논문에서는 우리말의 미래 시제를 하나의 문법 범주의 형 태로 인정하지 않고 추정을 나타내는 서법의 형태가 시간적 구분에 사 용되는 것으로 고려하여 시제적 대립을 보이는 문법 형태가 없는 것으 로 분석하고 있는 우리말 미래 시제의 기술에 대한 문제점을 파악하려 고 한다. 아울러 시제로 인정하려 하지 않는 이유의 기준이 되는 고려 사항들이 시제와 서법에 있어서 분명한 문법 범주의 형태를 나타내는 이태리어의 미래 시제를 포함한 시제 구분에서도 여전히 나타나지만 이 러한 미래 시제의 형태를 문법적인 시제의 형태로 분석하는 것이 아무 런 문제가 되지 않음을 살펴보고자 한다. 아울러 우리말 시제의 형태를 분석하는 방법에 있어서 함께 나타나는 서법과 상의 처리에 대한 하나의 제안을 제시하고자 한다.
    Keyword: 이태리어 시제
    Author: Jong Te Yun
    Poblication Year: 1999
    Language: Korean
    Country: Italy
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Folklore
    이슬람에서의 진(Jinn)과 민속신앙
    Islam is the union of politics and religion and consists of belief and behavior. That is to say, Islam is not only a system of belief(religion) but also a way of life covering politics, economies, society, etc., the human life in general and a high-levelled complex culture, and is a world of belief and practice containing both religion and mundane life. The fact that Islam is union of politics and religion and consists of belief and behavior can be construed that Islam consists of Shari'ah (Islamic Law) and belief, and the relation of the two is not clearly separated each other but retains a form of mutual complement. Accordingly, faith includes the law of Islam, and the law of Islam is grounded on belief. the role of Islamic Law is wider than the positive laws of other cultures, and is belief and ideology as well as law at the same time. Therefore, the trend of non-Islamic world to make the same use of the meaning of legislation of the positive law and the concept of Shari'ah by interpreting it as an Islamic law is the result of either the narrow interpretation of the concept of Shar'ah or the misunderstanding of wrong interpretation. Belief constructs Aqīdah (creed) and Aqīdah is the practical principle of Islamic law. Belief and behavior or Aqīdah and Sari'ah have such a corelation as tree and fruit, cause and effect, or prologue and epilogue have each other. Aqīdah means the belief in the absolute said and emphasized through the foreseers and prophets whom He sent to do so on His belief, the ideology of the one only God not permitting any belief in other gods and the original belief being aware of obedience in general to the owner of power. Therefore, Aqīdah in Islam is alpha and omega of the Muslims' belief and as well as a metaphysics based on the unquestionable said grounds (God's saying). Such belief can be divided into six beliefs; First, the belief in the one and only God as the Creator, second in such invisible beings as Angel, Satan and Jinn, third in the Scriptures, fourth in the foreseers and prophets, fifth in the Judgement Day and sixth in fate. This study aims at seeing into the definition. characteristics and role of those phrases about Jinn as described in the Qur'an and Hadīth in order to know the way of how the Muslims understand the being of Jinn, the one of the six belief as mentioned above. The Jinn did not appear first with the advent of Islam, but originally existed in Arab folk religion and its concept changed with the advent of Islam. Also the Jinn is surmised to have played a important role in absorbing the spirits of the areas and to have contributed a lot to the settlement of Islam. Therefore, the study is to see into the concept of Jinn in the Arab folk religion after looking into the same in Islam,. There appear a great number of devils in the such a novel as the Arabian Nights read a lot by the general public, the phrases where the devils confess themselves Jinn and expression where the Jinn converted at cetera. It very widely in the general public. The ideology of spirit which the Arabians had absorbed, assimilated and Islamized many of the neighboring different cultures in the course of becoming a general religion as the Islam spread all over the world, and also the spirit ideology of the areas was absorbed into and assimilated with the Jinn, contributed a lot to the settlement of Islam and is still present mixed with the concept of Jinn of the orthodox Islam in the general public.
    Keyword: Jinn, Folk Religion, Islam, Arab, Sharī'ah, Creed, Creation, Angel, Insanity, Poet
    Author: Won Sam Lee
    Poblication Year: 2003
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Language
    Jamiül Hikayat의 음운론적 특징 연구
    튀르크어는 몽고어, 만주-퉁구스어와 더불어 알타이어족의 한 분파로 유라시아 대륙에서 살고 있는 튀르크인들이 사용하는 언어이다. 튀르크 어는 터키어를 비롯하여, 카프카즈의 아제르바이잔어, 중앙아시아의 튀 르크멘어, 우즈벡어, 크르그즈어, 카작어, 중국의 우이구르어, 시베리아의 야쿠트어 등 알타이어계 언어들 가운데서 연속성을 갖으며 가장 넓게 분포되어 있으며, 약 1억 8천의 인구에 의해서 사용되고 있다1). 현대 튀 르크제어 뿐만 아니라 역사 튀르크어 역시 흉노어, 돌궐어, 차가타이어, 큽착어, 오스만어에 이르기까지 긴 역사 속에서 역동적인 분화와 변화과 정을 겪으며 발전했다. 튀르크인들에게는 역사 튀르크어로 쓰여진 많은 작품들이 있다. 돌궐제국시대의 오르혼 문자로 쓰여진 여러 비문, 마니 교, 불교, 기독교 등 여러 종교를 받아들인 우이구르인들의 우이구르 문 자, 마니문자 등을 사용하여 쓰여진 많은 번역작품, 중앙아시아에서 최 초로 이슬람을 받아들인 튀르크인으로서 아랍문자를 사용하여 쓴 카라 한인들의 주옥같은 작품들, 아랍어, 페르시아어 사이에서 튀르크어를 문 학어로 발전시킨 차가타이어의 여러 문학작품들이 있다. 각 시기에 따라 전혀 다른 문자들을 사용한 튀르크인의 문학작품들을 통해서, 문학뿐만 아니라 튀르크어가 발전되었던 것이다. 10세기에 튀르크인들의 이슬람화 가 이루어진 이래 1928년 터키공화국에서 아타튀르크의 문자개혁이 있 기 전까지 수세기 동안 아나돌루와 중앙아시아의 튀르크인들은 아랍문 자를 사용하였으며, 따라서 이 시기의 문학작품도 아랍문자로 표기되었 다. 아타튀르크 문자개혁 이후에 터키에서는 로마자가 사용되기 시작하 였으며, 중앙아시아에서는 소련 지배 이후에 키릴문자가 사용되었다. 본고에서는 아랍문자로 쓰여진 Jāmi‘üʾl Ḥikāyāt (자미윌 히카야트)의 음운연구를 통하여 작품의 음운특징 및 변화를 살펴보고, 이 작품이 쓰 여진 시기를 추정해 보고자 한다.
    Keyword: 투르크어
    Author: Hyo Joung Kim
    Poblication Year: 1999
    Language: Korean
    Country: Turkey
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Italian Literature
    이태리어의 존대표현에 관한 비교연구: 試論적 접근
    언어의 본질은 인간의 활동으로 한 개인이 자신을 다른 사람에게 이 해시키기 위한 활동이다. 이와 같은 ‘말에 의한 의사소통 (verbal communication)’은 언어의 독특한 특성을 표현하는 것으로, 인간은 언어를 통하여 서로에게 의미를 전달한다는 뜻이다. 즉 언어는 사람들이 의미의 전달의 행위를 수행하는 도구인 것이다. 언어의 발신자(sender)와 수신 자(receiver) 사이의 담화에서 사용되는 언어는 의미론에서 말하는 진리 조건적 의미 이상을 갖고 있다. 바꾸어 말하자면 언어의 사용자들이 효 율적인 정보의 전달에만 치중하지 않기 때문이다. 그것은 언어행위는 감 정의 동물인 인간 사이의 행위이기에 감정의 유입이 자동적으로 개입되 기 때문이다. 따라서 이 때 담화자 사이의 언어행위에는 상호간의 감정 을 규정, 처리하는 일정한 규칙이 실현되며, 이 규칙은 화자와 청자 간의 사회적 심리적 관계를 드러내는 것이다.
    Keyword: 이태리어
    Author: Yoo Hyae Huh
    Poblication Year: 1999
    Language: Korean
    Country: Italy
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Anthropology
    An ironic mirror
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    Keyword:
    Author: MARGARET E. KENNA
    Poblication Year: 1991
    Language: English
    Country: Greece
    Institute: Mediterranean Institute
    Italian Literature
    Moving Cathars: The Italian Connection in the Thirteenth Century
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    Keyword:
    Author: Malcolm Barber
    Poblication Year: 2000
    Language: English
    Country: Italy
    Institute: Mediterranean Institute
    European History
    The Movement of Scythian Nomads Nuancing 'Otherness'
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    Author: David Braund
    Poblication Year: 2000
    Language: English
    Country: Greece
    Institute: Mediterranean Institute
    European History
    The Latin Elite on Cyprus: Trying to Keep Apart
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    Author: Nicholas Coureas
    Poblication Year: 2000
    Language: English
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Mediterranean Institute
    European History
    Nineteenth-Century Cruising Yachtsmen in the Mediterranean
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    Author: J. Cusack
    Poblication Year: 2000
    Language: English
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Mediterranean Institute
    Folklore
    Mythologizing the Mediterranean: The Case of Albert Camus
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    Author: Ray Davison
    Poblication Year: 2000
    Language: English
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Mediterranean Institute
    Turkish Literature
    Living on the Margin- Byzantine Farmers and Turkish Herders
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    Author: Keith Hopwood
    Poblication Year: 2000
    Language: English
    Country: Turkey
    Institute: Mediterranean Institute
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    The British Protectorate of the Ionain Islands, 1847-1859, and the Dispersion of a Foreign Elite
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    Author: Bruce Knox
    Poblication Year: 2000
    Language: English
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Mediterranean Institute
    Sociology
    Modernism in the Francoist Edifices
    Modernism in the Francoist Edifices This paper is an attempt to make an answer to the relationship between modernism and Francoism. For this purpose, we think over the relationship between modernism and fascism from the general point of view, then analyze the currents of the theory of architecture that main francoist architects adopted. and lastly examine the principal francoist edifices: El Valle de los Caídos, El Ministerio del Aire and Universidad Laboral de Gijón. El Valle de los Caídos shows us the greatness of the ancient memorials and the religiosity in its stone steps, basilica and big cross. El Ministerio del Aire is an edifice that represented the Empire of Felipe II and Catholic religion, so it was called El Monasterio del Aire. The Universidad Laboral de Gijón reflects the dream with which the architects hoped to build the city of God without conflicts of class. Taking these points into consideration, we can conclude these attempts that the francoist architects intented to embody in these edifices come within the purview of programmatic modernism.
    Keyword: Modernism, Francoism, El Valle de los Caídos, El Ministerio del Aire, Universidad Laboral de Gijón
    Author: Yeong Jo Hwangbo
    Poblication Year: 2008
    Language: Korean
    Country: Spain
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    A Study of Cooperation in EU & Maghreb Union
    A Study of Cooperation in EU & Maghreb Union -Starting Union for MediterraneanThe Mediterranean Sea is vast and its geographical range connects Europe, Africa and Asia. And it’s no doubt that many scholars attach significant importance to it because it has been regarded as a beginning place of history and many civilizations in addition to its political importance. Dividing the world into two parts, the north and the south, the Mediterranean has been the meeting place of the East and the West, Islam and Christianity, Europe and the Arab world, and cultivated flourishing civilizations. The civilizations which developed in the Mediterranean were sometimes winced by U.S. power. However, they seem to be reorganized today into a form of a huge regional organization, the name of which is the Union for the Mediterranean or the Mediterranean Union(MU), by their efforts to recover the glorious days of the past. Indeed, France and Italy among the European counties surrounding the Mediterranean have politically and economically influenced to and also have been affected by North African countries which were once their colonies. And England has kept special relations with Egypt and Israel in varied fields. This article deals with the diversified cooperative relations between EU and the North African countries belong to Arab Maghreb Union(AMU), focusing on MU. There will be variety of gains and losses if an enormous free trade zone establishes following the birth of MU. Indeed, MU is a coupling of two politically, economically, socially and culturally different regions except their geographical proximity and historical connections in which the north exploited the colonial south. The Economist magazine analyzed that the success of MU depend on winning confidence from the north EU countries firstly through displaying how fairly they trade with the North African partners in accordance with the principles of free trade despite two sides’ economic unbalance including opening of the Mediterranean EU countries’ agricultural products market and secondly through decreasing their vested rights among EU countries. Because MU includes two worlds which can be called the developed Christian countries in the north and the developing Islamic countries in the south, it has great diversity. Therefore, it has to seek not the complete unification but the equilibrium, in which they can find peace, harmony and cooperation through communications with largely different each others.
    Keyword: EU, Maghreb Union, Union for Mediterranean, Mediterranean Sea, Arab, France, Italy
    Author: Eui Gab Hwang
    Poblication Year: 2008
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    Compare of 2008's General Elections between Italy and Korea: Focusing on analysis of political culture and voting behavior
    Compare of 2008's General Elections between Italy and Korea: Focusing on analysis of political culture and voting behavior This papers examined on comparing of the 2008's general elections between Italy and Korea. Berlusconi that was the italian Prime Minister in 1994 and 2001 one more time is successfully reached on the political power at the 2008's general election after the government of Center-Conservative and Moderate-Left. There are some of discussions and researches on the factors that Berlusconi and his personal, if it permits to calling it, his political party 'People of Liberty' could be successful to take the political power on the 2008's general election. Universita degli Studi di Torino, 010-8434-3911, utikim@hanmail.net 2 | 지중해지역연구||제11권 제1호 [2009. 2] In this paper researching goals we treat of four determinative factors. The first is that of the internal and external subjective conditions from which could be raised the present political situations. The second is that of the 2008.s general election produce interesting results which could be compared of its meaning and significances between Italy and Korea. The third is that of confirm of which was true that the effects of 2008's general election should sweep away all those negative particular sulpolitical-cultural factors in Italy-for example, Catholicism, Anti-Communism, Clientelism, Trasformism, Mafia, etc.-substituted in Media Populism representing from Berlusconi as a political man. At the conclusion will descript the present political situation with the characters of Berlusconi's government in order to comparing of the mentioned factors. Berlusconi's government started with some internal conflicts at to the distribution of cabinet ministers and change the almost national political systems. The problem is that the italian economy could not overcome the above conditions without widespread support of the electorate and the Berlusconi's government may confront the danger of collapse in due time. If it will not be the case, Italian politics will show another series of instabilities and similar situation of Korea.
    Keyword: 2008's general elections, Berlusconi, sulpolitical-cultural factors, voting behavior, political power
    Author: Jong Bub Kim
    Poblication Year: 2009
    Language: Korean
    Country: Italy
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    Building Economic Cooperation Between Korea and Egypt
    한국과 이집트간의 경제협력 구축 시장경제체제가 세계적으로 확대되고 교역이 다변화됨에 따라 중동지 역에 대한 관심이 늘어나고 있다. 현재의 중동지역의 경제는 WTO의 질서 에 따른 무역중심의 개방화와 자유무역협정(FTA)를 통한 경제시스템의 구 축이 새로운 경제 흐름이다. 특히, 이집트는 역외강대국과 경제적 연대를 구축하는 한편 지역협력을 정책과제로 하고 있다. 기존 지역내경제권과 EU와 아프리카 지역경제권을 잇는 연결고리 역할은 물론, 무역과 투자유 치의 경제 환경 조성에 의한 개발과 발전을 목표로 하고 있다. 또한, 고용 기회의 창출과 수출증대의 양면효과를 극대화하기 위하여 주요지역 거점 국가와 자유무역협정을 적극적으로 추진하고 있다. 한국의 첨단 기술과 이집트의 자원을 주축으로 하는 상생협력을 위하여, 자유무역협정 등의 긴밀한 경제협력 단계로 진입해야 할 시점이다. 단기 적으로 가능성이 높은 경제협력부문은 에너지 개발사업과 석유화학 시설 등 플랜트 분야이다. 한국과 이집트의 통상거래규모는 증가 추세이며, 2008년도에 우리의 수입이 수출을 초과해 무역수지 적자로 전환됐는데, 가스 및 나프타의 수입량 증가와 가격 인상이 주요인이다. 한국은 승용차 및 부품, 합성수지, 펌프 등 산업 자본재를 이집트로 수출하고 있는 반면, 이집트로부터 천연가스, 나프타 등 원자재를 주로 수입하고 있어 양국 간 교역구조는 상호 보완적이다. 본 연구에서는 중동지역의 거점 개발을 목표로 이집트와 자유무역협정 의 가능성을 분석한다. 세부적으로 이집트의 경제발전 과정을 조사하고, 이집트와의 경제협력 확대에 초점을 맞추어 우리나라와의 협력 분야 및 전망을 살펴보는데 목적을 두고 있다. 이로써 중동의 이집트와 한국의 자 유무역협정 추진에 대한 이해를 제고하고, 대 중동지역과의 자유무역협정 정책을 도입에 시사점을 제공하고자 한다
    Keyword: free trade agreement
    Author: Joong Kwan Kim
    Poblication Year: 2009
    Language: Korean
    Country: Egypt
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Language
    The Principle of Creation in the Aristotle's Poetics
    The Principle of Creation in the Aristotle's Poetics The purpose of this paper is to define and clarify the interrelation of the important concepts that constitute the principles of poetic creation presented in Aristotle's Poetics. Above all, poetic art (poiêtikê) is defined as a representation (mimêsis), which, according to the context of Poetics, can be further defined as a process to extract a proper image from an object and transfer it into artistic space. In poetic creation, proper elements are selected from accidents (pragmata) and then reorganized according to the principle of probability or necessity so as to make a representation of an action (praxis), which can be defined as the composition (sunthesis) of a story (muthos). Such a principle of creation can be conceptualized as a purification (katharsis) since after having selected essential elements of an accident and abandoned unessential ones, and the poet represents action in a purified form. As a result, there may be differences between the event and its poetic representation, but there remains, at the same time, an essential similitude. Through reasoning (sullogismos), spectators can overcome the obscurity made by differences and recognize the essential and universal elements coexisting between model and representation. This is a poetic pleasure afforded by poetic creation, like an intellectual enigma, that consists in revealing the essence of human life by means of difference and similitude. Finally, such a poetic creation can be defined as a type of metaphor (metaphora) that depends on perceiving the essential similitude in things.
    Keyword: Poetic art (Poiêtikê), Poesy (Poiêsis), Representation (Mimêsis),Accident (Pragma), Action (Praxis), Purification (Katharsis), Plot/Story (Muthos), Composition (Sunthesis), Metaphor (Metaphora)
    Author: Heon Kim
    Poblication Year: 2009
    Language: Korean
    Country: Greece
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Language
    A Study on the Historical Change of 'Imperf. 2/3 pers. m. pl. Ending' in Classical Hebrew
    A Study on the Historical Change of 'Imperf. 2/3 pers. m. pl. Ending' in Classical Hebrew The paragogic Nun in Aramaic and Arabic imperfect verbs has a modal function. Imperfect verbs with the paragogic Nun express, in general, the indicative mood while imperfects without it serve in jussive mood. But the paragogic Nun in Biblical Hebrew is considered to loose its syntactical meaning. One may find specific examples of the paragogic Nun not only in the indicative mood but also in the jussive context. Regarding the 'Long Imperfect' which contains the paragogic Nun in Biblical Hebrew, biblical linguists have suggested different explanations – antiquity of the text, archaization, Aramaic influence, meter, etc. The study on this linguistic phenomenon, however, seems to have not been thoroughgoing so far. Conclusions drawn from their investigations seem not complete. There seems to be a need of a further research for one to reach clearer conclusions. The present study reinvestigates this linguistic feature. The work limits its study to the usage of paragogic Nun in imperfect 2/3 person masculine plural. It checks the subject in both biblical texts and extra-biblical sources in Classical Hebrew in its wide definition, i.e., Biblical Hebrew (Ancient Biblical Hebrew, Standard Biblical Hebrew, Late Biblical Hebrew), Inscription Hebrew of the First Temple period, Qumran Hebrew, Hebrew of Ben-Sira and Mishnaic Hebrew. The study presents whole occurrences of paragogic Nun in these sources and provides statistic data. It shows that the rapid decrease of the paragogic Nun in Classical Hebrew results mostly from a diachronic factor. The most significant change in the use of the paragogic Nun occurs between the First Temple and the Second Temple periods. The usage of the paragogic Nun reaches 8% in the First Temple period (Standard Biblical Hebrew), but it drops to 3% in the Second Temple Period (Late Biblical Hebrew). This change seems to be reflected in extra-biblical sources of the same periods. One may count about 30% in the First Temple period sources, but in the Second Temple period sources the paragogic Nun is hardly found. The study concludes that this phenomenon should be properly defined as an LBH feature.
    Keyword: paragogic Nun, imperf. 2/3 m. pl. ending, SBH, LBH, Qumran Hebrew, Mishnaic Hebrew, historical change
    Author: Seoung Yun Shin
    Poblication Year: 2009
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Science of Law
    The Study on the Law Thoughts of Ancient Greek
    The Study on the Law Thoughts of Ancient Greek -with Platon and Aristoteles as the central figureGreek is the cradle of democracy. Ancient Greek laws are characterized by the various legislative systems because Ancient Greek was organized from many separated polices. The law thoughts of Ancient Greek have exerted influence on modern laws in a diversity of sides. Specially Platon's theory of the state and Aristoteles' Nicomachean Ethics are acknowledged theoretically and practically as the original form of justice in the modern law. These days, the investigations of Western law history in the sphere of law have been studied generally the Roman law and the Germanic law. However when the Rome enacted a statute for the first time, they learned it from the Greeks. This is an interesting fact. The thoughts of Ancient Greek which gave rise to democracy are the rule of laws being connected by equality to realize ideal and justice. According to Platon's theory of the state, law is not an actual law possessing current in those days but an ideal law. The ideal law means what imitating a genuine ruler's act. When the state enacts such a law, the political structure based on the law will be the most ideal one. Aristoteles defines law as a general and rational norm based on the acceptance and agreement of the people or the lawmakers. Law is intended to create and preserve the necessary conditions of happiness. And Aristoteles describes law as constitutional principle realizing justice and happiness by respecting and observing laws to the members of communal society by menas of rationality and physical compulsion. Law as a means of moral education resorts to persuasion and coercion in order to perform its proper role.
    Keyword: the Law thoughts of Ancient Greek, Aristoteles, Platon, Justice and Law, theory of the state, politics
    Author: Eun Rae Cho
    Poblication Year: 2009
    Language: Korean
    Country: Greece
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Spanish Literature
    La propiedad morfo-sintáctica del artículo definido en la Relativa Oblicua en español
    La propiedad morfo-sintáctica del artículo definido en la Relativa Oblicua en español En este trabajo intentaremos ofrecer un análisis morfo-sintáctico del artículo definido en la Cláusula Relativa Oblicua en español. En las relativas oblicuas, el español admite en algunos casos la ausencia del artículo definido entre la preposición y el relativo, por ejemplo, “El libro con (el) que me obsequió estudia la pintura de Frida Kahlo”. Según Brucart(1999), en los casos en que el antecedente forma parte de un sintagma definido, el relativo no necesita reiterar tal carácter. En cambio, cuando el antecedente estácontenido en un sintagma no definido, es necesario marcar el cará-cter definido de la mención anafórica que lleva a cabo el relativo. Hay unos estudios que intentan mostrar las características sintácticas del artí culo definido en las relativas oblicuas en español como Arregi(1998, 2000), Gutiérrez-Rexach & Mallén(2001), Roca-Urgell(1996) Sin embargo, a ellos les cuesta mucho mantener una aproximación uniforme a los fenó-menos de la presencia/ausencia del artículo definido relacionado con el antecedente animado y el no animado en las relativas oblicuas. En el presente trabajo, mostraremos nuestra propia propuesta basándonos en la Morfología Distribuida de Halle y Marantz(1993) y Harley y Noyer(1998a, 1998b), insistiendo en que las relativas oblicuas en español pueden ejercer la realización alternativa de la secuencia [DREL-Comp] y esta capacidad viene de la condición de la Materialización y la Fisión de rasgos.
    Keyword: relativas oblicuas, artículo definido, complementante, materialización, realización alternativa, fisión de rasgo
    Author: Jae Yong Kwak
    Poblication Year: 2009
    Language: Korean
    Country: Spain
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    European History
    “Stoics on the criterion of truth”
    “Stoics on the criterion of truth” The major epistemological debate between the Hellenistic philosophers was on the question of the criterion of truth. The primary object of my discussion is to answer the following questions as regards the Stoic criterion of truth. 1) What is the Stoic criterion of truth? 2) Is the Stoic criterion able to be accepted as a genuine criterion of truth? Analyzing debate on the criterion we can get two conclusions. First, according to the Stoics the criterion of truth is generically (kata genos) a cognitive impression(kataleptike phantasia), which is defined as an impression that comes from what is, is imprinted and impressed in exact accordance with what is, and is such that an impression of this kind could not come about from what is not. The reason why the Stoics defined the cognitive impression as criterion of truth is that in indirect way it guarantees the truth of all other propositions, giving rise to the common conceptions and becoming the foundation of every human investigation. So it is only through cognitive impressions that we have any knowledge of what is true or not. Although some scholars maintain that about the criterion Chrysippus disagreed with Zeno who defined the criterion as a cognition(katalepsis), in my opinion Chrysippus seemed to clear some vague points of Zeno. Therefore the Stoic criterion of truth which satisfies both correspondence and coherence is cognitive impression. Second, the criterion of truth should be true, requiring no more proof. That is why the Stoics maintained that cognitive impressions with the right kind of history are clear and by themselves different from all other impressions. But the Sceptics tried to show that there are impressions which have all the supposed characteristics of cognitive impressions but nevertheless are false. They contend that the so-called criterion of truth is not means for judging truth and falsehood, but a plausible criterion at best. On the other hand, the criterion of the Stoics is rather “by which” the existence and the truth of a state of affairs come to be known. Therefore sometimes ordinary people cannot distinguish cognitive impressions from abnormal impressions, because they cannot systemize and justify their cognitive impressions. Finally only the sage can justify and use properly cognitive impressions as criterion of truth, although cognitive impressions appear clear and distinct to all human beings.
    Keyword: Stoics, Scepticism, Criterion of Truth, Coherence Interpretation, Correspondence Interpretation, Cognitive Impression(Kataleptike Phantasia), Cognition(Katalepsis)
    Author: Yu Suk Oh
    Poblication Year: 2009
    Language: Korean
    Country: Greece
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Arabic Literature
    Khalil Mutran as a bridge between neoclassicism and romanticism
    Khalil Mutran as a bridge between neoclassicism and romanticism Khalil Mutran played a part as a transitional figure between neoclassicism and romanticism in Arabic literature. And he was called “the poet of the two (Arab) countries”, Egypt and Lebanon. In an attempt to free himself from the strict rules of the Arabic Qasidah, Mutran sometimes used the narrative poem, the Andalus-Arabic form(Muwashshat), a long prose poem, and the form of the five-lined(Mukhammas). But in spite of these efforts to break away from the Qasidah, and in spite of his personal lyrical notes, his works as a whole make a neoclassicist impression. And thematically for poems of profound personal introspection, there are numerous panegyrics, lampoons, elegies, social and political occasional poems. So he was not called the romantic poet, but the neo-romantic poet. His reaction to the limitations of classicism was an expression of a much wider movement towards Westernization. Mutran was a highly conscious artist who introduced into Arabic poetry a number of attitudes and assumptions and so he can be regarded as the true father of the new or modern school of poetry in Arab world. The most important of these assumptions are the unity of the poem, the belief in the freedom and independence for self-expression, and the uncommonness of the imagination and the strangeness of the subject.
    Keyword: a transitional figure, neoclassicism, romanticism, the poet of the two countries, the epic poem, the unity of the poem, self-expression
    Author: Byung Pil Lim
    Poblication Year: 2009
    Language: Korean
    Country: Lebanon
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Arabic Literature
    Khalil Mutran as a bridge between neoclassicism and romanticism
    Khalil Mutran as a bridge between neoclassicism and romanticism Khalil Mutran played a part as a transitional figure between neoclassicism and romanticism in Arabic literature. And he was called “the poet of the two (Arab) countries”, Egypt and Lebanon. In an attempt to free himself from the strict rules of the Arabic Qasidah, Mutran sometimes used the narrative poem, the Andalus-Arabic form(Muwashshat), a long prose poem, and the form of the five-lined(Mukhammas). But in spite of these efforts to break away from the Qasidah, and in spite of his personal lyrical notes, his works as a whole make a neoclassicist impression. And thematically for poems of profound personal introspection, there are numerous panegyrics, lampoons, elegies, social and political occasional poems. So he was not called the romantic poet, but the neo-romantic poet. His reaction to the limitations of classicism was an expression of a much wider movement towards Westernization. Mutran was a highly conscious artist who introduced into Arabic poetry a number of attitudes and assumptions and so he can be regarded as the true father of the new or modern school of poetry in Arab world. The most important of these assumptions are the unity of the poem, the belief in the freedom and independence for self-expression, and the uncommonness of the imagination and the strangeness of the subject.
    Keyword: a transitional figure, neoclassicism, romanticism, the poet of the two countries, the epic poem, the unity of the poem, self-expression
    Author: Byung Pil Lim
    Poblication Year: 2009
    Language: Korean
    Country: Egypt
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    Glottopolitics Dimension to Language and Placement Plan in Education of French Regional: A Case Study of Occitan Language
    Glottopolitics Dimension to Language and Placement Plan in Education of French Regional: A Case Study of Occitan Language The purpose of this case study was to understand the glottopolitics of minor language and investigate a regional language in educational placement plan. The issue of Occitan language should be included from the foreign language classroom(3 languages in France) has been also a important issue in ex-Occitanie(since middle age) countries(Spain, Italy and Monaco) or the mediterranean region. Especially, in France, the result of analysis demonstrates the glottopolotics about regional language was a limited types of the linguistical policy. The analysis of the historical context shows the long line of conglomerates that had to cope with the power struggles within their national language. For example, the repeated argument resulted in the education of the regional language under the projet of bilingual & immersion foreign language program. The present study also demonstrates the important example about protection of several minor languages in the eco-system linguistic as Louis-Jean Calvet noted. This study concludes with some implications the element of different cultures within the traditional culture, for example of the occitan language.
    Keyword: Glottopolitis, Placement Plan, French Regional, Occitan Language, Minor Language, Bilingual & Immersion Program
    Author: Ni Na Chang
    Poblication Year: 2009
    Language: Korean
    Country: France
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Etc language Literature
    James Joyce’s Novel and Classic Myths
    James Joyce’s Novel and Classic Myths James Joyce is concerned with the relationship between myth and its literary expression, and some of his novels are perhaps based on the mythology. In this respect, this thesis aims to study his views on mythology and its literary relations with special reference to his novels, Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man and Ulysseys. In his novels Joyce develops mythic symbols and artistic creation elaborately. Joyce thinks that almost all his novels are a flight into the art from the real world. For example, Stephen Dedalus in Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man like Icarus in Greek myth tried to escape from the situation of the paralysis. In the end of the novel, Stephen declares that “I go to encounter for the millionth time the reality of experience and to forge in the smithy of my soul the uncreated conscience of my race. In addition, Joyce’s mind is fettered by symbols drawn from mythology and history. The mythology congenial to him is partly Celtic, but the Greek myth is also very important to him. In Ulysses Joyce rewrites the myth of the Odyssey, one of the most well-known stories in the Western world. Ulysses unveils the basic assumptions of the Odyssey and subverts the world of myth through characters in the novel. Therefore, Joyce makes use of the mythological symbols and rituals to express the change of human civilization with much success in his novels.
    Keyword: James Joyce, Classic Myths, Myth and Literature, Joyce and Myth
    Author: Sang Moon Huh
    Poblication Year: 2009
    Language: Korean
    Country: Greece
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Spanish Literature
    Historic Avant-Garde Literature in Spain
    Historic Avant-Garde Literature in Spain It seems that Spain did not have a concrete Avant-garde movement unlike other European countries at the start of twentieth century. However, we can not dismiss the possibility of various attempts to sympathize with other Avant-garde movements such as Futurism, Expressionism, Dadaism, Surrealism, etc. Therefore, the objective of this article was to approach to the reality of Spanish Avant-garde movement. To obtain our aim, we took advantage of the personal opinions and literary works at that time. After analyzing our proposed issues, we can come to the following conclusions: First, Spanish Avant-garde can be divided into two different periods: the first revolutionary stage and the second constructive stage. Second, we can find common aesthetic principles of the Spanish Avant-gardists such as a break with the past generations; the persuit of new Third, Spanish Avant-gardists want to carry out the Avant-gardistic ideology through their concrete literary works. Therefore, they paid attention to many new themes: the metropolitis, sports, cinema, music-hall, etc. Finally, we can’t help mentioning literary megazines which played a great role in distributing new Avant-gardistic ideology all over the country: Revista de Occidente and La Gaceta Literaria, etc. In short, many young writers of that time felt very anxious for new artistic or literary trends and acted like authentic avant-gardists, though they didn’t form a concrete school or movement.
    Keyword: Spanish Avant-Garde, Ultraism, Modern Literature
    Author: Hyo Young Park
    Poblication Year: 2009
    Language: Korean
    Country: Spain
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Arabic Literature
    A Development of the Arabic Scripts and Calligraphy
    A Development of the Arabic Scripts and Calligraphy -Centering around the Quran Manuscripts- Arabic belongs to the group of Semitic alphabetical scripts in which mainly the consonants are represented in writing, while the markings of vowel is not written or optical. With the expansion of the Islamic empire and increasing number of non-Arab muslims afterward AD 7C, there was a greater need for facilitating reading and learning of Arabic. Since several letters of the Arabic alphabet share the same shapes and the vowels are not clearly indicated, the Arabic reform was needed to avoid linguistic confusion and to preserve the purity of Quran. ʔiʕjām (letter-pointing) and tashkīl (vowel indication) was developed to meet these problems. Calligraphy is the most important and pervasive element in Islamic art. It has always been considered the noblest form of art because of its association with the Quran, In this research, I try to study the development of the Arabic scripts and calligraphy using the ancient Quran manuscripts. I think that the Quran manuscripts will be the most suitable material for this research because lacking the other linguistic materials to study the Arabic script and calligraphy in the early Islamic era. In this article, I will concentrate to the tashkīl and ʔiʕjām to study the early Arabic script and to the mail and Kūfīc script to the Islamic calligraphy. I expect to understand the process of the development of the Arabic scripts and Islamic calligraphy through this article.
    Keyword: Arabic Language, Arabic Script, Islam Calligraphy, Islam, Quran, Manuscript
    Author: Yong Su Youn
    Poblication Year: 2009
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Etc language Literature
    A Study on the Transformation of the Alf Lailah wa Lailah into West-Europe
    Alf Laylah wa Laylah (The thousand and one nights) is the book of folk tales of Middle East. In this book many tales which include all subjects of human life are connected systematically in the narrative device of frame story and contain the thoughts and the emotion of Middle Eastern people. According to an Arab historian Ibn Nadim, Alf Lailah va Lailah and Hezar Afsane is near and Alf Lailah va Lailah is derived from the Hezar Afsane . In the medieval Europe Sendebar was so circulated and it was considered translated book from Alf Lailah va Lailah . This book generally known as the Libro de los engaños , which is the spanish version of Sendebar , is a rare example in a European language of the Oriental branch of the Seven Sages . In the Middle ages of Europe, Seven Sages was read in various versions of many languages. These texts can be grouped into two: the oriental and the occidental group. The texts of the oriental group are comprised of the Syriac, Greek, Hebrew, Persian and Arabic texts and Historia Septem Sapientum written in Latin. The texts of the occidental group are those written in French, English, Latin and other European languages. The texts of the oriental group seems to have originated from an Indian source and the relationship among these texts has not yet firmly established. This paper aims to shed more light on the transformative relationship of the texts by the comparative examination of Alf Lailah va Lailah and Hezar Afsane and Sendebar and Historia Septem Sapientum .
    Keyword: Alf Laylah wa Laylah, Transformation, Sendebar, Historia Septem Sapientum, Persian Version, Latin Version, Spanish Version
    Author: Jong Wha Lee
    Poblication Year: 2009
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    Muslim Immigrants in Korea: Their Intermarriage with the Koreans and the Settlement
    Muslim Immigrants in Korea: Their Intermarriage with the Koreans and the Settlement This paper focuses on Marriage, Settlement and Acculturation of the Muslim Immigrants in Korean Society, as the second year subject of the project on “Acculturation and Adaptation of Immigrant Muslims in Korean Society: Coexisting with Koslims in a Multi-Cultural Society”. The main purpose of this paper is to explore the Muslim immigrants’ intermarriage with the Koreans and their settlement in the Korean society. To be sure, the growing number of foreign brides and bridegroom are one of the important social issues in the Korean Multi-cultural debate. To investigate the intermarriage situation efficiently from the various muslim immigrants, this study divided the muslim in Korea into five categories; Arab Muslims, non Arab Middle East Muslims, Central Asian Muslims, South Asian Muslims, and South East Asian Muslims. In order to outline the Muslim intermarriage status in Korea, this research has employed various statistic data as qualitative method. However this study was done mainly through field research using survey and a face-to-face interview to explain the peculiarity of the different Muslim communities’ intermarriage trend in Korea. This study is one of the first to provide information about the intermarriage trend and the situation of the Muslim immigrants in Korea.
    Keyword: Muslim Immigrant, Intermarriage, Acculturation, Islam, Marriage Assimilation, Arab Muslim, Non Arab Middle East muslim, Central Asian Muslim South Asian Muslim, Southeast Asian Muslim
    Author: Hee Sun Cho
    Poblication Year: 2009
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Regional Development
    A Review on the Prospect of Regional Development of Greece and Central/Eastern European Countries in the European Union
    A Review on the Prospect of Regional Development of Greece and Central/Eastern European Countries in the European Union From initial state, European Community (European Union) made effort to reduce regional inequality and to get over the retardation of less deveolped countries. In case of Greece, since the 1990’s the close cooperation between the Greek government and the Community Support Frameworks[CSF) of European Community has proved the intensification of regional innovation and the improvement of enterprise management, based on the joint ownership and dissemination of technology and information. However, the items enforced by European Community on the one hand, and the Innovative politics downwards from the central government of Greece on the other hand, used to form a cause of discord between the central and the local governments, not making much account of regional particulars. And, inspite the efforts for innovation, a small scale of companies and research institutes disturbed the self development and mutual transfer of technology. Meanwhile, remarkable Regional Innovation Strategy(RIS) of Greece set up with the Regional Technology Plan(RTP) of Macedonia in 1995. And the example of Macedonia was followed resulting in 11 projects of RIS and RITTS(Regional Innovation and Technology Transfer Strategy), regionally balanced and spread over various regions of Greece. On the other hand, close relation with European Community had an effect not only on economic but political phases. The development of regional self-government system of Greece came into effect in the decade of 1990’s, when the relation between European Community and Greece intensified. Then, since the decade of 1990’s European Community furnished transitional fund to the Central and Eastern Countries, who were not then it’s members yet, for preparing to enter European Community. The regional unbalance, however, got intensified in the majority of the 10 countries who got the benefits of transitional fund. In partiuclar, the more the role of market increased, the more regional inequality deepened. Futhermore, it seems that in future European Community would give much more weight on promoting economic integration of the European Union than reducing regional inequality upon traditional strategy. Answering to these tendencies, members of European Community in Central and Eastern Countries strive not only for economic integration with the world of European Community by means of technology Innovation and intensifing interaction between enterprises, but also seek after organizational, institutional reformation. The point calling attention here is that, in less developed countries of Central |최 자 영| 유럽연합 내 그리스와 중동부 유럽의 지역발전 방향에 대한 소고| 3 and Eastern Europe, the politics attracting foreigner’s investment, which is properly to accelerate the economic integration into European Community, should be carried out keeping consideration for the existed industry structure as well as regional balance. Especially in retarded regions, the effort for realizing regional balance used to be closely connected with reducing the social gap between the rich and the poor. Actually, however, it is not h anasy job to harmonize between the politics for the sectorial to harmonizein industry and the regional to harmonizein balance. The horizontal, sectorial support and intensification of market economy, which seek after competitiveness and profit, tended to increase social inequality, intensifing the social disparity between the rich and the poor as well as the regional concentration of industry. Then, the effort to exploi, ittential capacities of less developed regions accommodating the integrated economic structure of European Union should be assuonropeaevery aspustrby cooperation of the tht a auth shoies, that is, region, state, and European Union. Furthermore, the development of market economy is inevitably coupled with the accomodation of much more liberal political structure of Western Europe, so as to call for revision of traditional political structure of socialism in Central and Eastern Europe, resulting in a fine prospect of economic development. Thus, as the local autonomy has developed in Greece under the influence of European Community, it is inevitable to diffuse central power to each region and to materialize political democracy, which is in turn to improve the creativity of enterprises on the one hand, and that of regions on the other hand,. And these movements in the end will do much for reducing the inequality among various regions as well as social classes.
    Keyword: European Union (European Community), Greece, Central and Eastern Europe, Regional Balance, Innovation of Technology, Local Autonomy
    Author: Ja Young Che
    Poblication Year: 2009
    Language: Korean
    Country: Greece
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Arabic Literature
    자위(Jawi)문자의 실체와 문헌 속에서의 시스템
    Ⅰ. Tulisan Jawi에 대한 소개 Tulisan Jawi는 아랍의 종교인 이슬람이 말레이 세계에 전파되면서 함께 들어온 아랍문자의 변형체다. 원래 세계의 유명한 종교들은 문자와 함께 발전되고 전파되었다. 즉, 힌두교는 산스크릿문자와 함께, 불교는 중국의 한자와 함께, 기독교는 알파벳과 함께 그리고 이슬람교는 아랍문 자와 함께 전파되었던 것이다. 원래 Huruf Jawi라는 말은 Jawa의문자라는 뜻인데 옛날에 아랍 사람 들은 이쪽 말레이- 인도네시아 지역을 통틀어서 가장 역사적으로 알려 진 Jawa땅으로 일컬었었다. 더군다나 지금의 말레이시아 땅은 믈라꺼 해협 쪽만을 제외하고는 별로 알려져 있지 않았던 것 같다. 이것은 아랍 사람들의 오해에서 빚어진 하나의 아이러니다. 사실 Jawa의 문자는 Kawi문자다. 즉, Java의 Script는 Jawi가 아니고 Kawi이며, Jawi는 Jawa의 문자가 아니고 말레이시아의 문자를 일컫게 되었다.
    Keyword: 자위문자
    Author: Kyoung Seok Kang
    Poblication Year: 1999
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Economics
    Economic Building between EU and Maghreb Community
    Economic Building between EU and Maghreb Community Maghreb region has been focusing on the economic integrity for the economic development to assisting in the expansion or retention of regional operations within a Middle East or assisting in the start up of new community within EU. In the mean while, EU guide economic actions to the Mediterranean states through the FTA model. Therefore, economic development schemes of the Maghreb individual countries are dominated by grouping, with large associations. Especially, Tunisia local economic development plan has been working out of a Maghreb region may act towards increasing relation with EU and US by attracting economic and political cooperation with larger units. This paper focuses on the potentialities of the economic integration of Maghreb countries and EU that will be developing GCC, working for Neo-Silk Road from Europe to Asia. In its broadest sense, economic development encompasses three major continents: Asia, Africa, and Europe. To evaluate the possibility of the giant economic community, this paper survey the role of Tunisia within their environment in economic social infra-structure.
    Keyword: Maghreb, Tunisia, EU, Mediterranean, Economic Integration, Middle East, FTA
    Author: Joong Kwan Kim
    Poblication Year: 2009
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Sociology
    Les Femmes maghrébines en France et les efforts pour la création du troisième espace
    Les Femmes maghrébines en France et les efforts pour la création du troisième espace Cet article a pour but de éclairer les efforts pour la création du troisième espace par les femmes maghrébines en France. De manière générale, l′étude des femmes maghrébines pose des problèmes méthodologiques importants malgré le renouvellement des approches et des points de vue, en raison de l′imbrication étroite entre pratiques religieuses et rites sociaux et de la politisations de la religion musulmane depuis la fin du siècle dernier. Les populations maghrébines victimes d′un rejet se replient sur elles-mêmes et trouvent dans la religion une identité et une force nouvelles. Les femmes sont les principales victimes de ce repli communautaire qui tend à les inférioriser. Pourtant certaines, désemparées par l′exclusion, participent à ce processus et leur dépendance, dont le port du voile ou le mariage de femmes maghrébines avec des non-musulmans est une des manifestations, peur être perçue par elles comme des facteurs de valorisation. Pour elles, il est important de créer un espace nouveau qui n′est ni islamique ni français.
    Keyword: Femmes maghrébines, France, Islam, Intégration, Voile, Exogamie des femmes
    Author: Ki Chan Byeon
    Poblication Year: 2009
    Language: Korean
    Country: France
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Social Science Etc
    La lectura del texto deterritorializado
    La lectura del texto deterritorializado Juan Goytisolo rechaza todo tipo de orden social, desde el comunismo hasta el capitalimso y sus sistemas políticos, como la democracia o la dictatura militar, pasando por el catolicismo como modelo de sociedad jerarquizada. Goytisolo configura, a través de la plaza Xemaa-el-Fna, en que las diversas culturas podrían coexistir y conyugar recíprocamente, sin prejuicio nunguno recuperando el eco juglaresco como halaiquí nesraní. Esta idea de la cultura se convierte en la espiritual y escatológica en su última etapa. La preocupación espiritual de Goytisolo, que le había llevado en un principio a interesarse por la mística sufí y por las romerías marroquíes, da paso a una nueva y profunda atracción por la experiencia mística de San Juan de la Cruz, por el uso que éste hace del lenguaje. Con su énfasis en el influjo que los sufíes han tenido en el carmelita persigue, siguiendo la senda marcada por Américo Castro, resaltar la importante presencia de lo árabe en la tradición literaria española. Además el escritor quiere aportar una nueva lectura de los versos del santo, desea ensalzar al otro San Juan, a un intelectual heterodoxo y perseguido. Goytisolo se sirve del tema del SIDA para hacer una fuerte crítica de la represión del intelectual, del enfermo, del heterodoxo, y del homosexual. El San Juan de la Cruz contaminado se constituye en el nuevo héroe erótico-místico por excelencia. Esta idea refleja, a través de la identificación con San Juan, la multiplicidad o la ruptura del sujeto como el sistema orgánico a base de la teoría rizomática de Gilles Deleuze. En esta tesis, podremos encontrar una conexión entre el punto de vista abierta y carnavalizada de Goytisolo con la ideología rizomática y desterritorializada de Gilles Delauze.
    Keyword: Identidad rizomática, deterritorial -ización, sufismo
    Author: Ju In Lim
    Poblication Year: 2009
    Language: Korean
    Country: Spain
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Art & Physical Education
    Il concetto dell'arte di Pirandello nel teatro del mito I giganti della montagna
    Il concetto dell'arte di Pirandello nel teatro del mito I giganti della montagna Tra i teatri sull′arte di Pirandello, Sei personaggi in cerca d′autore tratta della relazione di contrasto fra il poeta e gli attori (incluso il regista), ma in I giganti della montagna quella fra gli attori(incluso il poeta) e il pubblico. In Sei personaggi in cerca d′autore Pirandello vuole mettere in luce particolarmente le difficolta′, cioe′ il dilemma della forma d′arte pura, quando lo scrittore intreccia i casi dei personaggi a causa del limite dell′immaginazione, quando gli attori devono rappresentare il vero dei personaggi, quando il capocomico deve scegliere l′opera e poi la deve analizzare e costruire, e quando fra il poeta, gli attori e il capocomico non si comunicano. Ma ne I giganti della montagna il punto centrale e′ cambiato. Nel testo ci sono ‘gli scalognati’ che creano ‘teatro puro’ non per un pubblico ma per puro giuoco, ‘la compagnia dei comici’ che crea ‘teatro rappresentato’ che implica la possibilità dell′interprete condizionato dai rischi, dagli errori di valutazione e d’interpretazione, e ‘i giganti’ incapaci di capire l’opera, dediti all′azione pratica, all’economia, allo sviluppo tecnico, e che rappresentano la barbarie e la violenza bestiale del pubblico. Qui attraverso il contrasto fra il poeta, gli attori e il pubblico, viene trattato l′aspetto materialistico del teatro che rappresenta il fallimento della comunicazione senza rapporto con il valore artistico. Percio′ in Sei personaggi in cerca d′autore i personaggi sono in cerca d′autore, ma ne I giganti della montagna i commedianti sono in cerca del pubblico. Tuttavia Pirandello non considera che il livello di un pubblico violento e bestiale non e′ l′unico problema. Questo fallimento deriva dal conflitto tra ‘i servi fanatici dell′Arte′ e ‘i poveri servi fanatici della vita’, perche′ non si considerano e non vogliono capire la situazione l’uno dell’altro. Percio’ I giganti della montagna vuole dire che, qualunque sia il genere di pubblico, l’arte senza scambio e comunicazione con il pubblico, l′arte per l′arte in se′ stessa non ha significato. Ilse avrebbe dovuto cercare di piu’ il modo per comunicare con i giganti. Questo e′ il concetto conclusivo di Pirandello, che “l′arte e′ uno specchio ‘per’ la vita, non ‘della’ vita”.
    Keyword: il teatro del mito, la forma d'arte pura, il teatro rappresentato, il fallimento della comunicazione, l'aspetto materialistico del teatro
    Author: Jee Yeon Jang
    Poblication Year: 2009
    Language: Korean
    Country: Italy
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Spanish Literature
    El proceso de desarrollo de la literatura fantástica española del siglo XIX
    El proceso de desarrollo de la literatura fantástica española del siglo XIX -Contexto sociocultural y análisis comparativa entre “Luisa” y “La mujer alta”- En el presente estudio, se analiza exhaustivamente el proceso de desarrollo de la literatura fantástica española del siglo XIX a través del contexto sociocultural de aquel periodo y de la comparación entre dos cuentos fantá sticos: “Luisa”(1837), de Eugenio de Ochoa y “La mujer alta”(1882), de Pedro Antonio de Alarcón Como es sabido, en España, la literatura fantástica empezó a florecer en los años 30s del siglo XIX, un poco más tarde que otros países europeos como Francia, Inglaterra y Alemania donde se había cultivado este género a partir de finales del siglo XVIII. Además, dicha corriente era considerado a veces como una ‘subliteratura’ la cual contaba con una calidad estética menor. Dicho retardo y la mencionada evaluación fueron originados, parcialmente, debido a que el romanticismo, considerado cuna de la literatura fantástica, fue incorporándose lentamente en España a causa de la situación política del país y a que también existían varios obstáculos socioculturales que frenaban el desarrollo de esta literatura: la larga tradición realista de la literatura española, la reacción contraria a la avalancha de traducciones y la preocupación por la creación de una literatura nacional, la errónea comprensión del concepto de lo fantástico, etc. Sin embargo, literatura fantástica española no dejó de desarrollar incesante y progresivamente a lo largo del siglo XIX gracias a la expansión del mercado editorial y a la activa participación de algunos de los autores más destacados de la época. Se ha podido comprobar este proceso de desarrollo a través de la comparación aquí tratada entre “Luisa” y “La mujer alta”. En la primera aparecen los elementos narrativos de lo fantástico ‘visible’ y una fuerte influencia del exterior; mientras que en la segunda, dominan los elementos de lo fantástico ‘invisible’ y la acogida creativa de algunos maestros del género fantástico como Hoffmann y Poe.
    Keyword: Literatura española del siglo XIX, Literatura fantástica, Eugenio de Ochoa, Pedro Antonio de Alarcón, “Luisa”, “La mujer alta”
    Author: Yong Gab Jeon
    Poblication Year: 2009
    Language: Korean
    Country: Spain
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    pedagogy-Education
    Effective Method of ESL Instruction to Non-English Majors*
    효과적인 영어교육방법 —지중해권 전공언어학생들을 중심으로— 이 연구의 목표는 영어교육에서 듣기의 중요성을 강조하는 것이며 받아 쓰기가 비 영어전공학생에게 영어교육을 하는 데 효과적인가를 조사하는 것이었다. 비 영어전공학생들은 아랍어, 불어, 이태리어, 포르투갈어, 스페 인어 및 동양어 전공들이었다. 이 학생들의 입학신청서를 검토한 결과 비 영어전공학생들은 영어전공학생들보다 토익점수가 상당히 낮았다. 전체 실험인구 120명의 학생들은 영어전공학생들(상위)과 비 영어전공 학생들(하위, 중위)로 구성되었다. 그리고 이 학생들은 두 집단 (통제그룹 과 실험그룹)으로 나누어졌다. 실험집단은 토익시험 테이프에서 들리는 영 어소리를 우선 한글로 받아 적고 나중에 영어문장으로 옮겼다. 통제집단 은 영어소리를 한글로 받아 적지 않고 직접 영어로 받아 적었다. 하위 및 중위 학생들이 한글로 받아 적었을 때 통계적으로 중요한 차이가 발견되었다. 상위 학생들에게는 통계적으로 중요한 결과를 찾을 수가 없었다. 이 연구의 결과는 많은 학자들과 연구자들의 견해, 즉 듣기가 언어습득 에 중요하고 또한 받아적기가 듣기를 향상시키는 데 효과적인 방법이라는 것을 떠받친다
    Keyword: 받아쓰기, 듣기이해, 듣는기술, 비영어전공, 한글로 음운 받아 쓰기, 외국어 습득
    Author: Yun Kul Cheung
    Poblication Year: 2009
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Human Geography
    The Role of the ‘Sea People’ in the Interaction of Ancient Mediterranean Civilization and Canaan
    The Role of the ‘Sea People’ in the Interaction of Ancient Mediterranean Civilization and Canaan The Philistines were one of the ancient Sea Peoples of Aegean origin who settled on the coast of Canaan at the beginning of the twelfth century BCE. The Philistine were, in fact, a people of cultural and material sophistication who maintained a unique identity in their cities and settlements in the south of Palestine for about six hundred years. The historical reappraisal of the Philistines is the result of the combined efforts of modern scholarship and archaeology. The early history and precise geographical origin of the Sea Peoples remain unclear. It is certain that disturbances at the center of Mycenaean civilization at the end of the thirteenth century BCE were responsible for mass migrations to the eastern Mediterranean. Archaeological evidence points to the arrival of groups from the Aegean soon after the destruction of the aftermath of the Trojan War. The importance of the Philistines and the other Sea Peoples in the history of the ancient Near East lies in the role they played in furthering the connections between Canaan and the rest of the Mediterranean world. Their commercial, technological and cultural achievements, hardly mentioned in the Hebrew Bible, were extensive, and they played a pivotal role during the political upheavals and population movements that marked the transition from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age. The Philistines brought to the ancient Near East a developed material culture that continued to evolve, even as it wad affected by local influences. They were accomplished architects and builders, highly artistic pottery makers, textile manufacturers, dyers, metalworkers, silver smelters, farmers, soldiers, and sophisticated urban planners. Yet, because of their confrontation with the hill people known as the Israelites described in the Hebrew Bible, the Philistines acquired a negative historical image that still retains its symbolic power. From the reliefs of Madinat Habu and the ruins of the great Philistine cities, however, we catch glimpses of the vibrant, advanced culture that they transplanted from their old homeland to their new one. Whether or not this negative image loses its potency in Western culture, the Philistines have at least and at last emerged from the realm of myth onto the stage of history.
    Keyword: Philistine, Palestine, Sea People, Canaan, Mediterranean Civilization, Ancient Near East
    Author: Chang Mo Choi
    Poblication Year: 2009
    Language: Korean
    Country: Palestine
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    A Study on the Effectivation of the Lisbon Treaty and Changes of EU
    A Study on the Effectivation of the Lisbon Treaty and Changes of EU The Lisbon Treaty was signed by heads of state and government of the 27 EU Members States on 13 December 2007. It is intended to reform the functioning of the European Union following the two waves of enlargement which have taken place since 2004 and have increased the number of EU Member States 15 to 27. The Lisbon Treaty was drafted as a replacement for the Constitutional Treaty which was rejected by French and Dutch voters in 2005. The Lisbon Treaty operate by amending the two treaties that embody the EU’s fundamental rules. There are ‘the Treaty on European Enion(TEU)’ and ‘the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU)’. The Lisbon Treaty, which came into force on 1 December 2009, opens up a new stage for the European Union(EU), for this project of coexistence 27 countries and 500 milion people, a project created on the values of freedom and human dignity, of tolerance and solidarity. The key issues of our time require global cooperation. Consequently, the Lisbon Treaty has brought significant improvements to the way the EU is represented in the international community. Principally, it brings together under one “roof” the full range of political, economic, and other instruments that the EU can deploy to achieve its global objectives. As presidents of the European council and of the government of the rotating presidency, we would like the application of the Lisbon treaty to be as diligent and rigorous as possible. In a spirit of co-operation, we will promote the EU’s new institutional order so we can address and resolve the problems that concern us all. Together we will address the priorities set out in the programme of the presidency. In this article, I will try to research the Lisbon Treaty, the effectivation of the Lisbon Treaty and EU’s changes.
    Keyword: Lisbon Treaty, EU, European Union, Effectivation, Ratification
    Author: Won Kim
    Poblication Year: 2010
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Greek Literature
    The Classic Hero and the Incapable
    The Classic Hero and the Incapable -The Omnipresence and the Absence- Throughout human history there have been many types of heroes: from the classical ones which are the prototype of beauty and strength, a symbol of perfection; to superman of D’Annunzio, an individual “winner” who manages to deal positively with situations and is separated from the mediocrity of things, seeking affirmation in the social context. That is classical hero cults could be of the utmost political importance. In the present, one potential drawback of the necessity of hero identification means that a hero is often more a combination of symbols than a representation of an actual person. In order to appeal to a wide range of individuals, the author often relegates the hero to a “type” of person which everyone already is or wishes themselves to be; a “brave” person; a “self-sacrificing” person. The most problematic result of this sort of design is the creation of a character so universal that we can all identify with somewhat, but none can identify with completely. Finally we got to analyze in depth the italian writer Italo Svevo’s incapable characters of “Disease of living” that can not relate to society and rather prefers to it succumb to society than attempt to relate to it. In the narrative of the late twentieth century scholars have repeatedly taken the model of the incapable of Svevo. Always the hero, described with extraordinary powers in collective imagination, embodies the good. Homer has exalted in their poems the hero. Contrariwise Svevo destroys the traditional typology of the classic hero to build a character that can be considered the exact opposite of the Homer’s archetype. If Achilles or Hector seek affirmation of their virtus within the community, the characters in the novels of Svevo express their discomfort at the very time they relate to society. The Svevo’s inept do not chase dreams of glory or impossible ambition, but it is a character who, despite having lost his identity, seeks to “straddling” in the snares of everyday life. This is the virtus that they express. This article is proposed to show how Svevo’s novels undermine the traditional typology of the classic hero narrated by Homer, and investigate the main differences and similarities of the Svevo’s characters with the classical heroes to understand the role of his “anti-heroes.”
    Keyword: Classical Hero’s Typology, Antihero, Incapable, Society, Time, Destiny, Deity
    Author: Hee Jung Kim
    Poblication Year: 2010
    Language: Korean
    Country: Greece
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Science of Religion
    Resumen /sinopsis El papel y las características del Consejo de la Inquisición española durante los siglos XVI y XVII
    Resumen /sinopsis El papel y las características del Consejo de la Inquisición española durante los siglos XVI y XVII La Inquisición Española fue una organización de carácter mixto, es decir eclesiástico y secular. Esta dualidad se refleja en el Consejo de la Inquisición, compuesto por el Inquisidor General y los consejeros. La razón por la que la Inquisición Española ha sido siempre considerada como un instrumento fiel a la política estatal, a pesar de que su cometido principal era la persecución de la herejía, se debe al Consejo de la Inquisición, que formaba parte del sistema polisinodial que sostenía la monarquía española de la Edad Moderna y que carecía de la jurisdicción eclesiástica para tratar de las materias inquisitoriales. En cambio, el Inquisidor General era la figura en que se concentraban todas las facultades apostólicas que provenían del Papa a través del Breve de su nombramiento. Por este problema jurisdiccional, la relación entre el Inquisidor General y los consejeros no era siempre cordial sino que a veces llegaba a ser extremadamente tensa. Constantemente el Consejo de la Inquisición intentaba ampliar su jurisdicción para intervenir en otros campos, como la cuestión de la gracia que pertenecía privativamente al Inquisidor General.
    Keyword: Consejo de la Inquisición, Inquisidor General, Consejeros, Jurisdicción, Dualidad
    Author: Eun Hae Lee
    Poblication Year: 2010
    Language: Korean
    Country: Spain
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Arabic Literature
    A Study on the Poetic Criticism and the Literary Works of Abbas Mahmud al-Aqqad as a Spokesman of Diwan Group
    A Study on the Poetic Criticism and the Literary Works of Abbas Mahmud al-Aqqad as a Spokesman of Diwan Group As a spokesman of Diwan Group which struggled to make the true Egyptian literature, Aqqad tried to break down the strong castle of Neoclassicism and also set up the new Romanticism through the critical comments and works. And so, in his most works he subjectively and romantically expressed his feelings about all the situations in the whole life including the nature and love. Formally, he experimented the one blank verse and about 60 strophic verses like muwashshat, Muzdawij, Muthallath, Murabba, Mukhammas, and so tried to destroy the fetter of the rhyme. But in spite of his constant efforts, he composed his most poems with the form of Qasidah and Qitah(a short poem under the 10 lines) which regard the meter and rhyme as the most important thing. And he could not totally overcome the limits of Neoclassism that controled the Egypt at that time. Any way, it is remarkable thing that Aqqad used a lot of the Qitah in the works more then about 500. The Qitah has the same point as the Qasidah in view of using the mono meter and mono rhyme, but it will be considered to the important changes in view of breaking the long-lined rule of Qasidah and at the same time taking the unification of contents. And also he showed the several experimentations using the form which destroyed the rule of divided into halves that is one norm of Qasidah. As above mentioned, in the subjects he broke down the Neoclassicism partly and set up the Romanticism in the Arabic poetry, but formally he could not take off the bridle of the Neoclassicism. After all, Aqqad was the pioneer who crossed the limits of the Noeclasscism and proceeded to the freer Romanticism through expressing the subjective and romantic subjects with various forms. And also these experiments were developed by the Apollo Group which began to be in full activities in the thirties, and then became the footstone for the movement of the free verse in the fifties.
    Keyword: Poetic Criticism, Abbas Mahmud al-Aqqad, a Spokesman of Diwan Group, Neoclassicism, Romanticism, Feelings, Strophic Verse, Qasidah, Qitah, Unification of Contents, Apollo Group, the Movement of the Free Verse
    Author: Byung Pil Lim
    Poblication Year: 2010
    Language: Korean
    Country: Egypt
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Greek Literature
    Cultural Intercourse between the Orient and Ancient Greece: Focusing on the Underworld Women in Myths
    Cultural Intercourse between the Orient and Ancient Greece: Focusing on the Underworld Women in Myths This paper is to clarify the cultural intercourse between the Orient and the ancient Greece around the Mediterranean area. Specifically this paper focuses on the Underworld queen-characters in myths. In the first chapter, I try to trace the common aspects between Ereshkigal, the Sumerian goddess of the Underworld and Persephone, the Greek goddess of the Underworld. Even though the most powerful goddess of the Underworld of the Orient(Ereshkigal) seems diffenrent from Persephone, a dependent weak daughter and unwilling queen of the Underworld in Greece, the earliest evidences show that Persephone was originally a great goddess like Ereshkigal. In short, I conclude that Persephone was a Greek Ereshkigal. In the second chapter, I deal with Medusa, who lived in the Underworld as an attendant of Persephone, and Perseus who was well known for killing Medusa. Medusa, originally a powerful and benevolent being from the Orient, changed into a wicked monster, eventually killed by Perseus in Greece. It is interesting to note that those powerful goddesses in the Orient changed into weak or wicked presences in Greece. It is also interesting to note that the names of Persephone, Perseus, Medusa are all deeply related to the Underworld and whose origin seemed to be from the Orient.
    Keyword: Ereshkigal, Underworld Queen, Persephone, Medusa, Perseus, Mediterranean Cultural Intercourse
    Author: Hae Young Choi
    Poblication Year: 2010
    Language: Korean
    Country: Greece
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    Ottoman Diplomatic Attitude Toward Habsburg in the Age of Süleyman the Magnificent
    Ottoman Diplomatic Attitude Toward Habsburg in the Age of Süleyman the Magnificent Many scholars holding a Euro-centric perspective negatively view the Ottoman Empire as having a diplomacy centered on its Islamic tradition. According to Muslim law, the Muslims must live in a certain territory called ‘dār al-Islam.’ Christian publicists speculate that the territory constituting dār al-Islam was acquired by force consistent with the Empire’s organization for plundering and conquest; they argue that conquest was a law of life, the principle which animated what had now become a large and complex society. In addition, they had a view that was not until the Peace of Paris signed in 1856 that the Empire was officially admitted to the European interstate system. But I think they had a view based on misunderstandings with regard to the Empire and diplomacy. The Empire already in the reign of Süleyman Ⅰ had been intergrated into the European interstate system, and the Muslim sultans used diplomacy officially as a useful means to foreign policy. So using force was not the only resort for foreign policy, diplomacy was also a means for problem solving. This paper focuses on the Ottoman diplomatic attitude toward Habsburg. I intend to demonstrate that the traditional historiographic image of Ottoman-Habsburg contacts as an unbridgeable dichotomy between ‘dār al-Islam’ and ‘dār al-Harb’, should be softened. Thus, I suggest that the Ottoman attitude toward diplomacy is not unilateral but favourable and reciprocating. Süleyman Ⅰ tries to establish control over Hungary and Danube Region against Ferdinand Ⅰ of Habsburg. Until 1541, the sultan relies on military operations. But after that he resorts to using diplomacy more than force. He used to sit down at the table with Ferdinand for bilateral negotiation and diplomacy. Thanks to these negotiation and foreign diplomats, from the age of Süleyman the Magnificent onward, awareness about the Ottoman Empire had increased in Europe, and an open field for diplomatic relations had been created.
    Keyword: Süleyman, Ferdinand, Ottoman, Habsburg, Diplomacy, Hungary
    Author: Dong Won Kim
    Poblication Year: 2010
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Spanish Literature
    Estudio de la Cultura de la Alienación Social en la Literatura Folklórica y en la Pintura de Género
    Estudio de la Cultura de la Alienación Social en la Literatura Folklórica y en la Pintura de Género El cuento popular describe una sociedad medieval con claros caracteres de relación armónica, polarizada y estratificada, con status y roles claramente definidos, en la que unos mandan y a los otros les toca obedecer. El grupo dominante asienta su autoridad en el poder y la riqueza, quedando ambos legitimados. En el cuento popular la estratificación social está claramente jerarquizada, de modo que los diversos estratos sociales, debidamente ordenados, tienen en la cúspide a quien detentaba todo el poder y la riqueza; tal estructura social es presentada en los cuentos como algo inamovible. En este artículo, vamos a averiguar la cultura de la alienación social en los cuentos populares y en la pintura de género, que, con el sentido realista del arte, se aplicó a las escenas cotidianas, de la calle o de la vida privada, contemporáneas al autor y que ocultó temas alegóricos, destacando las pinturas de Velázquez, de Murillo y J. de Rivera, y de Francisco de Goya, quienes utilizaron la pintura de género como un medio para una sugerencia oscura sobre la condición humana con numerosos cuadros de mendigos y pilluelos, en un tono realista, pero amable, evitando la expresión del dolor o la tristeza.
    Keyword: Cuento popular, Alienación social, Cultura, Pintura de Género, Literatura española
    Author: Bu Ja Kim
    Poblication Year: 2010
    Language: Korean
    Country: Spain
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Sociology
    Free Radio (‘radio libri’) Movement in Italy
    Free Radio (‘radio libri’) Movement in Italy This article aims to describe the Free Radio(‘radio libri’) Movement in Italy and tries to find concrete activities of free radios. In Italy, the 68 revolution of student movement went hand in hand with worker’s movement, and social movement as named Autonomia movement continued all through the 1970s. Worker’s movement has been combined with social struggles, counter-cultural movements of youth-students emerged actively. And followed different sqautting movements, separatistic feminist movement, auto-reduction movement, and so on. With those movements developed the free radio movement as media struggle. Since 1976, i.e. the liberation of airwaves as the result of decision of the supreme court, free radios had been activated and arrived about three thousand through the country. Among them, socialistic radios were made up of 20%. These radios brought about the change of media operation and broadcasting system. Among the distinguished examples, I took up ‘Radio Alice’ as a agent of movement like a flash and ‘Radio Popolare’ as a transversal forum of multitude, which is broadcasting now. Radio Alice had broadcasted for one year and one month, had tried the internal democratisation of the station. Radio Alice tried to destroy the normal broadcast language and wanted to broadcast the voice of desire. It organized receiver-groups and transmitted open broadcasting. It also used the trick way which revealed the true information by using the false information. Furthermore during the ’77 movement it broadcasted lively the mobile situation of police and demonstration mob by the way of phone-in. And it not only broadcasted the accident but also asserted itself. So it played the intelligence agent of movement. Hence it was closed enforcedly by the state. Radio Popolare has broadcasted from 1976 to now, wanted to be a forum for wide multitude. It was established by the cooperative of various supporters. It proceeded to the specialization but tried to maintain the internal democracy. It innovated the established way of broadcasting and performed various experiments of broadcasting. Furthermore it went beyond the accident reporting, suggested various issues around which receivers discussed, and broadcasted the discussing process itself. The Free Radio(‘radio libri’) Movement in Italy at 1970’s had expanded the different expressions of multitude based on their autonomy. And it contributed to the expansion of democracy by including the minorities. Many free radios had been commercialised at 1980’s, but several radios continued to broadcast. Now new media movement(telestreet movement) has emerged with the evolution of communication instruments.
    Keyword: Free radio, Autonomia Movement, Free Radio Movement, Local Radio, Radio Alice, Radio Popolare, ’77 Movement, Phone-in, Minority
    Author: Soo Jong Yoon
    Poblication Year: 2010
    Language: Korean
    Country: Italy
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    Une étude sur les enseignements de la langue-culture pour les immigrés dans la politique de l'immigration en France
    Une étude sur les enseignements de la langue-culture pour les immigrés dans la politique de l'immigration en France Le présent article est divisé en deux partie: la première partie est un rappel historique de la politique de l'immigration en France; l'enchaînement des évènements historiques est essentiel pour la compréhension et la réflexion de ce phénomène d‘immigration vers la France. Dans la seconde partie, nous essayons de présenter, d‘analyser et l'interpréter, le plus objectivement possible, les programmes de l'enseignement de la langue-culture pour les immigrés. Les questions que nous avons choisies portent sur l'importance de la langue-culture utilisée dans la société française pour l'intégration interculturelle ainsi que leurs attitudes envers les multiculturalité en question. À l'examen de la politique de l‘immigration et les programmes faits par le CASNAV, il semble que les efforts de la France ont vu l'intégration interculturelle dans et/ou par l'etablissement scolaire avec des intentions calculées. Ces analyses nous montrent qu'une analyse scientifique que ne signifie pas qu'elle est neutre, mais plutôt qu'elle pourrait être influencée par une étude du cas. Nous pouvons donc réflechir le résultat de France pour appliquer à la Corée.
    Keyword: la politique d'immigration, L'enseignement de la langue-culture pour les immigrés, CASNAV, l'assimilation, l'intégration, la politique du multiculturalisme, la sociolinguistique
    Author: Ni Na Chang
    Poblication Year: 2010
    Language: Korean
    Country: France
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Human Geography
    A Study on the Levant People’s Way of Thinking through the Texts of Songs
    A Study on the Levant People’s Way of Thinking through the Texts of Songs - focused on Lebanon & Syria - The domain of popular and folk music often provides insight into the psychological and social, cultural traits of a nation’s character. It means that one can often illustrate the spirit and beliefs of the people by studying the types of songs. This study is aimed to find the Levant people’s way of thinking through the texts of songs-focused on Syria & Lebanon-by classifying motifs of the songs, especially the religion, and social life and sex. The Syrian and Lebanese songs express happiness and sorrows and religious beliefs of the people. The song and music were used in emotional occasions such as love, the pains of the departure, and some social & political issues. We can say that Syrian and Lebanese people are usually in pursuit of Islamic virtues, and they keep balanced life between religious holiness and secularity
    Keyword: Levant, Syria, Lebanon, Popular Song, Folk Song, Mawwāl, Underlying Culture
    Author: Eun Kyeong Yun
    Poblication Year: 2010
    Language: Korean
    Country: Lebanon
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Arabic Literature
    A Study on the Underlying Culture in Levant
    A Study on the Underlying Culture in Levant -Focusing on the Nomadic Culture and Islam- This study aims at having a close look at how nomadic culture and Islamic culture are mixed together by surveying into the underlying culture of Levant. In Levant, as is also the case with other Arabian regions, it is observed that the application of Islam is not genuine, but is mixed with folk beliefs. This study focuses on explaining ‘bidʕah’ by describing the differences that exist between sacredness and secularity. It is observed that, in the underlying culture of this region, faver-seeking religion and folk customs appear in the form of Islam. This study explores the consciousness of nomads and their underlying culture through looking into their custom of saint worship, their thoughts on jinn, evil eye and magic, and their beliefs in fortune and misfortune.
    Keyword: Levant, Underlying Culture, Nomadic Culture, Islam, Jinn, Evil Eye
    Author: In Seop Lee
    Poblication Year: 2010
    Language: Korean
    Country: Lebanon
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Arabic Literature
    A Study on the Underlying Culture in Levant
    A Study on the Underlying Culture in Levant -Focusing on the Nomadic Culture and Islam- This study aims at having a close look at how nomadic culture and Islamic culture are mixed together by surveying into the underlying culture of Levant. In Levant, as is also the case with other Arabian regions, it is observed that the application of Islam is not genuine, but is mixed with folk beliefs. This study focuses on explaining ‘bidʕah’ by describing the differences that exist between sacredness and secularity. It is observed that, in the underlying culture of this region, faver-seeking religion and folk customs appear in the form of Islam. This study explores the consciousness of nomads and their underlying culture through looking into their custom of saint worship, their thoughts on jinn, evil eye and magic, and their beliefs in fortune and misfortune.
    Keyword: Levant, Underlying Culture, Nomadic Culture, Islam, Jinn, Evil Eye
    Author: In Seop Lee
    Poblication Year: 2010
    Language: Korean
    Country: Jordan
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Arabic Literature
    A Study on the Romantic Mood in the Motifs and Forms of Abu Shadi’s Poetry
    A Study on the Romantic Mood in the Motifs and Forms of Abu Shadi’s Poetry As a leading poet of Apollo Group and the founder of Apollo magazine, Ahmad Zaki Abu Shadi was regarded as the poet whose works were full of the romantic mood. In 1932, when developed the romantic trend in the group and the magazine founded by Abu Shadi, the neo-classicism was still strong across all over the Arab world. So I have some questions. Was he a real romantic? Did his works express the romantic motifs in new forms or in the classical form of Qasidah? Was he different from the Diwan Group Which introduced the romantic mood in the Arab world? And if he was so, how different? To respond to this questions, I analyzed four diwans of Abu Shadi: his first diwan of 1910, two diwans written after his emigration to America in 1946 and another one that contains selected poems and critics. The analysis shows that Abu Shadi expressed subjective romantic emotions in the theme and the motifs of 85% of the 268 poems contained in the four diwans. On the other hand, he experimented much less with new forms, like the stanza, the blank verse, his own free verse, the dramatic poem, the narrative poem or drama. Instead he used the Qasidah form in 85% of the 268 poems. So I conclude that he was not a fully romantic poet but a boundary poet between the neo-classicism and the romanticism in the Arab poetry.
    Keyword: Abu Shadi, Apollo Group, Apollo Magaine, Diwan Group, Neo-classicism, Romantism, Qasidah, The New Forms, Free Verse, Boundary Poet
    Author: Byung Pil Lim
    Poblication Year: 2010
    Language: Korean
    Country: Egypt
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Greek Literature
    Heracles in Euprides’ Tragedies
    Heracles in Euprides’ Tragedies - A Historical Approach - This paper is to clarify the meaning and politico-social background of Greek tragedy focusing on the Heracleidai and the Heracles of Euripides. I try to prove that the reason Euripides chose the theme of Heracles for his tragedies was deeply related to the enmity against Sparta. During the Peloponnesian War, the chief enemy of Athens was Sparta. It meant that the Athenians needed to rebuke Sparta or to emphasize miseries of Sparta for anti-Sparta propaganda. Euripides (as well as Sophocles and Aeschylos) chose Heracles as their theme because Heracles was widely accepted especially as the legendary hero and founder of Sparta. In the Heracles, Heracles was described far from as a hero, but as a mere wretched person: Heracles had been mad enough to kill his own children, and after the murder, his behaviour was like a weak woman and even tried to kill himself out of despair. The very person who saved Heracles from his miseries was Theseus, the Athenian King. The structure of Heracleidai was almost the same. The children of Heracles were chased by the king of Argos, the fatal enemy of Heracles. There was none to help them against Argos, except Athens. Only the Athenians helped them even risking a war against Argos. In conclusion, the message of these two tragedies, Heracleidai and Heracles seems quite clear: Heracles, the national hero of Sparta, was not heroic at all, and it was Athens that saved Heracles or his children from their misfortune. Thus, Sparta should not have attacked Athens: it was like returning good with evil. It furthermore means that Greek tragedies, Heracleidai and Heracles as well as other Attic tragedies, cannot be fully understood without considering international relationship of Athens at that time.
    Keyword: Euripides, The Children of Heracles, Heracles, Sparta, The Peloponnesian War
    Author: Hae Young Choi
    Poblication Year: 2010
    Language: Korean
    Country: Greece
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    European History
    Sacrifice for the Polis-State in Pericles’ Funeral Oration
    Sacrifice for the Polis-State in Pericles’ Funeral Oration Pericles’ funeral oration is a famous ancient speech from Thucydides’ History of the Peloponnesian War. In Athens there was a practice to hold a public funeral and give a speech in honor of all those who had died in war. The Pericles’ funeral oration seems to be a very modern one to demand blood sacrifices in the name of the state ‘polis’. Mourning was general, and yet it was not to dominate Pericles’ funeral oration. Instead, he delivered the eulogy of the imperialistic Athens bluntly, and praised the fallen soldiers’ blood sacrifice for noble causes. The war, however, was for the imperialist domination. The logic and cause of his speech is like those of Yasukuni Shrine in the Japanese Imperialism. In the funeral oration, Pericles justified the warlike politics of Athens against the same Greeks in the second half of the 5th century B.C., on the pretext that she had contributed to the defensive wars against Persia in the first half of the same century. Here we can discover somewhat unjustified enforcement of the role of war in society being processed. The warlike values and politics need private sacrifices and the democracy, and the liberty of Athenians developed on the violence committed by the state against the other Greek polis.
    Keyword: Pericles’ Funeral Oration, Peloponnesian War, Defensive War / Offensive War, Private Sacrifice, State(Polis), Liberty
    Author: Bong Youl Kim
    Poblication Year: 2010
    Language: Korean
    Country: Greece
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    European History
    A Study on Aristotle’s Concept of Passion and Slavery
    A Study on Aristotle’s Concept of Passion and Slavery This article is concerned about the natural slavery in the Aristotelian political philosophy. Natural slavery is defined as the character of a person who is aware of the nature of things by the reason but lacks of the active knowledge of it, since he was not able to take control of his passion. So passion is one of the most important characteristics to reach happiness. A slave can’t accomplish the virtuous life in terms of deliberation, because he has no ability to decide and to desire for what is best and fine. In this article I am trying to research the Aristotle’s understanding of natural slavery. In order to achieve this goal, first I will analyze the concept of thymos in the various text. Secondly, I am focused on the role of self-knowledge and self-improvement to comment on the association of reason and passion in the process of deliberation.
    Keyword: Passion, Slavery, Reason, Thymos, Desires
    Author: Jo Hann Kim
    Poblication Year: 2010
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Greek Literature
    A Study on the Greek Codex Tractatus Coislinianus 120
    A Study on the Greek Codex Tractatus Coislinianus 120 The Greek Codex Tractatus Coislinianus 120 is very important and valuable manuscript that is supposed to include the content of Aristotle’s lost Poetics book II. This article provides a philologically edited Greek text and Korean translation. This codex has attracted the attention of classical scholars since 1839. It was found by J.A. Cramer and, after philological examination, was published. He maintained that Tractatus Coislinianus 120 is intimately related to the theory on Greek comedy, especially to Aristotle’s poetic theory. However, his opinion has not gained strong support from classical philologists because many scholars believe that Aristotle did not author the original text of this manuscipt and that the content does not correspond to the Aristotelian philosophy and view of literature. But L. Cooper and R. Janko maintained a positive position about the Tractatus Coislinianus 120 in relation to Aristotle’s existent Poetics. R. Janko is especially convinced that Aristotle’s Poetics Book II existed in the past and this manuscript is its summary. Accordingly, he attempted to reconstruct Aristotle’s Poetics II on the basis of this codex. However, the success of his attempt is still controversial.
    Keyword: Manuscript, Codex, Philology, Aristotle, Poetics, Comedy
    Author: Heon Kim
    Poblication Year: 2010
    Language: Korean
    Country: Greece
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Turkish Literature
    A Study of the Animal Metamorphosis Motif in Turkic Folklores
    A Study of the Animal Metamorphosis Motif in Turkic Folklores The metamorphosis motif is one of the very common motifs in folktales of Eurasia Turkic tribes, as it is in many other tribes in the world. Especially, among Turkic folk tales, this kind of motifs are very popular, not only in legendary types with regard to origins of animals, lakes, mountains, trees, stones, as well as of sun, moon and stars. Motifs metamorphoses in Turkic folktales have 11 types which change into such as stones, animals, mountains, sees, etc. The most popular one among these is stone metamorphosis, being the second one is animal metamorphosis. Commonly in Turkic motifs, metamorphosis into animal occurs from mainly disobediences and bad behaviors, some from encountering fear, shame, and difficult situation. As these metamorphoses in general occur as results of punishment of Allah or other supernatural being, folktales with these kinds of motifs seem to have an educational purpose or lesson for next generations. On the other hand, sometimes there occur metamorphoses of supernatural beings into animals. In this paper, I would like to introduce various typologies of metamorphoses in typical Turkic folktales which contain animal metamorphoses, examining their characteristics and functions
    Keyword: Turkic Folklore, Turkic Mythology, Animal Metamorphosis Motif, Wolf Motif, Deer Motif
    Author: Hyo Joung Kim
    Poblication Year: 2010
    Language: Korean
    Country: Turkey
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Science of Law
    The Problem of Conversos and the Enactment of the Statutes of the Purity of Blood in Medieval Spain
    The Problem of Conversos and the Enactment of the Statutes of the Purity of Blood in Medieval Spain The great pogrom of 1391 spread to lots of towns, and meanwhile many Jews converted to Christianity. Indeed the possibility of mass conversion of Jews, a dream of Spanish Christians seemed to be realized. However, soon Old Christians came to feel that it was a disaster rather than a blessing. Every legal restriction imposed on the Jew was erased completely, and all offices in Church and state were open to conversos, Jewish converts. It threatened the lives of Old Christians. Thus anti-converso responses were developed to exclude conversos. Conversos were recognized as pseudo-Christians adhering to the past faith. In addition, some Christians began to doubt that baptism could transform the Jewishness of converts. Conversos came to constitute a independent group different from Old Christians. Especially alboraycos, one of various terms used to name converts evidences their situation. The term derived from Libro del Alborayque written around the mid-fifteenth century. Alborayque is a monster composed of numerous animals. Alborayque, the author explains, was one of the names applied to the Jewish converts. Thus, the term implied that the conversos were neither Jews nor Christians. Now conversos constituted a new type of the Jewish group. Thus a new legal definition was needed to control conversos. Not long after the mass conversion of 1391 Old Christians began to insist on a new difference, ie., blood, and the purity of blood logic was invented. As a result, the regulations known as the statutes of the purity of blood were the attempt to deprive conversos of the privileges they had enjoyed as Christians.
    Keyword: Converso, Old Christians, New Christians, Purity of Blood, Jew
    Author: Young Keon Seo
    Poblication Year: 2010
    Language: Korean
    Country: Spain
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    European History
    A Study on the Human-Being Figure of the Cave of Lascaux in the Paleolithic Era
    A Study on the Human-Being Figure of the Cave of Lascaux in the Paleolithic Era This article is to investigate and make an interpretations of the symbolic meanings of the archetypal imagery of the Paleolithic Era. The appearance of the images of the human-faced figures in the Paleolithic Era is not often. The figures of the human-being discovered in the caves of ‘Lascaux’, ‘Les Trois-Frères’, and ‘el Juyo’ serve us to be the decisive, essential and intrinsic clue in establishing the Cro-magnons’s primitive culture. Especially the human-faced figure image at the cave of Lascaux is in a different and special meaning from the other figures of those times. The triangle structure between the figure of a human-being, a bison and a bird described as a kind of a pole, that is supposed to be a kind of spiritual monument for ritual and ceremonies, must have the special meanings that have made us get the academic curiosity. This investigation is to synthesize the narration of the triangle structure above mentioned, the concrete and detail elements of the three figures, and the some analysis of the human-being figures. We’ve focused on the analysis of the characteristics of the figures of human face to investigate the symbolic meanings of the human-being figures and their details, making the point in investigating the human face figures of the cave of ‘Les Trois-Frères’, and 'el Juyo’ together. The results of this article have the special and specified value as a pilot study and an investigation to recognize the importance of studying the culture codes and the archetypal imagery of the early human-being society, and to serve the future studies about the cultures of the Paleolithic Era that contains the potential elements with which we could approach to the appropriate methods to understand the original forms, ways of behaving, thingking, and living of the human-being at those times when the act of describing figures had a special meanings.
    Keyword: Image of Human-Being of the Paleolithic Era, The Cave of Lascaux, Archetypal Imagery, Schaman, Analyze Images & Symbols
    Author: Sung Ju Woo
    Poblication Year: 2010
    Language: Korean
    Country: France
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Human Geography
    An Analysis of the Potential for the Economic Integration of Maghreb Countries and Some Suggestions for Promoting the Integration
    An Analysis of the Potential for the Economic Integration of Maghreb Countries and Some Suggestions for Promoting the Integration The main objective of this study is to assess the potential for economic integration among Maghreb countries and to suggest the strategy of integrating the economies of Maghreb countries. To analyse the potential for economic integration, we try to find out synchronous long-run movements in their GDPs and inflation rates and short-run business cycles in them, which mean they have common economic features to rationalize the economic integration. The methodologies used are augmented Dickey-Fuller to test the stationarity of a time series, cointegration analysis to test for the number of common trends in a set of time series, and Granger causality analysis to test for the common cycles. Empirical results suggest that all countries share the common long-term trends and three of them share common cycles. These two critical findings indicate the existence of macroeconomic interdependence among these countries which is important factor for the success of integration of the Maghreb economies. Even though at the end of 2010 Maghreb countries announced an agreement on the establishment of a Maghreb free trade zone for agricultural products that will take effect in 2011, economic integration in the Maghreb has been stalled since the establishment of AMU in 1989, mainly due to political tensions, mismanagement of economic policies, and poor infrastructure. In this paper, we suggest the basic strategy of integration and an array of cooperative measures that the United States and the European Union can pursue with the Maghreb countries to promote integration within the region and with the rest of the world. The basic strategy proposed is the sequential expansion of economic cooperation from bilateral cooperations between Maghreb countries to agricultural FTA and wider FTA. The cooperative measures include lowering or eliminating tariff barriers, coordinating rules of origin, improving business environments, and integrating the service markets. They can foster larger economic reforms in the region, which would greatly enhance the opportunity of economic development of these countries.
    Keyword: Maghreb, AMU, Economic Integration, Cointegration Test, Granger Causality Test
    Author: Ki Chul Kwon
    Poblication Year: 2011
    Language: Korean
    Country: Algeria
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Human Geography
    An Analysis of the Potential for the Economic Integration of Maghreb Countries and Some Suggestions for Promoting the Integration
    An Analysis of the Potential for the Economic Integration of Maghreb Countries and Some Suggestions for Promoting the Integration The main objective of this study is to assess the potential for economic integration among Maghreb countries and to suggest the strategy of integrating the economies of Maghreb countries. To analyse the potential for economic integration, we try to find out synchronous long-run movements in their GDPs and inflation rates and short-run business cycles in them, which mean they have common economic features to rationalize the economic integration. The methodologies used are augmented Dickey-Fuller to test the stationarity of a time series, cointegration analysis to test for the number of common trends in a set of time series, and Granger causality analysis to test for the common cycles. Empirical results suggest that all countries share the common long-term trends and three of them share common cycles. These two critical findings indicate the existence of macroeconomic interdependence among these countries which is important factor for the success of integration of the Maghreb economies. Even though at the end of 2010 Maghreb countries announced an agreement on the establishment of a Maghreb free trade zone for agricultural products that will take effect in 2011, economic integration in the Maghreb has been stalled since the establishment of AMU in 1989, mainly due to political tensions, mismanagement of economic policies, and poor infrastructure. In this paper, we suggest the basic strategy of integration and an array of cooperative measures that the United States and the European Union can pursue with the Maghreb countries to promote integration within the region and with the rest of the world. The basic strategy proposed is the sequential expansion of economic cooperation from bilateral cooperations between Maghreb countries to agricultural FTA and wider FTA. The cooperative measures include lowering or eliminating tariff barriers, coordinating rules of origin, improving business environments, and integrating the service markets. They can foster larger economic reforms in the region, which would greatly enhance the opportunity of economic development of these countries.
    Keyword: Maghreb, AMU, Economic Integration, Cointegration Test, Granger Causality Test
    Author: Ki Chul Kwon
    Poblication Year: 2011
    Language: Korean
    Country: Morocco
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Social Welfare
    Divergent Strategies of Concerted Social Security Reforms
    Divergent Strategies of Concerted Social Security Reforms -A Comparison between Spain and Italy- The aim of this paper is to find out the main factors behind different reform strategies chosen by Spain and Italy, though they tackled similar challenges such as financial imbalances of social security systems and the EMU and opted for social concertation as a feasible policymaking mechanism. Unlike mainstream arguments on concerted welfare reforms, this paper suggests that the different policy choices in concerted social security reforms in two countries under study have been determined by the different structures of concertation, which have had impact on the actors’ strategies, resulting in different policy choices. Differently from Italian case social concertation in Spain has been characterised by the narrow, separate dealing of policy issues. This structure was due to social partners’ strategic choices and political reasons on the government’s part. This issue-separated concertation structure meant the limits on the opportunity for the exchange of resource among actors, which resulted in the path- dependent policy choices. In Italian case, the Amato government and his successors formed a comprehensive reform package, linking issues in incomes policy, collective bargaining structure reform, employment and welfare policy, and tax reform. Through this extensive reform package Italian governments could concede resources to the trade unions in exchange for labour consensus for structural social security reforms.
    Keyword: Spain, Italy, Concertation Structure, Social Decurity Reform, Actors’ Preference, Opportunity of Resource Exchange, Pathdependent Reform, Structural Reform
    Author: Hye Ran Kim
    Poblication Year: 2011
    Language: Korean
    Country: Spain
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Social Welfare
    Divergent Strategies of Concerted Social Security Reforms
    Divergent Strategies of Concerted Social Security Reforms -A Comparison between Spain and Italy- The aim of this paper is to find out the main factors behind different reform strategies chosen by Spain and Italy, though they tackled similar challenges such as financial imbalances of social security systems and the EMU and opted for social concertation as a feasible policymaking mechanism. Unlike mainstream arguments on concerted welfare reforms, this paper suggests that the different policy choices in concerted social security reforms in two countries under study have been determined by the different structures of concertation, which have had impact on the actors’ strategies, resulting in different policy choices. Differently from Italian case social concertation in Spain has been characterised by the narrow, separate dealing of policy issues. This structure was due to social partners’ strategic choices and political reasons on the government’s part. This issue-separated concertation structure meant the limits on the opportunity for the exchange of resource among actors, which resulted in the path- dependent policy choices. In Italian case, the Amato government and his successors formed a comprehensive reform package, linking issues in incomes policy, collective bargaining structure reform, employment and welfare policy, and tax reform. Through this extensive reform package Italian governments could concede resources to the trade unions in exchange for labour consensus for structural social security reforms.
    Keyword: Spain, Italy, Concertation Structure, Social Decurity Reform, Actors’ Preference, Opportunity of Resource Exchange, Pathdependent Reform, Structural Reform
    Author: Hye Ran Kim
    Poblication Year: 2011
    Language: Korean
    Country: Italy
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    Der Vertrag von Lissabon und die Änderungen der EU
    Der Vertrag von Lissabon und die Änderungen der EU In diesem Aufsatz habe ich den Vertrag von Lissabon unter der Prämisse betrachtet, was sich durch das Vertragwerk verändert hat. Die Europäische Union hat mit dem Vertrag von Lissabon, auch als Reformvertrag bezeichnet, eine neue vertragliche Grundlage erhalten. Der Vertrag wurde eigentlich von den Staats- und Regierungschefs der 27 Mitgliedstaaten der EU schon am 13. Dezember 2007 in Lissabon unterzeichnet und ist aber erst am 1. Dezember 2009 in Kraft getreten. Der Vertrag umfasst zwei rechtlich einander gleichwertige Verträge, den Vertrag über die Europäische Union(EUV) und den Vertrag über den Arbeitsweise der Europäischen Union(AEUV). Zum Bestandteil der Verträge gehören auch die ihnen beigefügten Protokolle und Erklärungen. Die neue Vertragsstruktur sieht vor, dass der EU-Vertrag und der EG-Vertrag verändert werden. Der EG-Vertrag heißt nun AEUV. Beide Verträge haben gleichen rechtlichen Stellenwert. Die wesentliche strukturelle Änderung der EU besteht in der Abschaffung des Drei-Säulen-Modells. Die Gemeinschaftsmethode sieht zunächst das Initiativrecht für einen Rechtsakt bei der EU-Kommission vor. Das Prinzip der begrenzten Einzelmächtigung sowie das Subsidiaritätsprinzip kommen zum Tragen. Hinsichtlich des Rechtsstatus wird von einer eigenen Rechtspersönlichkeit der EU ausgegangen. Die Charta der Grundrechte hat Rechtsverbindlichkeit für die EU-Organe und Mitgiedstaaten bei der Anwendung und Umsetzung des Unionsrechts. Hinsichtlich der Institutionen lassen sich die folgenden Neuerungen feststellen: die Stärkung des Europäischen Parlamentes, die Schaffung des Präsidenten des Europäischen Rates und des Hohen Vertreters der Union für die Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik. Und der Vertrag schafft mehr Demokratie und Bürgerbeteiligung.
    Keyword: EU, Vertrag von Lissabon, Europäisches Parlament, Kommission, Europäischer Rat, Grundrechte
    Author: Yi Do Park
    Poblication Year: 2011
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Women
    Les facteurs de la transformation du statut des femmes algériennes pendant la guerre d’Algérie
    Les facteurs de la transformation du statut des femmes algériennes pendant la guerre d’Algérie -l'extériorité et l’immanence- Les femmes algériennes se sont imposées ou posées, au fil des années à partir du début de XXe siècle, en un enjeu politique entre le pouvoir colonial et les nationalistes algériens. Elles représentaient une force sociale susceptible de faire basculer le devenir de l’Algérie. Dans ce cadre, cet article a pour but de clarifier les facteurs de la transformation du statut des femmes algériennes pendant la guerre d’Algérie aux points doubles : l‘extériorité et l’immanence. L‘extériorité, c’était la politique d’émancipation du gouvernement français à l’égard des femmes algériennes. L’immanence s’était présentée par le corps féminin dans résistance. L’émancipation des femmes algériennes pendant la guerre, a introduit des brèches dans l’ordre établi et suscité des espoirs. Elle a également, sans doute, contribué, par opposition au colonialisme, à concevoir leur évolution dans l’observance stricte de la loi musulmane et de la tradition. Grâce à ces facteurs, il était possible de créer un autre monde que celui dans lequel les femmes ont vécu, un monde où les relations entre les deux sexes seraient différentes, un monde où elles seraient les égales des hommes.
    Keyword: Guerre d’Algérie, Femmes algériennes, Statut juridique, Droit de vote, Corps féminin, FLN(Front de Libération Nationale)
    Author: Ki Chan Byeon
    Poblication Year: 2011
    Language: Korean
    Country: Algeria
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Anthropology
    A Study in Anthropology
    인류학연구 반 세계화운동과 이태리 나폴리 도시 이 논문의 목적은 세계화에 반대하는 운동과 이태리 나폴리 지역에서의 사회적이고 정치적인 전후사정 간의 관계를 규명하는 데 있다. 이 연구에 서는 크게 두 가지 질문에 대한 대답을 추구하고 있다. 첫째는 어떻게 나 폴리 지역에서의 사회적인 상황들이 지역 내의 항의 운동에 영향을 줄 수 있는가에 대한 것이고, 둘째는 그러한 항의 운동들이 나폴리 도시의 정치 적인 상황에 어떤 영향을 미치는가에 대한 것이라고 할 수 있다. 이 두 가 지 질문에 대해서 본 논문에서는 세 가지 요인들을 이용해 평가하려고 한 다. 첫 번째 요인은 가족, 범죄 그리고 교회의 역할에 대한 것이다. 두 번째 요인은 나폴리 도시에 대한 민족적인 서술과 이 도시의 사회적인 체계이 다. 마지막 세 번째 요인은 나폴리 도시에서의 정치적 운동과 저항 운동 간의 관계이다. 이러한 질문과 요인들에 대한 본 논문의 결론을 말하자면, 반 세계화운동과 나폴리 지역에서 일어나는 항의 운동 사이에서는 정치적 인 결과물이나 연속성을 찾아볼 수 없다는 것이다. 하지만, 나폴리 지역의 항의 운동은 젊은 계층들이 참여했다는 점에서 심리학적인 면에서 매우 중요한 역할을 했다고 볼 수 있다. 왜냐하면 그 운동은 나폴리 지역의 젊 은 중산층들에게 높은 수준의 범죄율과 권위 있는 위치에 있는 사람들의 부패 그리고 도시 내에서 보편적으로 발생하는 폭력에 대한 그들의 불만 과 좌절감을 표현하는 데 일조하고 있다고 할 수 있기 때문이다. 이 연구 는 저자가 나폴리에서 2002년 9월부터 2003년 7월까지 약 1년을 보내면서 참여 관찰과 질적 연구 중 하나인 대상자들과의 인터뷰를 통해 이루어졌 고, 또한 그 해에 나폴리 도시에서 반세계화 운동으로 조직된 다양한 정치 적인 항의운동에 참여하는 것을 통해 이루어졌다. 저자는 항의자들과 매 일의 보통 일상생활에서 관계를 맺으면서 조사하였고, 그 기간 동안 도시 의 항의자들과 일반 시민들 간의 100개 이상의 인터뷰 자료들을 수집할 수 있었다. 참고문헌들은 인류학과 정치학 두 분야 모두에서 사용되는 것으 로 인류학 분야에서는 Italo Pardo and Thomas Belmonte의 연구에서 많은 도움을 받았고, 정치학 분야에서는 Edward Banfield, Isaia Sales and Robert Putnam를 비롯한 많은 여러 학자들의 연구에서 도움을 얻었다.
    Keyword: 인류학, 나폴리 지역, 반 세계화주의, 항의 운동, 가족주의, 범 죄조직, 부패
    Author: Eduardo Zachary Albrecht
    Poblication Year: 2011
    Language: Korean
    Country: Italy
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Arabic Literature
    Modern Succession and Modification of Classic Islamic Literature
    Modern Succession and Modification of Classic Islamic Literature - Focusing on Narrative Technique Succession of The Thousand and One Nights in Turkish Modern Literature - Recently in domestic academic world, there is active research on modern succession and modification of classic literature, mythology and folktale, as well as history and chronicle. This is not only limited to Korea and there is visible research and experiment on succession and development of traditional culture in artistic circles all over the world. When converting a literature work as a textual value, it requires in-depth research and reception in the sense that it ultimately enrichens Korean literature’s soil and, furthermore, is a fruitful result that extends to world literature. Numerous intersecting points of textual interrelationship create a world: relationship between author and texts among an author and other authors, between author and society, and similarity and difference of literature work with world’s works. In order for Korean literature to reach world literature, there needs to be active effort to accept the characteristics in accordance to modern change as well as sincere research. This research is based on such discussions and examines cases where classic Islamic literature is absorbed and luxuriated for recreation along with characteristics of the descriptive technique of The Thousand and One Nights that is used in the works of three Turkish authors. Among structures of framework novel, Aziz Nesin’s Yaşar shows the form of narration used in circular framework, in other words target framework that aims to exchange social enjoyment as members of social community in the sense that various events internally take place. Ihsan Oktay Anar’s Tales of Efrasiyab is close to target framework in the sense of Scheherazade conversing every night to extend her life and, at the same time, close to circular framework in regards to many internal stories being placed in an external story. In addition, aside from the main character’s journey, Black Book portrays a circular framework where various columns are set as internal stories to create one framework. In this sense, it was confirmed that each works have different frameworks and are diversely modified, but such structures of framework novel was still being succeeded in modern literature works in the form of seeking to re-write. In other words, it can be interpreted that classics still take life today and hold their value. As many excellent literature works of today prove, there are many cases where the continual lives of classic works are modified and recreated to maintain their connection in all aspects. In the same way, Turkey has accumulated much classic works due to history of Osman Turk to hold its position as a source of restoration and inspiration and it is the present situation where many
    Keyword: Classic, The Thousand and One Nights, Modern Succession, Acculturation, Turkish Literature, Literature Tradition
    Author: Nan A Lee
    Poblication Year: 2011
    Language: Korean
    Country: Turkey
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Spanish Literature
    Reflexiones sobre la magnificencia y la simbolización barroca en los autos de fe de la Edad Moderna
    Reflexiones sobre la magnificencia y la simbolización barroca en los autos de fe de la Edad Moderna En la Edad Moderna la Inquisición española se ponía frente al pueblo a través de la ceremonia llamada auto de fe, que era una condena y un castigo severo contra los herejes, al mismo tiempo que el otorgamiento del perdón para los penitentes. Sin embargo, para las personas corrientes los autos de fe se identificaban frecuentemente con los sambenitos o la hoguera e incluso como una forma de locura colectiva. Los autos de fe evolucionaron de un rito y proceso sencillo a una ceremonia compleja y magnífica, como se comprueba en el auto de fe de Madrid de 1680. Elementos visuales, como la Cruz Verde, los cirios blancos, los sambenitos, la coroza, o la procesión, etc. se combinaron con un tablado bien preparado en todos los detalles, que proporcionaba un fuerte impacto a todos los presentes. Esto posibilitaba la transmisión de mensajes doctrinales a través de imágenes visuales y símbolos y conllevaba el fin pedagógico de imponer la fe ortodoxa a los espectadores. El método, llamado pedagogía del miedo, se reflejaba en todos los procesos del auto de fe. Al mismo tiempo, esta ceremonia tomaba la forma de una fiesta popular y de triunfo de la religión católica, puesto que se realizaba en el espacio público de la plaza mayor y en un día festivo.
    Keyword: Auto de fe, inquisición española, imágenes, pedagogía de miedo, Fiesta
    Author: Eun Hae Lee
    Poblication Year: 2011
    Language: Korean
    Country: Spain
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Sociology
    Change of Party System in Italy
    Change of Party System in Italy -Realignment to Competitive Bipartism of ‘The Second Republic’- The italian party system of ‘First Republic’ was established as the incomplete bipartism in 1970s through the polarized pluralism of 1960s by the effects of proportional electoral system with a preferential voting as institutional factor and by exclusion and coexistence of the Communist Party as actoral factor under conditions of the Cold War and the strong Catholic. However it began to be dealigned through weakening and desolution of the both political subcultures and strengthening of the disgust to politics and political parties since the late 1970s and was finally dealigned through the change of election system in 1993. Then the party system of the italian ‘Second Republic’ has been transformed in competitive bipartism by the critical electoral realignment through majority electoral system in 1994 and by secular dealignment through the establishment of new political subcultures, center-left and center-right. Under the competitive bipartism the government can be replaced and a single party or an electoral alliance can form a stable majority in parliament. And it is prospected that the consolidation process of this bipartism began just before and after 2008 election, because the two great single parties were established.
    Keyword: Italian Party System, Competitive Bipartism, Dealignment, Realignment, Consolidation
    Author: Byung Kee Jung
    Poblication Year: 2011
    Language: Korean
    Country: Italy
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Human Geography
    The Mediterranean Studies from the Standpoint of Area Studies’ Methodological Paradigm
    The Mediterranean Studies from the Standpoint of Area Studies’ Methodological Paradigm It is quite evident that constant efforts to define the disciplinarity of ‘Area Studies’ have been made by many scholars during the half a century. Among them, Professor Robert B. Hall by whom the field of ‘Area Studies’ was pioneered have tried to define and conceptualize it. He was acknowledged as one of those who contributed much to the development of ‘Area Studies’. He stated and emphasized the four objectives of its studies: 1) world knowledge, 2) cooperative research and its integration, 3) cross-cultural understanding, and 4) elimination of handicaps in social science research. Recently, the importance of the Mediterranean area as ‘Area’ unit has been concerned. Although that area was already the subject of scholars’ study and research, nowadays that area is highlighted as an analytical area unit for the cultural exchange between the East and the West. On this, this paper is performed by examining and analyzing the Mediterranean are as ‘area unit’. In order to do, the above mentioned area studies’ methodological approaches will be reviewed and applied to it. The concepts, etymology, scopes and historical background of the Mediterranean Area will be inquired and investigated from the standpoint of Area Studies’ paradigm. Therefore, the task of its conceptualization and defining will be attempted and open to argument.
    Keyword: Area Studies, Mediterranean Studies, Mediterranean Area, The Middle East, Islam
    Author: Byoung Joo Hah
    Poblication Year: 2011
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Spanish Literature
    La aproximación morfo-sintáctica a la Construcción de Gerundio en español interpretada como un causante interior del Predicado Complejo
    La aproximación morfo-sintáctica a la Construcción de Gerundio en español interpretada como un causante interior del Predicado Complejo En cuanto a la CGE(Construcción de Gerundio en español, Lagunilla(1999: 3447) describe que los llamados gerundios predicativos modifican al verbo y al SN sujeto u objeto de la oración en la que se hallan integrados, como lo hacen el adjetivo y otras categorías de naturaleza predicativa, mientras que los gerundios adjuntos modifican solo al verbo y pueden expresar varios contenidos como instrumento, causa, condición, consecuencia, etc., por lo que esta autora considera el SG-causa(sintagma de gerundio con la interpretación de causa) como adjunto. Por otro lado, París(2003) argumenta que el SG-causa presenta la propiedad de complemento, insistiendo en que el SG-causa aparece seleccionado por el verbo principal debido a la propiedad léxica del verbo causativo psicológico. En este sentido, según París, el SG-causa no debe clasificarse como adjunto. En este trabajo intentaremos mostrar que el SG-causa es uno de los segmentos que forman un predicado complejo y actúa como un causante interno dentro de su estructura configuracional en el sentido de Pesetsky(1995). Finalmente, sobre la base de esta propiedad configuracional, ofreceremos un análisis de la Materialización Nula del núcleo en la secuencia [CAUSp + SD-CAUSANTE] bajo el marco de la Morfología Distribuida de Halle y Marantz(1993) y Harley y Noyer(1997, 1998).
    Keyword: Gerundio, Materialización Nula, Causante Interno
    Author: Jae Yong Kwak
    Poblication Year: 2011
    Language: Korean
    Country: Spain
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    History Theory
    Theory of “East Asian Mediterranean Sea” and Mediterranean Feature of the Yellow Sea
    Theory of “East Asian Mediterranean Sea” and Mediterranean Feature of the Yellow Sea In recent years, Korea and Japan named a wide range of East Asian waters including the East Sea, Yellow Sea, South China Sea, and Okhotsk Sea as East Asian Mediterranean Sea and presented East Asian Mediterranean Sea Theory that explains historical developments of the East Asia. Geography and oceanography define that a mediterranean sea is surrounded by lands, and at the same time, is linked to the ocean through a few narrow streams. The definition goes on to claim that it does not have its own current and that it crosses waters of different salt concentration and temperature. The East Asian Mediterranean Sea does not fit into such geographical conditions and features, lacks cultural diversity and interrelationship, and humane characteristics. The Yellow Sea of the East Asian Mediterranean Sea is not a perfect match with typical mediterranean geographical features, but has oceanographic features of a mediterranean sea in part. In addition, the Yellow Sea was a channel for political, cultural, and economic exchanges in ancient East Asia. Different cultures of China, Korea, and Japan met thorough the Yellow Sea. This means the Yellow Sea partially has geographic and cultural characteristics of the Mediterranean and deserves to be called “semi-East Asian Mediterranean Sea”
    Keyword: East Asian Mediterranean Sea, the Yellow Sea, Cultural Diversity, Oceanography, Semi-East Asian Mediterranean Sea
    Author: Deok Young Kwon
    Poblication Year: 2011
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Spanish Literature
    En Torno a la Dimensión Visual de la Novela por Influencia del Cine
    En Torno a la Dimensión Visual de la Novela por Influencia del Cine -el Uso del Presente de Indicativo y la Actualizacion del Pasado- El cine, que arrastra a lo largo de su existencia una enorme deuda con la literatura, alcanza una maduración propia y desde algunas décadas atrás, es capaz de devolver a su antiguo mecenas lo que debe. Así pues, los narradores vanguardistas, impresionados con el vertiginoso cambio de imágenes sucesivas del cine, perciben en él un modelo teórico y una fuente de inspiración técnica y temática. Dicha convivencia interartística produce además, y como consecuencia, un cambio relevante en nuestra forma de percibir los relatos; esto es, con el tiempo nos hemos acostumbrado a ver contar historias, en lugar de escucharlas narrar como en el siglo XIX. Por ello, en la obra no se percibe tanto la preocupación de su autor por contar una anécdota ni la aventura de sus personajes; lo que más le interesa es registrar tal cual un trozo de la vida de la gente sin previas explicaciones de carácter introspectivo. De modo que, el narrador tradicional, que se apresura en facilitar información, pierde terreno a favor de uno más moderno. El arte de escribir consiste ahora en presentar los cuadros y los tipos mediante unos cortes y empalmes secos, como el montaje en un filme; lo que en el mundo literario se considera como una forma de escribir cinematográfica. En España el estudio de dicho diálogocine-novela adquiere supreponderancia apartir de la década de los 80, empezando por las obras de la generación del Medio Siglo. El presente trabajo se centrará prioritariamente en los diferentes recursos narrativos que, por influencia del séptimo arte, han contribuido a incrementar la dimensión visual de las novelas contemporáneas. Asimismo se hará una revisión del uso del presente de indicativo, recurso narrativo mediante el cual la novela consigue -teóricamente- actualizar el pasado a modo fílmico. Según la crítica, la técnica, además de aportar mayor visualidad al texto literario, aumenta en el lector una sensación de inmediatez, la de estar viendo lo que se lee. Veremos cuáles son las limitaciones que el recurso alberga para hacer realidad, lo que la teoría destaca.
    Keyword: Generación del Medio Siglo, Influencia del Cine, Diálogo Cine-novela, Convivencia Interartística, Dimensión Visual, Presente del Indicativo, Actualizar el Pasado, Sensación de Inmediatez
    Author: Kwang Hee Kim
    Poblication Year: 2011
    Language: Korean
    Country: Spain
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    French Literature
    provençal Iconography and Family Romance in Marius et Jeannette
    에 나타나는 가족 로맨스와 프로방스의 도상학 프로방스의 대표적인 영화감독인 로베르 게디귀앙은 삼십 년에 걸친 작 품활동을 통해 자신의 고향인 마르세이유의 지방색과 그 곳의 문화적 정 체성을 부각시켜왔다. 그의 독창성은 전통과 현재를 넘나드는 자신만의 작품세계에 담겨 있다. 마르셀 파뇰에서 시작되어 1930년대 프랑스 영화 황금기의 한 부분을 장식했던 프랑스 남부 영화(méridional cinema)의 전통 에 기대면서, 동시에 현시점에서 마르세유의 포스트모던 도시로서의 정체 성을 재현하는 그의 태도는 비평적 성공과 흥행 인지도를 고루 불러왔다. 이 논문은 이러한 게디귀앙의 전통과 변주의 핵심에 있는 두 가지 요소 를 가지고 그의 1997년작 를 분석하고자 한다. 첫번 째 요소는, 파뇰 이후로 프랑스 남부 영화의 원형이 되어온 가족 로맨스의 재현에 주목하고자 한다. 파뇰의 영화가 세대 간의 문제를 ‘아버지의 이름 으로’ 해소하는 오이디푸스적 구조를 따르는데 반해, 게디귀앙은 추락하는 아버지의 지위와 부성의 실종으로 얼룩진 가족을 내세워 ‘아버지의 타자 성’을 인식하게 하는데 초점을 맞추어 살펴보고자 한다. 두 번째 요소는, 게 디귀앙의 영화가 마르세이유의 문화적 코드로 나열된 프로방스의 도상학이 라는 점에 주목한다. 고대도시 마르세유의 창조 신화에서부터 전통 요리로 이루어진 만찬에 이르기까지, 그리고 여기에 프랑스 남부 사투리에 대한 애 착과 프로방스 문학에의 경의와 인용이 더해져, 는 게디귀앙이 다루고자 했던 고향의 정체성과 그 변화하는 양상을 생생하게 기록해내고 있다. 이 논문은 위의 두 가지 요소-가족 로맨스와 프로방스의 도상학-사이 의 상호관련성을 연구하는 데 목적을 두고 있다. 먼저 90년대 이후 마르세 유의 계속된 경기침체와 늘어나는 이민자 세대로 인한 갈등 속에서 게디 귀앙이 모색하는 재구성된 가족(famille recomposée)의 모델, 즉, 타자에 대 한 관용과 환대로 확대 재해석되는 혼종(métissage) 가족의 재운용에 대한 이해를 모색하고자 한다. 더불어, 가부장적 아버지의 소멸이 어떻게 프랑 스의 탈중앙화 하는 현실에 대한 알레고리로 작용하는지를 살피는 데 중 점을 두고, 에 재현된 커뮤니티의 지역성과 그것의 특수성의 가치에 대해 성찰해 보고자 한다.
    Keyword: 마르세이유, 마르셀 파뇰, 장 르누아르, 로베르 게디귀앙, 가족 로맨스, 오이디푸스 구조, 타자
    Author: Eun Jee Park
    Poblication Year: 2011
    Language: Korean
    Country: France
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Spanish Literature
    The Polish Rider by Antonio Muñoz Molina
    The Polish Rider by Antonio Muñoz Molina -The Past History Restored by the Construction of the Personages- The Polish Rider, published by the Spanish writer Antonio Muñoz Molina in 1991 has been acclaimed as the greatest Spanish novel since the demise of the late Generalissimo Francisco Franco. The story is about how the hero of the novel, Manuel, a simultaneous interpreter, falls in love with his teenage friend, Nadia and how they recall their pasts. The story recounts how he tracks down his family history, finds his identity and returns to his homeland, Spain. The protagonist describes what social turmoil the members of a family endured in a chronological order from the viewpoint of the present. The description encompasses the first Spanish Republic, Spanish-American War, the second Spanish Republic, Spanish Civil War, dictatorship by Generalissimo Franco, his death and transitional period, and the period of mature democracy in modern Spain. The work, although its theme is the restoration of one man’s identity, can be said to have shown the roots and tradition of Spain’s present democracy by conjuring up its tumultuous recent history.
    Keyword: The Polish Rider, Antonio Muñoz Molina, Spanish Civil War, Spanish Novel, History in the Novel
    Author: Gum Young An
    Poblication Year: 2011
    Language: Korean
    Country: Spain
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Spanish Literature
    La Escritura Estratégica Sobre Misoginia de Conversos
    La Escritura Estratégica Sobre Misoginia de Conversos En este tesis, intento buscar un aspecto de transculturalidad en una época de convivencia de Edad Media a través de maqama hebreo. En realidad, la literatura hebrea se sitúa entre la árabe y la cristiana en la Peninsula Ibérica. Es que la hebrea se considera como una imitación de la árabe. Pero en realidad, la hebrea no sólo es un reflejo de imagen multicultural de España sino también se hace una base de la literatura popular del Siglo de Oro con el uso de romances vernáculos como castillano y catalán. La dualidad entre lo secular y lo sano de las poesías de Nagrela influye en la poesía mística del siglo XVI. Al mismo tiempo, el maqama de Jaume Roig no es sino una obra original diferente del maqama de los árabes. Aunque el protagonista, ego del autor, blasfema contra conversas, separándose de ellas, el maqama sugestiona una inquietud de los conversos incluso a sí mismo. Los conversos se riesgan a ser perseguidos por la Inquisición alrededor de la Reconquista. Teniendo en cuenta de la identidad de Jaume Roig, la misoginia de su obra es otra cara para fraguar su verdadera identidad. En aquel tiempo, el cristiano tenía un profundo prejuicio deformado de los conversos que es configurado como una imagen de bruja. Roig revela prejuicio de los conversos sin disfraz, criticando la impotencia de los cristianos viejos a través de la escritura estratégica sobre la misoginia. En la Edad Media, los conversos critican el orden jerárquico, como en la novela picaresca de Siglo de Oro, los protagonistas blasfeman contra el valor anacrónico frente al punto de vista materialista.
    Keyword: La Misoginia, Transculturalidad, Converso, Convivencia, Jaume Roig
    Author: Ju In Lim
    Poblication Year: 2011
    Language: Korean
    Country: Spain
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    Restrictions of the EU’s Mediterranean policy
    Restrictions of the EU’s Mediterranean policy -Cooperation and Exclusion caused by Dual Purposes- The independent variable to bring a matter of nature on of European Union and Mediterranean states is the European Union’s duplicity with limited cooperation and exclusion to the Mediterranean regions. In 1970s, the purposes on European Union’s Mediterranean policy were differentiated with European states and others in the Mediterranean region and give preferential treatments to southern European states that will belong to the Union in the near future. This aspect still holds good until today. European Union’s Mediterranean policy is combined enlargement policy to the European state that will be member states and partnership relations to the non European States. The results are differentiated policy for the Turkey and other Mediterranean states. Therefore the higher relations with Euro-Mediterranean Partnership between European Union and Non European Mediterranean states is nothing but a rhetoric statement, which proposes based on exclusive geopolitical interests of the European Union.
    Keyword: European Union, Mediterranean Policy, Neighbourhood Policy, Treaty of Lisbon, Common Security and Defence Policy, Mediterranean Relations
    Author: Byung Joon Song
    Poblication Year: 2011
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Italian Literature
    An Exploration in Search of Mediterranean placeness and of the Modern Cinema
    An Exploration in Search of Mediterranean placeness and of the Modern Cinema -Focused on Journey to Italy by R. Rossellini- What counts most on the whole in Journey to Italy(Viaggio In Italia) by R. Rossellini is not realism but reality. The environment and the space here are ‘found’ along with humans(actors) instead of being established from the beginning. Thus, his films necessarily take a form of documentaries. It is a journey on which his characters gradually find their environment and the world they face. Rossellini keeps his eyes on the characters’ autonomous movements and actions in the world as it is. He prepares no well-knit scenario and does not predetermine actors’ playing. This attitude is coherent with the form of ‘journey’ or a kind of road movie style that he chose. It shows one of the most innovative cinematic forms. Rossellini has deep attachment toward Naples as a location for shooting. Above all, he would like to show the city that keeps some spiritual ambience, a sense of eternity, and a sensuous world that are disappearing from the modern age. A variety of places including Cumae and Capri are explored, and the exploration eventually reaches its culmination at the ruins of Pompei that Rossellini cherishes most. Narratively, there seems to be few connecting factors between these places. However, we can find another logic not based on reason, and another placeness, in that the sensorial(optical, auditive and tactile) / perceptive interactions between the observer (Katherine, especially) and the places increase over time. The images stimulate our reflections, and they are not conventional or typical but “the logos in its nascence.” In this context, Journey to Italy becomes an essay film. It is an unrestrained ‘toga’ film (against the conventionally well-made Anglo-American films) as Rossellini put it, meaning a creative Mediterranean film.
    Keyword: Roberto Rossellini, Journey to Italy, Naples, Mediterranean Placeness, Toga Film
    Author: Hye Shin Kim
    Poblication Year: 2011
    Language: Korean
    Country: Italy
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Arab History
    A Study on Dhimmi System and Tolerance of Islam
    A Study on Dhimmi System and Tolerance of Islam In the 7th century, Islam expanded rapidly its forces from the Arabian Peninsula, and occupied the territories of Byzantine Empire and Sassanian dynasty, those who lived in this area came under the domination of Islam. A small number of Arab Muslims are rulers, Many residents were non-Muslim. With the gradual conversion of these non-Muslims became Muslims, and they were replaced by primary layers of the Islamic Empire. However, some in keeping with their religion and culture to protect their identity. In the Holy Quran Jewish, Christian, Savi is called as the people of the Holy Book and Islam called them as a dhimmi. In addition, Islam intergrated State and religious community, and did not distinguish ruler’s realm between God’s realm unlike the Christian countries. In chapter 2, Dealt with what is the definition of dhimmi? and whether dhimmi belong to any class? In chapter 3, Dealt with whether any discrimination measures against dhimmi. In chapter 4, Dealt with what did dhimmi in Islamic area and how could exchange their position? In chapter 5, Dealt with dhimmi received religious tolerance in the Islamic area, but Iberian muslims received religious persecution in the christian iberia country. Eventually Islam is a tolerant religion.
    Keyword: Islam, Jews, Christian, Dhimmi, non-Muslim, Muslim
    Author: Eui Gab Hwang
    Poblication Year: 2011
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Science of Religion
    A Comparative Study on Shema' and Shahadah in Judaism and Islam
    A Comparative Study on Shema' and Shahadah in Judaism and Islam. The present study tries to see how Shema' and Shahadah came to be in Judaism and Islam and, to observe how they were understood and practiced in the Jewish and Islamic way of life since their birth. The two monotheistic belief systems in the eastern Meditteranean area, Judaism and Islam, known as 'Abrahamic Faith', have their own confessions of faith called Shema' and Shahadah. The two seem coessential in therms of their confessional contents and are relevant each other in the use of their terminology. However, Shema' and Shahadah demonstrate some differences in religious functions and roles. The Jewis texts, Miqra' and Talmud( Mishnah and Gemara ), show that Shema' was given as a formula from the beginning in the early stage of the national identity formation. The original function of Shema' may well be understood as educational exclusively for the Israelite, if according to the texts of Miqra'( i.e., the Old Testament ) alone. Shema' later developed gradually in hundreds years of time into a core part of the Jewish daily prayers. The Islamic texts, Qur'an and Hadith uncover that the present Shahadah formula is a post-Qur'anic one. Main contents of Shahadah appear separately in Qur'an and the full formula is found later in Hadith. Shahadah in the texts of Hadith occurs in different contexts of propagation, education and funeral. This shows that Shahadah became an essential element in every sphere of Muslim life. The Talmudic texts show that for generations Shema' became a most important subject of discussions and interpretations for its practical adaption in the Jewish daily life. The present study provides some comparative features of the Jewish Shema' and the Islamic Shahadah but the textual relevance of influences between the two still remain for further researches.
    Keyword: Eastern Mediterranean Area, Judaism, Islam, Shema', Shahadah, Miqrq', Qur'an, Talmud, Hadith
    Author: Seoung Yun Shin
    Poblication Year: 2011
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Science of Religion
    Maimonidean Messiah and the Messianic Era
    람밤(마이모니데스)의 메시아사상과 메시아시대 메시아사상은 유대교를 이해하는 데 있어서 핵심되는 교리 중 하나이다. 이 논문은 4가지 질문과 함께 현대 유대교의 메시아사상의 근간을 만든 람 밤(Maimonides)의 메시아사상과 메시아 시대를 재구성해보는 것을 목표로 한다. 1) 람밤의 메시아사상이 어떻게 형성되고 표현되었나? 2) 람밤의 철 학적 사고구조에서 메시아시대의 도래를 위한 인간의 노력은 필요한가? 아니면 신의 절대적인 예정하심인가? 3) 람밤이 그리는 메시아는 어떤 메 시아인가? 4) 람밤의 메시아사상은 전통적 메시아사상과 반대인가?
    Keyword: 람밤, 마이모니데스, 메시아, 메시아사상, 유대교
    Author: Jung Hwa Choi
    Poblication Year: 2011
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Science of Religion
    Jerusalem in the Holy Land of Ancient Christian Maps
    Jerusalem in the Holy Land of Ancient Christian Maps Jerusalem, the city holy to Judaism, Christianity and Islam, has been the subject of numerous volumes of history, chronicles, biblical exegesis, and itineraries. Many of these books included maps and views of Jerusalem, whose number grew continuously with the development of the printing press. Before the advent of print, maps of Jerusalem, like other maps, had been used to illustrate manuscripts, often on vellum, or had been created as wall or floor mosaics. Few such maps are still extant. But from the end of the fifteenth century, when the first printed map of Jerusalem appeared, until the beginning of the nineteenth century, when maps began to be based on accurate surveys, over 300 maps of Jerusalem were designed and printed. Early maps, in contrast to those of modern times, are generally artistic sketches and drawings rather than products of accurate survey and measurement. In some of these sketches the artists sought to present a faithful representation of their subjects, while in others the map is merely a graphic expression of creative inspiration and of the artists’ imagination. Among the maps of Jerusalem there are both realistic and imaginary ones. In those maps whose draughtsmen attempted to present a true picture of Jerusalem, one finds reliable details that provide valuable information about the sites depicted; such maps constitute important historical sources. They depict the city’s fortifications, walls, towers, and gates, its churches, monasteries, mosques, and minarets, and thus we can learn about the nature of the sites and their role in the past. In contrast, other maps reflect the perspective and sentiments of their creators more than they depict the places shown. This article will show these maps of Jerusalem, realistic as well as impressionistic, and discuss a process of changing from a geography of idea to a real geography, from their beginning in the sixth century to the first modern and accurate ones, created in the nineteenth century. And I also view maps as a kind of language which have its own cartographic grammar.
    Keyword: Ancient Christian Maps, Maps of Jerusalem, Holy Land Maps, Cartography
    Author: Chang Mo Choi
    Poblication Year: 2011
    Language: Korean
    Country: Israel
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    The Political Significance of Emperor Cult in Neokoros
    The Political Significance of Emperor Cult in Neokoros Emperor cult was firstly performed for Augustus, who subjugated disorder in the late period of the Roman Republic and resolutely carried through the transition to a new political system. And it showed different characters in the eastern empire and in the western. Usually the emperor cult in the eastern empire is regarded as religious, while in the western as political. Religion, however, could not be separated from politics in ancient times, especially in the eastern empire. That is to say, the emperor cult in the eastern Greece was traditionally based upon religion and at the same time appeared as strongly political in the system of neokoros. By examining the characters of neokoros, therefore, this paper intends to show that the emperor cult in the eastern empire had both religious character and political one. Thus in chapter 2, it will observe the base on which the eastern emperor cult was established, the pattern how it appeared, and its religious nature. In chapter 3, this paper will examine the meaning of the title neokoros and how its meaning changed, as well as three major duties, which neokoros was expected to carry out, such as the performance of sacrificial cult, the financial responsibilities, and the administrative ones. The title neokoros was traditionally related to temple priests. In the period of Roman empire, however, it changed to the title of the city where the emperor temple was placed. Thus cities built competitively emperor temples and struggled to receive the title neokoros. In chapter 4, this article will examine the procedures which cities followed to acquire the title. On these procedures, koinon, the senate, and the measurable figures of the city exerted their influence. In the last chapter, the competition of cities to be neokoros and the privileges which the cities would enjoyed after being titled neokoros will be examined. Finally it will show that neokoros did not play as a divine worship to revere emperor as a deity but as a political, diplomatic and economical mechanism in relation to the honour of their city.
    Keyword: Emperor Cult, Neokoros, Emperor Temple, Koinon, Competition of Eastern Greek Cities
    Author: Hwal Lan Kim
    Poblication Year: 2012
    Language: Korean
    Country: Italy
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    The Europeanism of the Franco’s Regime and European Economic Community(EEC)
    The Europeanism of the Franco’s Regime and European Economic Community(EEC) A new government of technocrats in 1957 and the stabilization and liberalization plan in 1959 introduced a simultaneous liberalization of domestic markets and international economic relations, that motivated Spain’s access to Europe that was in a process of integration after the so-called ‘Schuman Plan’. But Spain’s application for associate status was rejected by the ‘Birkelbach report’ that represents an early expression of democratic conditionality. In spite of this, Franco’s Spain approached Brussels once more in 1964, though without explicitly alluding to the associate membership matter. This enabled EEC to reply, with a rather modest agreement to examine the economic problems posed for Spain by European integration with a view to finding possible solutions. The outcome of this was the Preferential Agreement signed with Spain in 1970, so called a third way with a certain degree of political consideration. Not only did it explain that the european integration was characterized by the realism and functionalism, but also it showed that the europeanism of the Franco’s regime was limited to the economic sphere. It was proved by the ‘Contubernio de Munich’ and the ‘Proceso de Burgos’.
    Keyword: EEC, Technocrats, Associate Membership, Birkelbach Report, Preferential Agreement
    Author: Eun Hae Lee
    Poblication Year: 2012
    Language: Korean
    Country: Spain
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Greek Literature
    A Journey of the Greek Prometheus to the Arab
    A Journey of the Greek Prometheus to the Arab -Borrowing from the Myth of Prometheus and Its’ Arabic TransformationMany Greek myths were borrowed in the lots of Arabic poems in modern times. In fact the Greek myths were tabooed because of their gods’ tales. In the Arabic poetry built up on Islam that believes in the Only God Allah, another gods were naturally tabooed. Meantime some poets in the beginnings of twenties introduced the Greek myths in their poems. But the full-scaled start was from the 1950’s Tammuzian poets who wrote their many poems by the myths and prototypes having the image of the death and revival. They want to express their own and their countrymen’s hopes for the revival from their collapse and hopelessness through the Greek myths of the death and revival. Especially, some poets borrowed some images from the myth of Prometheus. They were the Tusian poet Abu al-Qasim al-Shabbi, the Iraqi poet Abdu al-Wahab al-Bayyati, and the Palestinian-Iraqi poet Jabra Ibrahim Jabra. First, Shabbi expressed his own sufferings of his heart disease and his counterforces through Prometheus’ eternal punishment and his pecked liver. And also he borrowed the image of the air king from the eagle of Zeus and declared to live as a grand-looking person like an eagle. Next, Bayyati borrowed the image of chained Prometheus to express the suppressed freedom of Iraq. And hetook the cruel image of the eagle which pecked the liver of Prometheus to show the dictatorship and his puppets which suppressed himself and his countrymen through the terrorism. Finally, Jabra borrowed the sacrifice and endure of Prometheus which stole the fire from Zeus and after that was punished to the endless pain but didn’t regret at all. And it’s to symbolize the unyielding resistance of Algerians which resisted against the French trusteeship for 130 years. And also he borrowed the Zeus to show the terror and extortion of the French imperialism and borrowed the eagle of Zeus’ errand to express the cruel puppet government of the French imperialism. Like this some modern Arabic poets effectively and successfully expressed their sufferings and the hope for their life through the myth of Prometheus.
    Keyword: Greek myths, Prometheus, borrowing, transformation, Abu al-Qasim al-Shabbi, Abdu al-Wahab al-Bayyati, Jabra Ibrahim Jabra
    Author: Byung Pil Lim
    Poblication Year: 2012
    Language: Korean
    Country: Greece
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    Mutual Understandings between Korea and Turkey
    Mutual Understandings between Korea and Turkey -Focusing on the Country Narratives in Social Studies Textbooks in Both CountriesThis paper compares the contents of Korean and Turkish social studies textbooks on both countries to examine how the perceptions of two countries on each other are represented in the textbooks. Textbooks are closely related to the political and power structures of a country. In this sense, textbooks are social narratives. As such, the country narratives about Turkey found in the textbooks of Korea are one of the official ways Korea perceives Turkey and the country narratives about Korea found in the Turkish textbooks play an important role in how Turkey understands Korea. In Korean textbooks, Turkey is introduced as part of the non-Western world in the dualistic world view between the West and the non-West. They describe the history of Turkey from the time of the Seljuk dynasty, to the Ottoman Empire, and to the Republic of Turkey and the current affairs of contemporary Turkish society in detail. However, they do not consider the historical significance of Turkey from a world history perspective. Turkey is an Islamic country with historical and cultural traditions of the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires and is currently being considered to join the European Union. Therefore, being on the border, Turkey has features of both the West and the non-West and it is difficult to understand Turkey from the perspective of only one-side. On the other hand, the Korean War is the most often mentioned topic about Korea in the Turkish textbooks. In general, they describe the Korean War as an international historical event paying attentions to the cause, the unfolding of the war, and the aftermath. However, they tend to emphasize the Turkish contribution to the Korean War. The Turkish textbooks explain that the Korean War was an attempt to stop the spread of Communism and to keep peace. Therefore, the textbooks explain that Turkey’s participation was not only part of the Turkish history but also an attempt to realize the ideals of the Republic of Turkey. Accordingly, the level of perception found in the textbooks of Korea and Turkey on each other is uneven. This is because textbooks are social products reflecting the understanding of power, politics, social ideas and values of the society. While textbooks reflect the official understanding of the society they continuously reflect the changes of perception at the same time.
    Keyword: Korean Social Studies Textbook, Turkish Social Studies Textbook, Seljuk Turk, Ottoman Empire, Republic of Turkey, Korean War
    Author: Jae Yun Jeong
    Poblication Year: 2012
    Language: Korean
    Country: Turkey
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    European History
    The Historical Significance of Educational Thought in Quintilian’ Institutio Oratoria, 1.1-3
    The Historical Significance of Educational Thought in Quintilian’ Institutio Oratoria, 1.1-3. Quintilian, the author of Institutio Oratoria. is a Roman successful teacher of rhetoric. His Institutio Oratoria is a source of ancient education and particularly of western ancient rhetoric. It was a textbook to educate perfectus orator. He defines perfectus orator as vir bonus who not only has exceptional powers of speech, but also all the virtues of character. He is the product of education acting on nature. So I think that his opinions of the pre-rhetoric stages of education are considered more important than later material. This article aimed at investigating his opinions of the Institutio Oratoria, 1, 1-3. and demanding the meaning and importance of his ideas in the history of western education. The gist of what he said is as follows. Firstly, he claims that all human beings have an inherent tendency to virtus and first education, speaking training should begin when baby. So nurces, mother, and peers are important to their language training, to say nothing of father. Secondly, he advises to the boy entrust to school and teacher, and not to keep him studying at home when he became 7 years old. He advocates the school as a good condition to educate the boy. For he can learn much more by the competition in good faith Thirdly he opposes flogging a pupil, though it is an accepted practice at that time. His main ideas are very humanistic and modern. Perhaps they will give us some hints to solve our very serious education issues.
    Keyword: Quintilianus, Institutio Oratoria, Orator, Rhetor, Declamatio
    Author: Deog Su Kim
    Poblication Year: 2012
    Language: Korean
    Country: Italy
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    Il rogo tra le palme of Augusta. P. Violà and Fascist ‘Politica Islamica’ in Colonial Libya
    Il rogo tra le palme of Augusta. P. Violà and Fascist ‘Politica Islamica’ in Colonial Libya This article takes into consideration in which Fascist Italy reckoned itself in relation to the southern Mediterranean, and specifically its perceptions of Muslim culture in Italian colonial Libya. Examining Augusta Perricone Violà 1932 novel Il rogo tra le palme, it tells how Italian women writers allowed the ‘politica islamica’ that identified various Italian perception of Muslim-Italian relations at that time. Just as the ‘politica islamica’ supposed Italian relationships to Islam as a form of cooperation based upon shared values and the collective scope of a highly idealized Muslim-Italian society, female writers at this time also imagined new relations of Muslim-Italian cultural kinship. This perception of cultural commonality, which classified Italian discourses of the late 1920s and 1930s, can be seen in the way that Violà’s novel turns to Islam as an important allegorical source of Italian women’s self-fashioning. While past scholarship has focused on the way Italian fascist women emulated Muslim women as exemplary mothers, here it is argued that this novel offers a more dynamic cultural imaginary
    Keyword: Cultural Exchange, Acculturation, Italian women writers, ‘Politica Islamica’, Augusta Perricone Violà, Fascist Italy, Libya
    Author: Hee Jung Kim
    Poblication Year: 2012
    Language: Korean
    Country: Italy
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Spanish Literature
    Las Propiedades Morfo-sintácticas del Complemento Indirecto no Argumental de los Verbos Deadjetivales en Español
    Las Propiedades Morfo-sintácticas del Complemento Indirecto no Argumental de los Verbos Deadjetivales en Español Campos(1999) considera complementos indirectos a aquellos sintagmas nominales que forman parte de la estructura argumental de un verbo que aparece con un complemento directo, con el cual se relaciona. Gutiérrez Ordóñez(1999), siguiendo la mísma línea que Campos(1999), Demonte(1994) y Strozer(1976), describe que los predicados de transferencia seleccionan complemento indirecto argumental, mientras que los verbos de ‘creación’, ‘destrucción’ o ‘preparación’ pueden seleccionar opcionalmente los complementos indirectos no argumentales, involucrados en la acción del verbo. Gumiel et al.(1999) argumentan que los verbos deadjetivales como ‘engordar’, ‘agrandar’ y ‘ampliar’ comparten algunas propiedades cruciales con los predicados secundarios resultativos suponiendo que los verbos deadjetivales y los predicados secundarios resultativos comparten una misma estructura. Ellos insisten en que los sufijos ‘en-/a-/∅’ ocupan en la posición nuclear del SP en la estructura sintáctica del verbo deadjetival, tal y como suponen Hale y Keyser(1993) sobre la preposición locativa abstracta con respecto a la estructura sintáctica léxica del verbo denominal. En este trabajo intentaremos mostrar que los SSDD dativos en la construcción de los verbos deadjetivales son complementos indirectos no argumentales debido a la propiedad configuracional y los sufijos no tienen nada que ver con la preposición locativa ni con la estructura analítica del verbo deadjetival. Queremos ofrecer una sugerencia alternativa argumentando que el núcleo del SGrado abstracto es un locus de grado de Estado debido a la característica de los predicados deadjetivales y de su raíz léxica. Destacamos que el clítico dativo relacionado con el complemento indirecto no argumental está sujeto a la condición de materialización para los predicados deadjetivales desde el punto de vista de la Morfología Distribuída de Halle y Marantz(1993, 1988).
    Keyword: Complemento Indirecto No Argumental, Verbo Deadjetival, Realización Del Clítico Dativo]
    Author: Jae Yong Kwak
    Poblication Year: 2012
    Language: Korean
    Country: Spain
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Science of Religion
    Minoan Religious Practice Recently Found at Tell es-Safi, Israel
    Minoan Religious Practice Recently Found at Tell es-Safi, Israel -Based on Two Horned AltarIn the last decades, one of the debated issues among the Mediterranean and Near Eastern archaeologists is the origins of the Philistines who settled in the southern Mediterranean seashore in Israel around 12th century BCE. Recently, scholars seem to have agreed with that, because of a certain chaos in the area of the Aegean culture, the people left from their homelands by ships and appeared on the battle scenes with Ramses III in Karnak. The Bible (Amos 9:7; Jeremiah 47:4; Deuteronomy 2:23) tells us that their homeland was island of Caphtor which is Crete in Hebrew. In this island, archaeological remains show that the Minoan culture which led earlier Aegean culture had been demolished around 1,400 BCE, the people of this land had left and their trace has been found in the Cyprus around 1300 BCE. However, not all of them settled in Cyprus and some of them find their permanent living places in the southern Mediterranean seashore of Israel, during the 12th century BCE. The Bible calls them Philistines and tells us their main cities: Gaza, Ekron, Gath, Ashkelon, and Ashdod. Archaeological evidence in these cities also reveals that there were certain cultural elements, such as pottery, religious figurines, and dietary, relating to the Aegean culture in the beginning of their settlement. However, their cultural specialties have been faded and adjusted to the Israelite culture. Nevertheless, several fascinating finds which can tell us that there were still Minoan or Aegean cultural continuities have been revealed in Tell es-Safi (Philistine Gath). Especially, a two horned stone altar found in 2011 season has drawn international attention. This altar insures us the issue about the relations of the Philistines and Aegean and Minoan culture. The motif of two horned altar has been found on the seals and larnak of Minoan culture. Indeed, it has been already discussed that there was “horns of consecration” symbolic representations of the horns of the sacred bull in Minoan culture. In fact, there is an altar from the 13th century BCE site of Myrtous Pigadhes in Cyprus that also has only two horns. The two horned altar found at Tell es-Safi may be another indication of the Minoan influences on early Philistine culture. However, the decorative features of the altar including its height, horns and the groove are similar to the Israelite altars. Thus we may conclude that when the Philistines came from Aegean region including Crete as the Bible tells, they must bring their own religious aspects and may continue them. However, while they lived with the Israelites, certain aspects must have been changed and became similar to the Israelites’.
    Keyword: Tell es-Safi (Gath), Philistines, Minoan Culture, Horned Altar, Horns of Consecration
    Author: Mi Young Im
    Poblication Year: 2012
    Language: Korean
    Country: Israel
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    Dictator and Language
    Dictator and Language In this paper, I have tried to analyze the three speeches delivered by Tunisian President Ben Ali during the Tunisian Jasmine Revolution before he was forced to leave his country. For the sake of seeing if there is any shift among these speeches from the linguistic and rhetorical aspects I have examined the themes and structures of the speeches, concentrating on the linguistic tools and rhetorical strategies employed by him to face the protests by Tunisian people. The paper concludes that as the protest and the social unrest became worse, Ben Ali used different linguistic devices such as a code-switching, self-referencing and repetition in addition to the various rhetorical strategies in dealing with the protest in context with the social situation. As he spoke for the first time in Tunisian dialect in his last speech, it meant he intended to shorten the psychological and emotional gap between him and the people. Ben Ali used the traditional tactics of ascribing the demonstration to the terrorists and the criminals, employing the tactics of cane and carrots. Ben Ali’s last speech showed the mood of begging, a different change from the previous speeches. Also the frequent use of the first-person pronoun in the last speech in comparison with the previous two speeches showed the seemingly shift of the public identity of Ben Ali linguistically and psychologically from the dictatorial president to the ordinary people. Lastly, the use of the term Sha’b in the last speech can be interpreted as the sign of recognizing the sovereignty of the people after long years of dictatorship. It is expected that this study can be used as the foundation for determining the Arab dictators’ pattern of discourse such as former Egyptian president Mubarak, Syrian president Bashshar and Qadhafi of Libya in future relevant researches.
    Keyword: Tunisia, Dictator, Ben Ali, Political Speech, Code-switching, Linguistic and Rhetorical Shift
    Author: Hee Man Sah
    Poblication Year: 2012
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Science of Religion
    Was the Author of Epistle to the Hebrews an Philonist?
    Was the Author of Epistle to the Hebrews an Philonist?. This article tries to explain the exact meaning of eikon and skia in Heb. 10:1, as well as the relation of this passage with Heb. 8:5 & 9:23-4. Especially, I will scrutinize modern scholars’ contention that the Epistle to the Hebrews was deeply influenced by Platonism of Philo of Alexandria. In this way we will get the following conclusions. 1) Originally not only “skia” but also “eikon” had the meaning of “imitation”, while in the philosophy of Plato these terms were used to denote something contrary to “real entity”. But the meaning of these words changed dramatically in the Hellenistic age. So “skia” as before was used with the meaning of “something contrary to real entity”, while “eikon” came to denote “ideas as the archetype of the universe”. Likewise, in the Epistle to the Hebrews “skia” means “a mere imitation of the archetype(something contrary to the archetype)”, while “eikon” denotes “real entity itself (archetype itself)”. This similarity shows strongly some influence of Philonian(or Platonic) dichotomy in the Epistle to the Hebrews. Nevertheless, according to Philo the reality that heavenly tabernacle symbolizes is a spiritual principle or virtue that can be found in human beings generally, while that of the Epistle to the Hebrews is the recovery of the relationship with God through Jesus Christ. In this regards, the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews escapes clearly from the influence of Philo. 2) The author of the Epistle to the Hebrews does not seem to be strongly influenced by Philo’s philosophy. But he might know at least some thoughts of Hellenized Jews that agreed with Philo. And Evidently he kept the Hellenized Jewish faith in mind, while writing the Epistle to the Hebrews. In other words, the readers that were in the mind of the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews were Jewish Christians, in that they knew well the Old Testament with its sacrificial rites and commandments, nevertheless they already had the Hellenistic understanding of archetype vs. imitation and heavenly things vs. earthly things. To these readers, the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews tries to show the real nature of Jesus Christ, advising them not to forsake the Christian faith. [Key Words:
    Keyword: Skia, Eikon, Original-copy, Philo of Alexandria, Covenant
    Author: Yu Suk Oh
    Poblication Year: 2012
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Social Science Etc
    Issues in the Mediterranean Regional Studies and Mediterranean Studies
    Issues in the Mediterranean Regional Studies and Mediterranean Studies The Mediterranean area has the homogeneity through the ceaseless inter-cultural communication, and that have to be understood as a connected area not a divided one by the sea. And the Mediterranean has the most suitable condition for the unit of area studies. In the 21st century, each regions are not divided, but they have closely connections with each other in economy, society and culture. And these are reflecting the situation of the globe which different countries are closely connected and each other influenced. In this point, the different-looking civilizations in the Mediterranean are closely connected with sometimes conflicts and sometimes inter-cultural communication, and so the Mediterranean can be called as a miniature of the globe which globalism can be applied. So the Mediterranean have to be understood as the regional unit which has something in common through mutual exchanges between different cultures. And to understand the relations of communication and exchange among the civilizations which have made homogeneity of the Mediterranean, it is necessary to divide the subjects of exchange, that is, the individual units and to concrete them clearly. So the unit, or the subject of exchanges between the different cultures is the most important character of clearly dividing the different organizations and groups. A Classification for inter-cultural communication of the Mediterranean is useful to understand the characters of the Mediterranean civilization. So a Classification must be accepted not as the individual things, but as the motives of inter-cultural communication and then it took a conclusion that inter-cultural communication of the Mediterranean area can be classified as exchanges by one’s own cooperation, exchanges by the political, social, economical pressure. And also it can be mixing with the first and second. Anyway this will be a basis for stereotyping of inter-cultural communication. The Mediterranean Studies are scientifically on the step of a germ. On the basis of objective understanding about the history and civilization of the Mediterranean area, the Mediterranean studies is the open science which searches the way of living together for the Mediterranean countries and civilizations. And also it is the science for cooperation and living together which can overcome orientalism and occidentalism. [Key Words:
    Keyword: Regional Studies, Mediterranean Studies, Regional Unit, Interchange, Intercultural Interchange, Interchange Unit, Communication, Amalgamation, Globalization, Stereotyping
    Author: Yong Su Youn
    Poblication Year: 2012
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    The Economic Relation of Migrants in the French Labor Market
    The Economic Relation of Migrants in the French Labor Market The Migrant Workers are cheap in France and these numbers have been increased over the past half-century. A dichotomy of social and economic structure has been formed between the immigrant and the domestic labor population. The economic activity of the migrants can be characterized by the simple(physical) labor in France. By the way, the dichotomy between the immigrant and the domestic labor population, as an attractive elementary for the migrants, leads to the dynamic of immigration economy. This article examines the economic relations between the immigrant and the domestic labor population in the french labor markets. We study the tendency of immigration and their employment situation that show the structure of the social discrimination with which the migrants are confronted in labor market.
    Keyword: Migrant Workers, Labor Market, Discrimination, North African, France
    Author: Ji Young Lim
    Poblication Year: 2011
    Language: Korean
    Country: France
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Arabic Literature
    A Study on Arab Society and Culture Represented in the Poems of the Jahiliya Era before the Advent of Islam
    A Study on Arab Society and Culture Represented in the Poems of the Jahiliya Era before the Advent of Islam The Arabic poems in Jahiliyah period, Al-Qaṣīdah, were the only method of recording and historical reference of the Arab people before the advent of Islam. Al-Qaṣīdah not only represents lives of people of that period, but also informs us about social structure and values, and culture of that time without any censorship. Regardless of the significance of Al-Qaṣīdah, which provides a important tool to shape and interpret the lives of people in Jahiliyah period, however, there has been few study conducted that illuminates the Jahiliayh period. This study has its meaning in the sense that it interprets and shapes Jahiliyah period through the lens of literature. In order to reach the goal, this study limits the scope of research subject as below. The first subject deals with tradition and custom, focusing on gender segregation and tribal battles. The second subject discusses about religious lives of people during the Jahiliyah period. In which the study analyses religious value and customs shared among the Arab people before the advent of Islam. The last subject reshapes economic activity and lives of people through examining articles of daily use represented on the Al-Qaṣīdah poems.
    Keyword: Jahiliyah, Mu’allaqāt, Arab Society, Arab Habits, Religious Life, Economic Life]
    Author: Se Won Chang
    Poblication Year: 2011
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Economics
    Turkey’s Energy Supply-Demand Situation and Its Energy Security
    Turkey’s Energy Supply-Demand Situation and Its Energy Security -Its Implication to the Cooperation with Korea- Recently, Turkey is the one of the fastest growing economic in the world. Thus it energy demand for its sustainable development is increasing rapidly as well. However, Turkey’s geo-political location is crucial to diversify and secure the energy-transportation routes for the EU energy market. Turkey is utilizing its geo-political and geo-strategical position to play as an energy hub in the region. For Turkey and Europe, energy Hub is the emerging concept of new energy security not only to secure new energy supplies but also to diversify long-distance, cross border pipelines. Like wise Turkey is initiating various new green energy policy to meet with global demand and its energy diversification. Thus, this paper will review the development of the turkey’s green energy policy and its current situation. Hydro energy, solar energy, wind energy, and other green energy (or renewable enter) in Turkey will be analyzed. Their future potential role in Turkey’s energy security will be debated in the paper. Both Turkey and Korea is a member of G20 and important emerging market in the world. Therefore, there are many field that both country can cooperate. In this article, by reviewing the Turkey energy market and energy security, it will try to find out its implication for the future energy cooperation between turkey and Korea. To accomplish the research aim various Turkish governments’ documents and websites were analyzed. Particularly, energy related Turkish government organizations were reviewed and evaluated by the researcher.
    Keyword: Energy Corridor, Energy HUB, BTC, Pipeline, Green Energy, Renewable Energy, Turkey, Gas, Oil
    Author: Chong Jin Oh
    Poblication Year: 2011
    Language: Korean
    Country: Turkey
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Arab History
    The Arab Mind
    The Arab Mind In these days the Arabs are drawing a great deal of attention in the world, especially in political, economic and culturally aspects such as ‘democracy revolution’, energy policy and Islamic culture after the glorious history achieved in the Middle ages. This paper illustrates mind and/or the characteristics of the Arabs and discusses how they think and act as individuals and in a social setting. In order to understand their lives and culture as they are, the paper discusses the main points in four parts. Part I: Introduction Part II: The origin of Arabic people Part III: Formation of the consciousness Part III-1: Bedouin culture-honour, generosity, familism, pride, chastity, hishuma Part III-2: Islamic components, Conservatism, Atomic Society Part IV: Conclusion
    Keyword: Arab Mind, Origin, Bedouin Culture, Conservatism, Atomic Society
    Author: Wan Kyung Cheon
    Poblication Year: 2012
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Spanish Literature
    Anglicismos en el Léxico de la Lengua Española y la Expansión Semántica
    Anglicismos en el Léxico de la Lengua Española y la Expansión Semántica Cuando dos lenguas entran en contacto, se producen interferencias. En este caso, una lengua ejerce mayor influencia sobre la otra, importándole elementos léxicos, fonéticos, morfológicos y sintácticos que se van adaptando al sistema lingüístico de la lengua receptora. Actualmente la mayoría de los extranjerismos que recibe el español proceden del inglés de EE.UU. Desde la segunda mitad del siglo XX, cuando los EE.UU. empezó a considerarse el líder mundial en el sector económico, político, científico y tecnológico, se han adoptado muchos anglicismos y aún siguen adoptándose en la lengua española. Así mismo, su cultura es omnipresente en cualquier rincón del planeta, y con la ayuda de los medios de comunicación e de Internet su difusión es incesante. Con todo ello, los préstamos lingüísticos del inglés, a su vez, llegan a cubrir los huecos semánticos que se hallan en la lengua autóctona, a aportar nuevos significados a sus léxicos, generalmente, a través de una extensión semántica, o a competir con los homónimos de la lengua receptora que no tienen relaciones semánticas con el inglés. En este trabajo, vamos a indagar las consecuencias de la afluencia de anglicismos en el nivel léxico-semántico de la lengua española y a considerar el problema de su posible polisemia.
    Keyword: Extranjerismo, Lenguas en Contacto, Anglicismo, Préstamo, Calco
    Author: Hye Jin Cho
    Poblication Year: 2012
    Language: Korean
    Country: Spain
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Spanish Literature
    La Etimología Popular Producida en la Evolución del Español
    La Etimología Popular Producida en la Evolución del Español -la Desviación Analógica o el Error Radical- Según Dubois, J. & Giacomo, M., et. al.(1983), la etimología popular es el fenómeno por el que el hablante, basándose en ciertas similitudes formales, aproxima consciente o inconscientemente una forma dada a otra con la que no tenía ninguna relación genética. Vagabundo → vagamundo es un ejemplo típico del cambio formal. A pesar de que esta palabra no es la compuesta, los hablantes pensaban erróneamente que significaba ‘el que vaga por el mundo’, por tanto se produce la nueva forma vagamundo por medio de ‘vagar+mundo’. Además de esta palabra, esparadrapo → estiratrapo, lagartija → largatija, sandalias → andalias, etc., son los ejemplos que se han producido por la etimología popular. Este tipo de cambio es enmendable y se puede admitir en la lengua. Por otro lado, la etimología popular cambia el sentido de las palabras. Por ejemplo, Navalquejigo ‘nava de las encinas’ se cambió en Navalquejido ‘nava del quejido’ por el malentendimiento de los hablantes. Muchas personas piensan que la [operación] cesárea tiene relación con Julio César, porque pensaban que este hombre nació por esta operación. Aunque está claro que este concepto no tiene relación etimológica con él, esta hipótesis aún está viva entre los hablantes. De esta manera, la etimología popular puede causar un error grave al hablar de la etimología de las palabras. Hoy en día, muchas hipótesis incorrectas o arbitrarias se propagan sin obstáculo por el internet como si fueran correctas. En este trabajo analizamos los dos aspectos de la etimología popular, el cambio formal y el cambio semántico, entre los cuales éste en particular puede causar un error radical que puede influenciar de forma negativa a las personas, por tanto debemos cuidarnos para no cometer este tipo de error basándonos en los datos académicos posibles.
    Keyword: Etimología Popular, Cambio analógico, Cambio semántico
    Author: Kang Guk Lee
    Poblication Year: 2012
    Language: Korean
    Country: Spain
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    European History
    La distancia entre la realidad de la prueba de limpieza y la postura oficial de la Inquisición española
    La distancia entre la realidad de la prueba de limpieza y la postura oficial de la Inquisición española La prueba de sangre era para garantizar la genealogía limpia del que quería ocupar un puesto en la inquisición, cuyo ascendiente no era converso, ni morisco, ni procesado por la Inquisición. Aunque parece que la Inquisición española estaba muy relacionada desde el principio con el estatuto de la limpieza de sangre, en realidad no tomaba una iniciativa para su introducción en su propia estructura. Al revés, el Inquisidor General mismo no se sometía a esta prueba ni tenía una jurisdicción exclusiva sobre ella. Como es una cuestión de honor, su jurisdicción correspondía al Consejo de la Inquisición en la Monarquía Polisinodial. Para ser un organismo honorífico, se necesitaba llevar la prueba de limpieza a los que pretendían ocupar los puestos en la Inquisición como otras instituciones o colegios. Sin embargo, los familiares no tenían mucha dificultad de entrar en la Inquisición sin pasar alguna prueba hasta el año de 1553. La pragmática de 1623 es la única limitación legal para quitar los abusos y minimizar los gastos demasiado pagados por los pretendientes que querían sacar el linaje limpio. Es un resultado proveniente de las disputas sobre la efectividad de la prueba de limpieza surgidas a partir del memorial de Salucio de 1599. Incluso los Inquisidores Generales Guevara y Pacheco participaron en esta discusión a favor de la reforma de la pruba. Pero el Consejo de la Inquisición no apoyó al Inquisidor General Guevara en contraste con el caso de Pacheco. Allí se encuentra la fisura o la discordia dentro de la dirección inquisitorial. También ésta repetía ordenar la aplicación de la pragmática a cada tribunal inquisicitorial que no siempre tomaba en serio la dirección, sino se acostumbraba a hacer lo mismo como antes.
    Keyword: Prueba de limpieza, Honor, Converso, Inquisición, Pragmática de 1623
    Author: Eun Hae Lee
    Poblication Year: 2012
    Language: Korean
    Country: Spain
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Italian Literature
    Gli elementi ariosteschi ne Il cavaliere inesistente di Italo Calvino
    Gli elementi ariosteschi ne Il cavaliere inesistente di Italo Calvino Ariosto che è lo scrittore del Cinquecento ha molto influenzato il processo creativo delle opere di Italo Calvino. Italo Calvino ha espresso la sua ammirazione verso Ludovico Ariosto e il suo Orlando furioso. I suoi saggi dedicati al poema, i continui riferimenti all'Ariosto nella sua ricca produzione, il suo commento al Orlando furioso testimoniano l’influenza di Ariosto. Calvino apprezza così profondamente Ariosto per essersi posto come una figura d'innovatore, la cui ironia si pone ad emblema di una modernità. Ariosto poté vedere tutto l'ironia e la deformazione fantastica, ma il suo atteggiamento fu orientato a riscoprire l'uomo, riprendendo così in pieno lo spirito rinascimentale e umanistico. Gli elementi dell'Orlando furioso che si ritrovano nelle opere di Calvino sono così numerosi ed evidenti, ma l'ammirazione per l'Ariosto e lo studio del Orlando furioso si concretizzano nel romanzo Il cavaliere inesistente. Gli episodi e i personaggi de Il cavaliere inesistente rimandano alle vicende dell Orlando furioso. L'elemento ironico e fantastico come il poema di Ariosto regna anche questo romanzo. Di questi elementi Calvino si serve per guardare il mondo e capire come l'uomo si rapporti alla propria realtà storica e sociale. Il cavaliere inesistente narra le vicende del Medioevo ma non mettendo mai da parte i problemi contemporanei della realtà. Calvino si è proiettato nei fatti passati per presentare più i probemi della realtà contemporanea.
    Keyword: Ironia, Fantasia, Realtà, Scrittura, Ariosto, Orlando Furioso, Cavalleria, Uomo
    Author: Hyun Kyung Lee
    Poblication Year: 2012
    Language: Korean
    Country: Italy
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    Les deux systèmes de la politique française de coopération avec les pays africains
    Les deux systèmes de la politique française de coopération avec les pays africains L’objectif de cette étude consiste à éclairer les deux systèmes de la politique française de coopération avec les pays africains, c’est-à-dire la homogénéité et la différence entre la politique de coopération avec les pays magrébins et celle avec les pays africains et malgache. La politique de coopération était en réalité fondé sur le maintien de relations politiques, économiques, militaires et culturelles inégalitaires, héritées de la situation coloniale. Elle était moins l’expression d’une doctrine cohérente de la France en matière de relations politiques et économiques internationales, que le reflet d’un pseudo-réalisme politique faisant une part trop faible aux données économiques et culturelles. Au terme de cette analyse, nous demeurons frappés par l’existence de différences importantes entre les deux dimensions examinées. Aussi sommes-nous portés à conclure à la spécificité de chacune d’elles, spécificité due au particularisme des conditions dans lesquelles les deux froupes d’États concernés accédèrent à l’indépendance et à la consolidation des relations nouées entre eux et la France postérieurement à cette indépendance. Cette déduction ne conduit, cependant, pas à nier le fait qu’elles forment les deux systèmes français de coopération.
    Keyword: Politique de coopération, Pays magrébins, Pays africains sud-sahariens et Madagascar, Zone franc, Néo-colonialisme
    Author: Ki Chan Byeon
    Poblication Year: 2013
    Language: Korean
    Country: France
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    European History
    Meno’s Paradox and the Theory of Recollection in Plato’s Meno
    Meno’s Paradox and the Theory of Recollection in Plato’s Meno This article discusses the relationship between Meno’s paradox and the theory of recollection in Plato’s Meno. What the point of Meno’s paradox is and how the theory of recollection is supposed to respond to it have been a matter of great scholarly debate. In this article I discuss the view that the paradox is a mere sophism based on the false dichotomy of complete knowledge and ignorance; and the view that the paradox derives form the principle of the priority of the knowledge of what X is. With regard to the former, I argue that the theory of recollection does not give an adequate response; with regard to the latter, though there is a way the theory might offer an answer to the paradox, Plato does not give a clear indication that he intends the theory to play that role. I then discuss the interpretation by Irwin and Fine that Plato’s solution to the paradox is given not by the theory of recollection but by the distinction between knowledge and true belief; and argue that it is mistaken. I show that their interpretation is based on a misreading of a crucial text. They believe that in that passage Plato introduces the distinction between true belief and knowledge. But I argue that this distinction is not brought up until the last part of the Meno. The discussion of their interpretation makes it all the more urgent to consider the paradox from the perspective beyond the inner context of the Meno. I suggest that the central point Plato wants to make about Meno’s paradox concerns the nature of knowledge in the strict sense and how it can be obtained. The methodological question about Socrates’ elenchus is also relevant, but I argue that it is derivative to the epistemological question about the nature of true knowledge and its acquisition.
    Keyword: Recollection, Knowledge, True Belief, Meno, Plato
    Author: Hun Sang Chun
    Poblication Year: 2013
    Language: Korean
    Country: Greece
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Economics
    An Analysis on the Outcomes of Economic Reform in Jordan
    An Analysis on the Outcomes of Economic Reform in Jordan -Cointegration and VECM test- Since the end of 1980s, Jordan has passed several phases of economic reform aimed at stabilizing the Jordanian economy and managing the transition from a state-controlled economic model to a market-led one. This study tries to assess the outcomes of economic reform. To do it, this paper analyzes the relationship between economic growth and several macroeconomic variables which are considered to be affected by the economic reform. The empirical analysis is carried out using the data for GDP, consumption expenditure, investment, government expenditure, export, FDI, official aid and workers’ remittance. Cointegration analysis and VECM estimation find that in Jordan only overseas inflows of fund have led GDP, whereas domestic variables haven’t caused significant changes of GDP. This means that economic reform of Jordan has succeeded only in overseas sectors. The reform process in Jordan has been so slow, incomprehensive, and uncoordinated that it couldn’t find long-lasting solutions to major social and economic challenges of Jordan, such as poverty, unemployment, public debt, and high dependency on foreign aid. The critical point to driving the reform agenda forward is to deal with fundamental factors that determine their outcomes. The major reason for the failure to deal with key social and economic difficulties lies in the convergence of political and governance issues that undermine the reform efforts. Jordan needs to try to improve the governance framework, which means the progress of public sector performance, public sector accountability, and institutional capacity building. Jordan also has to make progress in political reform, which means enhancement of democracy in political and social life of the population.
    Keyword: Jordan, Economic reform, Economic growth, Cointegration Analysis, VECM
    Author: Ki Chul Kwon
    Poblication Year: 2013
    Language: Korean
    Country: Jordan
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Science of Religion
    A Study on the Islamic Perspective of Induced Abortion
    A Study on the Islamic Perspective of Induced Abortion Induced abortion is an issue tabooed in Islamic cultures and it is not clearly defined or interpreted by Islamic laws or Islamic religion. The meaning of induced abortion is not clearly stipulated even by Coran which is the primary source of Islamic laws. So, legal scholars’ interpretation of it has played an important role in Islamic definition of induced abortion; and induced abortion has been differently interpreted by each legal school. Yet, all the legal scholars consistently agree that induced abortion is not a sphere which is to be decided by men, and most of them concur that induced abortion may be permitted when the life of a woman in childbed is affected. However, each school of lawyers has different opinions about the time point when induced abortion can be permitted and there is also a difference even within a legal school. Currently, induced abortion is banned in Arabic and Islamic countries excluding Tunisia and Turkey. This thesis largely consists of two parts. In Chapter 2, Islamic opinions about induced abortion are discussed from legal and medical perspectives and kinds of punishments on induced abortion are also examined, so as to closely understand how Islam defines induced abortion. In Chapter 3, an investigation is made into whether or not Arabic and Islamic countries currently permit induced abortion, and a consideration is made of the implementation of related policies in those countries.
    Keyword: Sexuality, Muslim Women, Abortion, Contraception, Birth control
    Author: Hyo Joung Kim
    Poblication Year: 2013
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Spanish Literature
    The Other’s Sightline
    The Other’s Sightline -Equatorial Guinea Reflected in Spanish Literature- The main objective of this paper consists of analyzing the various responses of Spanish writers about Equatorial Guinea. Since the early 20th century, Equatorial Guinea has been reflected in Spanish Literature in many ways. Some writers were only interested in the exotic landscapes or the peculiar customs of the indegenous people. Others paid special attention to the colonial system which had worked as the means of exploitation. Recently we can find a new trend in certain works which are heading for Cosmopolitanism beyond the traditional dicotomy of Colonialism and Postcolonialism. In order to carry out my objective, I chose La casa de la palabra of José Antonio López Hidalgo, published in 1995 as the main text. After introducing briefly the colonial history and the literary identity of this country, I focused on Carolina, protagonist of this novel. She was born in Equatorial Guinea and lived among the indigenous people. But the independence made her come back to Spain, her home country. Twenty years later, we can find her again as nurse, volunteer of the international cooperation. In this hot land, she meets her acquaintances like doctor García Sáez and Mamá Raquel, her old baby sitter to pursue the traces of her lost father, Carlos Araujo. In particular, the black old lady, Mamá Raquel, takes special care of Carolina, showing ilimited love for her and regarding her as the symbol of salvator and succesor of the Bubis. Through the analysis of this novel, I can get to the following conclusion. The writer intends to overcome the traditional dicotomy between Western modernity and African savage, colonialism and postcolonialism, domination and resistance, suggesting that the peculiar life of each indivisual is as valuable as the universal life. As Kwame Anthony Appiah suggests, every broken piece of mirror reflects a part of the truth and only one broken piece doesn’t exist in the world.
    Keyword: Equatorial Guinea, colonialism, postcolonialism, cosmopolitanism, López Hidalgo, La casa de la palabra
    Author: Hyo Young Park
    Poblication Year: 2013
    Language: Korean
    Country: Spain
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Language
    Reflexión sobre la competencia comunicativa intercultural en la enseñanza de E/LE
    Reflexión sobre la competencia comunicativa intercultural en la enseñanza de E/LE El aprendizaje de un idioma implica para el/la aprendiz, la adquisición de conocimientos de una o más culturas distintas a la suya y de su práctica cultural por medio del contacto con ellas. El presente trabajo pretende explicar las características de la comunicación intercultural y los principios y métodos para el logro de una comunicación intercultural eficaz, así como también resaltar la importancia de la competencia comunicativa intercultural y de su enseñanza en las aulas del E/LE. Para abordar el tema y antes entrar en el estudio propio de la comunicación intercultural, se puntualizará ciertos conceptos básicos como las definiciones de cultura y comunicación y los posibles problemas que se plantearían en la comunicación intercultural.
    Keyword: comunicación, enseñanza de E/LE, intercultura, comunicación intercultural, competencia comunicativa intercultural
    Author: Hye Jin Cho
    Poblication Year: 2013
    Language: Korean
    Country: Spain
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Spanish Literature
    Sobre la adverbialización en ‘-mente’ de las categorías adjetivales listadas en el Currículo Nacional(2009)
    Sobre la adverbialización en ‘-mente’ de las categorías adjetivales listadas en el Currículo Nacional(2009) En el Currículo Nacional(2009) se encuentran listadas 897 palabras. Entre ellas, los 117 adjetivos pueden admitir el sufijo ‘-mente’ para la adverbialización. El Currículo Nacional(2009) muestra que no es necesario incluir todos los adverbios en -mente en la lista del vocabulario básico debido a la precondición de permitir la derivación adverbial en ‘-mente’. En cierto sentido, como explica Torner Castells(2005: 212), el sufijo ‘-mente’ no parece consistir más que en producir un cambio de categoría de adjetivo a adverbio. Sin embargo, es natural reconocer que los aprendices principiantes suelen tener dificultad de distinguir cuáles son los adjetivos compatibles con la adverbialización en -mente dado que ellos, los no nativos, no tienen intuición léxica. El presente trabajo está dedicado a la discusión sobre la carga de aprendizaje de los adjetivos que pueden derivarse en los adverbios en -mente porque estos son las palabras con morfología y tienen una gran relacion con la morfosintaxis y la semántica.
    Keyword: adverbialización, adverbio adjetival, adverbio en -mente, Currículo Nacional(2009), derivación
    Author: Jae Yong Kwak
    Poblication Year: 2013
    Language: Korean
    Country: Spain
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Italian Literature
    Ethic of Hospitality
    Ethic of Hospitality The paper explores the issue of strangers and of hospitality in Marco Tullio Giordana’s Quando sei nato non puoi più nasconderti, based J. on Derrida’s discussion of hospitality. Since the 1990s has increased the post modern thinking in Italy it’s influence which makes the repression of the other a point at issue, the ethical response on it has become a important theme in philosophy. Focusing on the Giordana’s work, the purpose is to gauge the unique status Derrida holds in the post-modern thought, based on his Theory of absolute Other and unconditional hospitality. The thesis will illustrate how thoughts on the absolute other and the political theory of deconstruction provide crucial hints to overcome the limits of modern justice’s theory, which is equalitarian and seeks universality. Furthermore, the thesis will show the ethical meanings of Derrida’s theory of absolute other, and what its logical dilemmas are, exloring the Giordana's film. Through this process, the reason why we must pursue the possibility of overcoming universalistic justice and ethics of responsibility as an absolute and unconditional hospitality, which is based on the absolute alterity
    Keyword: Immgrant, Italian cinema, M.T. Giordana, J. Derrida, Hospitality, Mediterranean
    Author: Hee Jung Kim
    Poblication Year: 2013
    Language: Korean
    Country: Italy
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    Political Satire at Egyptian President Mursi
    Political Satire at Egyptian President Mursi -A Study Focused on ‘El-Bernameg’ by Bassem YoussefThe purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship of satire and the socio-political reality with reference to some episodes concerning Egyptian President Mursi that appeared in popular satirical show El-Bernameg(The Program) hosted by Egyptian TV comedian Bassem Youssef. Charged with insulting President Mursi and Islam, he has captured in a refreshing way the frustrations and aspirations of many Egyptians by resorting to political satire, a genre that was absent from Egyptian television before the revolution in 2011 El-Bernameg has extended the boundaries of public discourse by mocking public figures such as Egyptian President Mursi and the power holders in the Islamist government. For instance, Youssef portrayed Mursi as a superman with superpowers and he mocked Islamists’ use of religion for political purpose. It also represented a shift of political parody from the private level to the public sphere. It is noteworthy that though to deal with the religion as a material for political satire along with politics is regarded as a taboo to satirise in the Arab world, Islam was subject to being as part of satire because Mursi is originally from Muslim Brethren. This study also showed that the political satire can provide public knowledge about politics to the people, at the same time when they are to be entertained by it. Bassem Youssef’s political parody format is unprecedented in the Arab world as it is supposed to be a watchdog on the news media. It is said that political jokes represent a revolt against authority and a liberation from its pressure and the laughter has the corrective effect. Then, it remains to be seen later whether Mursi will begin to correct his undemocratic course of action. But it is clear that Bassem Youssef will continue to be the epicenter of debate about the freedom of expression in Egyptian politics by showing his satirical rhetoric and ‘laughter’.
    Keyword: Egypt, President Mursi, Political Satire, laughter, Bassem Youssef, ‘El-Bernameq’]
    Author: Hee Man Sah
    Poblication Year: 2013
    Language: Korean
    Country: Egypt
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Spanish Literature
    José de Valdivielso’s Sacramental Acts and Chorus
    José de Valdivielso’s Sacramental Acts and Chorus José de Valdivielso employs actively the chorus tradition from the history of European drama in his sacramental act. His sacramental act makes the most use of choruses, which deliver songs and dances as its expression method. By doing this, the dramatist intends to show a splendid baroque play stage and to provide dramatic interest. The author doesn’t divide between his own chorus and actors strictly, but he sets up for one another to change the roles, so he extends the music function of choruses to other actors. By maximizing the ocular effect through the elements of dances and songs which choruses have, Valdivielso relieves the solemn mood that a religious drama can have, and he provides audience with artistic interest. However, Valdivielso’s chorus does not stop simply at the level of the offering dances and songs as things to see, but it drags the sympathy out of audience through the emotional element of music, so it tries to maximize the audience’s response about drama’s theme. Like the ancient Greek tragedy, choruses play the role of a commentator and messenger who delivers religious messages of sacramental acts to audience effectively. As a result, a chorus achieves the religious purpose that a sacramental act has: the educational role for audience. By inheriting and developing the chorus function of Greek tragedy, Valdivielso achieves two purposes which a sacramental act should pursue as a religious drama: dulce et utile, the esthetics of Horatius. While the dramatist satisfies his audience through his splendid and emotional baroque play stage, he simultaneously accomplishes the educational function that delivers the religious ideal of Counter Reformation to the Spanish people of those times.
    Keyword: José de Valdivielso, Sacramental act, Chorus, Baroque drama, Spanish literature
    Author: Man Hee Lee
    Poblication Year: 2013
    Language: Korean
    Country: Spain
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Sociology
    Disappearing Boundaries and a New Topograph
    Disappearing Boundaries and a New Topograph -Barcelona in Alejandro González Iñ árritu’s Biutiful- Iñárritu’s film captures always the interconnectedness, which unavoidably draw us together, informing our sense of humanity in perpetual conflict with the superficial alienation of “the other.” His work communicate something fundamental to this recognition of postmodern global reality. All of this makes Iñárritu’s film particularly intuitive and immediate to contemporary global audiences. His films are powerfully informed and immediate, essential art in this age of postmodern confusion. In Biutiful, the latest film of Iñárritu, Barcelona, city cosmopolitan connotes cultural and social complexity which results in confusion and conflict and moral compromise. As the largest metropolitan city on the Mediterranean Sea, Barcelona has a rich cultural heritage and is an important cultural center. In Biutiful, we find the Catalan capital such as a transnational and paradoxical location. In addition, Barcelona is recognizable as the film’s co protagonist, along with main character. This multicultural city shows the moral uncertainties and political complexities by focusing on immigrant and marginalized characters. Biutiful is aware of extreme complexity of the social structure of the global city of the porosity of its internal borderlands. Biutiful takes place in grimy and crowded parts of Barcelona that are a world away from a monumentally architectural and touristic city. If the notable or recognizable public spaces of Barcelona appear in the film, they are significantly portrayed as sites of conflict. Barcelona become a city without boundaries in Biutiful. The dualistic contrast between the city centers and the peripheries, even the death and the life disappear. Uxbal and the other important immigrant characters, through their powerful presence transform the city they inhabit into a chaotic place. This distinctive cityscape reveals real aspects and dimensions of Barcelona. Iñárritu’s Barcelona is polyphonic and hybrid city. Biutiful construct a city defined by its capacity to create new identity
    Keyword: Biutiful, Alejandro González Iñárritu, Barcelona, City, Trans- boundary
    Author: Song Yi Lee
    Poblication Year: 2013
    Language: Korean
    Country: Spain
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    A Study on the Rise of Political Islam and Women’s Identity in Turkey
    A Study on the Rise of Political Islam and Women’s Identity in Turkey -focused on female teachers teaching at primary and secondary schools in Ankara- It was very shocking that in Turkey, a secular republic country, the pro-Islamic Justice and Development Party(Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi: AKP) overwhelmed the general election in 2002 and became the ruling party. On the other hand, it was doomed to occur for the conservative Turkish society due to the revival of Islam since the 1980s. Together with the spread of Islamism, mistrust of the secular government and consecutive adverse events followed by the economic recession made voters look forward to something new and just then, the AKP, who is neither an Islamic party nor secular but a third party, published ‘conservative democracy’ as the party’s platform and met the Turkish people’s expectations. Moreover, for the purpose of Turkey’s accession into the European Union, AKP vowed to execute the social regulations and measures required by the EU. The AKP’s victory in Turkey was positively evaluated domestically and abroad that Islam and democracy are compatible. In accordance, during the first governance, AKP’s home and foreign policies unfolded in line with the EU’s requirement. They waited for the ‘social consensus’ by trying to intentionally exclude Islamic factors from policy-making so that there would not be any social conflict resulting from Islamism or Secularism. However, since they won power in 2007 and again in 2011 for their third term, the AKP has decided on its conservative Islamic policies and even forced them, which markedly differs from their first term. AKP, now as a conservative party, who perceived women’s issues as the most vital factors in policy-making placed more stress on women’s role in the family rather than on women’s issues themselves. From surveys carried out to female teachers teaching at primary and secondary schools in Ankara, it has been discovered that the rise of political Islam has had a negative influence on women. Majority of those surveyed agreed that the conservatization of the society has increased veil wearers and has lowered status of women for the last decade. More importantly, when surveying even conservative women such as AKP supporters group, veil wearers group in non-public places, high and medium pious groups and indifferent groups to women movement, negative opinions on AKP’s conservative women policies were perceived. Consequently, it was found that highly educated women in society are also aware of the negative influence on women’s identity currently exerted by the political Islam in Turkey.
    Keyword: Political Islam(Islamism), Secularism, AKP’s Women Policy, Women’s status in public and private realm, Women’s rights
    Author: Ha Eun Han
    Poblication Year: 2013
    Language: Korean
    Country: Turkey
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Interdisciplinary Study
    The Planning of Electronic Culture Atlas for Interchange of Mediterranean Civilization
    The Planning of Electronic Culture Atlas for Interchange of Mediterranean Civilization In recent years, there have been many demands for digital convergence of the future. Since a necessity of interdisciplinary research between the Humanities and Engineering Studies was gradually raised, Electronic Culture Atlas, especially, was pointed out as the typical example of it. A map on which represents various aspects related to culture by using dot, line, face and so on is called “Culture Atlas”. In this sense, “Electronic Culture Atlas” is the electronic form of the Culture Atlas, namely, a concept of database which makes it possible to combine the use of data values such as theme, space and time. Consequently, the user could be provided with the cultural information which is intimately linked to the application of these three values. Furthermore, it also could be integrated way to understand about the culture of specific region. In this paper, Electronic Culture Atlas will be suggested to apply for researching global area studies, in particular, Mediterranean region Studies. Existing Electronic Culture Atlas was used the two-dimensional images as a base map, which resulted in visual blurring when it is zoomed in. In this respect, Electronic Culture Atlas should be designed using three-dimensional map (which is based on Google Earth) to solve this problem. Besides, the result produced by the author’s humanistic interpretation will be presented on the basis of objective and general information on the existing Electronic Culture Map. This research will be expected to express the results of global area studies visually by using this creation of Electronic Culture Atlas. It helps to understand the research results easily and makes it possible to use them as a preliminary data for new research. The interdisciplinary research such as Electronic Culture Atlas will be invigorated in many fields including future academic research. I hope this research is of cornerstone as a research method for interdisciplinary research.
    Keyword: Mediterranean area studies, Crusades, Electronic Culture Atlas, Digital Convergence
    Author: Jung Ha Kim, Ji Hoon Kang
    Poblication Year: 2013
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Interdisciplinary Study
    Norman-Arab-Byzantine Culture in Sicily in the 12th century -Focus on the period of Roger II and William II
    Norman-Arab-Byzantine Culture in Sicily in the 12th century -Focus on the period of Roger II and William IIThis article focus on a complex of the Norman-Arab-Byzantine Culture in Sicily in the 12th century. A new culture in Sicily in the 12th is a complex of features held by the interaction of the Norman, Arab and Byzantine culture following the Norman conquest of Sicily from 1061, to around 1250. An intense Norman-Arab-Byzantine culture developed, exemplified by rulers such as Roger II of Sicily, who had Islamic soldiers, poets and scientists at his court. The Norman Kingdom of Sicily under Roger II was characterised by its multi-ethnic nature and religious tolerance. Normans, Muslim Arabs, Byzantine Greeks, Longobards and “native” Sicilians lived in harmony. Interactions continued with the succeeding Norman kings, for example under William II of Sicily. We find the Norman-Arab-Byzantine Culture in art, architecture and law. This Culture resulted from numerous exchanges in the cultural and scientific fields, based on the tolerance showed by the Normans towards the Greek-speaking population and the Muslim settlers. As a result, Sicily under the Normans became a crossroad for the interaction between the Norman-Catholic, Byzantine-Orthodox and Arab-Islamic cultures. Indeed, at that time Sicily provided the model for medieval Europe of how a diversity of peoples, races and tongues could be governed by a system of tolerance and law.
    Keyword: Sicily, 12th century, Norman-Arab-Byzantine Culture, complex, Roger II, William II
    Author: Chy Gyu Kim
    Poblication Year: 2013
    Language: Korean
    Country: Italy
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Sociology
    Aspects of Diaspora in Vita by Melania Mazzucco
    Aspects of Diaspora in Vita by Melania Mazzucco Today transnational migrations and movements due to the globalization have expanded the meaning of ‘diaspora’. Diaspora is now defined as the spatial dispersion of a people from their original homeland. The term can also refer to the people dispersed. Multi-cultural and multi-ethnic societies are a fact of life in many countries and this global trend seems inevitable. In this connection, a disaspora and its modes of life can pose significant problems. Melania Mazzucco’s novel
    Keyword: diaspora, identity, the female diaspora, Italian immigration, muticultural society
    Author: Hyun Kyung Lee
    Poblication Year: 2013
    Language: Korean
    Country: Italy
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Economics
    Low Cost Airline and the Policies of EU-Member States
    Low Cost Airline and the Policies of EU-Member States: -Comparative Studies between France and European CountriesThe concept of LCC (Low Cost Carrier) was introduced by Pacific Southwest Airline in 1949. With the success of Southwest Airline which was established in 1971 and implemented this business concept, it began to be spread out all over the World. With the introduction of the concept of LCC by Ryanair in 1990, the LCC becomes popular in Europe. In Korea, the LCC has achieved a remarkable growth with 42.1% share of the domestic passenger transport. One of the most important reasons of the growth of LCC is the Open Sky Policy of European Union. With the Open Sky Policy, the barrier of the route of air-transport was removed. It results that the LCC market has been rapidly expanded. Nowadays, LCC has 1/3 share of European International seat capacity. In 2003 European monthly seat capacity of LCC was just 14%. In 2013 it reached to 36%. Compared to the world-wide growth of LCC, European has achieved important growth. Even if the researches of LCC were actively carried out, the focus of the existing papers was on the management of LCC. In order to prepare the development of LCC in Korea, it is necessary to develop the study about the EU LCC which has important LCC market. The growth of EU LCC has changed the network of air transportation. Before the growth of Ryanair, Dublin airport was not considered as an important airport for European air-transportation network. Thanks to the development of Ryanair, the position of Dublin airport has been changed. According to the network theory of Albert-Laszlo Barabasi, the network is stable with the difficulty of change. Nevertheless, the EU air-tranport network has experienced a dynamic change. However, the growth of LCC is not identical between the EU member-states. In United Kingdom and Spain, LCC market was rapidly expanded while in France, the growth of LCC was restricted due to the support of French government for its national carrier Air France.
    Keyword: Open Sky Agreement, Low Cost Carrier, EU, Air Transport Industry, Regional Economic Integration
    Author: Sang Wuk Ahn
    Poblication Year: 2013
    Language: Korean
    Country: France
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Spanish Literature
    Clasificación categórica de las ciudades con base etimológica
    Clasificación categórica de las ciudades con base etimológica En el presente trabajo se expone una clasificación de las categorías de las ciudades desde el punto de vista político y las funcionales desde el punto de vista estratégico. Según las categorías políticas las ciudades son clasificadas en: ‘Villa, Ciudad>Medina>Pueblo, Aldea, Burgo, Alfoz>Palazuelo>Vicus> Quintana, Granja, Huerta’; y, según las funciones militares, lo son en: ‘Oppidum> Castrum, Castillo>Alcalá>Alcázar, Ciudadela> Torre, Burya’. El objeto de esta clasificación es facilitar el acceso al estudio de los elementos históricoculturales adyacentes en el étimo de los nombres de las ciudades. Se considera que, por medio de este tipo de estudios etimológicos y geográficos, se puede profundizar la comprensión de los estudios regionales de la Península Ibérica
    Keyword: Clasificación etimológica, Categoría de las ciudades, Etimología
    Author: Kang Guk Lee
    Poblication Year: 2013
    Language: Korean
    Country: Spain
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    ‘The Arab Spring (Al-Thawrah)’ and Its Origin and Political Changes in the Middle East
    ‘The Arab Spring (Al-Thawrah)’ and Its Origin and Political Changes in the Middle East After a long absence, the wave of revolutions sweeping the Arab World and the Middle East bears the possibility of triggering internal and external disputes in the Area. In Tunisia, protesters called for the restoration of the country’s suspended constitution. Rising food prices and high unemployment have fueled popular protests from Morocco to Oman. In Tunisia, Algeria, Jordan, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Syria, Bahrain, Iran and Libya, protesters are demanding either reform or total revolution. Although a striking resemblance to previous political upheavals as in Europe in 1848 and in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, the 2011 revolutions are fighting something different from them. To understand the revolutions, therefore, it is necessary to analyze their origin and historical background, that is, it needs to examine the political cultural background of the Arab World since the late Othman Empire. In this sense, the work is performed by focusing on two subjects which are related the Arab Revolt and Revolution. The first is to review causes of the Arab civil revolt in general. It tries to inquire into evidence of the political culture that have effect on the Revolution. And then it tries to view a change in international political environment in the Arab World and the Middle East. The second subject to be examined mainly centers on US’ involvement in the Middle Eastern affairs especially after the death of Bin Laden. It will investigate the change of the US policy, what is called the policy of isolation, since the Gulf War. Consequently, the aim of the paper that conceptualizes and defines the Arab Spring will be attained and open to a further argument.
    Keyword: Arab Democratization, Arab Revolt, Arab Revolution, Arab Spring, Jasmin Revolution, Middle East Politics, Thawrah
    Author: Byoung Joo Hah
    Poblication Year: 2014
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Economics
    Conflicts and Cooperations in the Middle Eastern Society
    Conflicts and Cooperations in the Middle Eastern Society -in case of Jordanian Water ResourcesThis paper reviews the status of the water resources in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan in the context of the global pattern of increasing demand for water linked to population increase, a growing urban-based population and increasing economic progress. Jordan is currently one of the world’s ten water poorest nations, a situation which is being exacerbated by a rapidly growing population. Jordan has a climate ranging from Mediterranean to Arid with approximately 80 per cent of the country receiving less than 100mm of precipitation annually. Evaporation ranges from around 2000mm per year in Zarqa in the north west of the country to over 5000mm per year in Ma”an in the south. Renewable freshwater resources are of the order of 750-850 million cubic meters(MCM) with approximately 65 per cent derived from surface water and 35 per cent from groundwater sources. Current demands for water are of the order of 955 MCM. This shortfall is currently managed by controlling supply, but this is unsustainable. Treated waste water provides a possible additional source of water, but there are concerns and limitations over its use. Jordan must develop a strategy to manage its water resources sustainably, making full use of all available water resources. Some of the problems and possible solutions are discussed.
    Keyword: Jordan, Water Security, Management of Water Resources, Water Crisis, Water Shortage, Climate Change, Water War, The Middle East
    Author: Jae Hoon Choi
    Poblication Year: 2014
    Language: Korean
    Country: Jordan
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Economics
    Pension Reform in Mediterranean European Countries-Focused on Italy and Greece ?-3)
    Pension Reform in Mediterranean European Countries -Focused on Italy and Greece ?-3) The purpose of this paper is to analyse pension reform in Mediterranean European countries, especially focused on Italy and Greece. And the implications will be suggested. In order to analyse pension reform in Mediterranean European countries, first of all, politics, economy, and society in four countries are examined shortly. In terms of politics, Mediterranean European countries had experienced long dictatorship until the middle of 1970, and then brought about democracy in the middle of 1970. And they were agricultural countries until 1970, thus, they were industrialized late comparing with West European countries. Also their society has been characterized with the spread of informal and irregular economy and clientelism. Mediterranean European countries also have similar pension system each other comparing with West European countries. That is, Mediterranean European countries have developed their welfare state focused on pension. Thus, the benefit level of the pension was very high relatively. And pension in Mediterranean European countries also have played a role as social assistance without enough financial subsidy from the state. Because of these reasons, they have faced financial problem in pension and should have reformed pension. Under the financial problem in pension, Mediterranean European countries have accelerated pension reform in terms of financial sustainability. Thus, the direction of their pension reform tends to be convergent to financial sustainability while the degree of the pension reform was divers each other. In order to examine these changes, pension reform of Italy and Greece is analyzed in depth. The reason which this paper focuses on the pension reform of Italy and Greece is that Italy is characterized as successive pension reform with social consensus but Greece is characterized as passive pension reform with external factors. Italy also had reformed the pension quickly while it took a long time for Greece to reform the pension. Then, based on analysis of pension reform caused in Italy and Greece, the implication of pension reform in Mediterranean European countries is suggested.
    Keyword: Pension Reform, Mediterranean European Countries, Convergence, Path-dependency, OMC
    Author: Ho Sun Yoo
    Poblication Year: 2014
    Language: Korean
    Country: Italy
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Economics
    Pension Reform in Mediterranean European Countries-Focused on Italy and Greece ?-3)
    Pension Reform in Mediterranean European Countries -Focused on Italy and Greece ?-3) The purpose of this paper is to analyse pension reform in Mediterranean European countries, especially focused on Italy and Greece. And the implications will be suggested. In order to analyse pension reform in Mediterranean European countries, first of all, politics, economy, and society in four countries are examined shortly. In terms of politics, Mediterranean European countries had experienced long dictatorship until the middle of 1970, and then brought about democracy in the middle of 1970. And they were agricultural countries until 1970, thus, they were industrialized late comparing with West European countries. Also their society has been characterized with the spread of informal and irregular economy and clientelism. Mediterranean European countries also have similar pension system each other comparing with West European countries. That is, Mediterranean European countries have developed their welfare state focused on pension. Thus, the benefit level of the pension was very high relatively. And pension in Mediterranean European countries also have played a role as social assistance without enough financial subsidy from the state. Because of these reasons, they have faced financial problem in pension and should have reformed pension. Under the financial problem in pension, Mediterranean European countries have accelerated pension reform in terms of financial sustainability. Thus, the direction of their pension reform tends to be convergent to financial sustainability while the degree of the pension reform was divers each other. In order to examine these changes, pension reform of Italy and Greece is analyzed in depth. The reason which this paper focuses on the pension reform of Italy and Greece is that Italy is characterized as successive pension reform with social consensus but Greece is characterized as passive pension reform with external factors. Italy also had reformed the pension quickly while it took a long time for Greece to reform the pension. Then, based on analysis of pension reform caused in Italy and Greece, the implication of pension reform in Mediterranean European countries is suggested.
    Keyword: Pension Reform, Mediterranean European Countries, Convergence, Path-dependency, OMC
    Author: Ho Sun Yoo
    Poblication Year: 2014
    Language: Korean
    Country: Greece
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Science of Religion
    Malakh YHWH와 Apostolos Christou와 Rasul Allah에 관한 비교 연구
    A Comparative Study of (Malakh YHWH), (Apostolos Christou) and (Rasul Allah) The three monotheistic religions, Judaism, Christianity and Islam share a common characteristic by which they are defined as revealed religion. One of the phenomena in the revealed religion is the presence of receivers or mediators between man and the divine being. They function as messengers of the revelation to those who are supposed to be addressed. This study tries to see what messengers appear in Judaism, Christianity and Islam and to examine what relationship exists among them. Considering that the object of the study and its relevant material may be extremely exceeding, the present article limits its range of survey to the representative messengers in these religions: (Malakh YHWH) in the Miqra’ (i.e., the Old Testament), (Apostolos Christou) in the New Testament and (Rasul Allah) in the Qur’an. The examination of the written material in the chronological order seems to reveal that the formation of Rasul Allah in the Qur’an had been influenced by already The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Ph.D. beanddo@daum.net 78 | 지중해지역연구||제16권 제1호 [2014. 2] existing terms in the Miqra’ and the New Testament. The suggestion is supported, first of all, by the Qur’an itself. The Qur’an presents as Rasul Allah Moses and Jesus, the representative figures of the Miqra’ and the New Testament. It confirms that there had been Rasul Allah (pl. Rusul Allah) before the time of Muhammad the last Rausl Allah. This premises the possibility that Moses and Jesus designated as Rasul Allah in Arabic might have been called in other terms in the Miqra’ and in the New Testament. The presentation of Moses and Jesus, described most as the man of God and the Son of God in the Jewish and Christian Scriptures, as Rasul Allah before Muhammad demonstrates a new Islamic viewpoint in her understanding of the history of religion.
    Keyword: The Miqra’, Malakh YHWH, The New Testament, Apostolos Christou, The Qur’an, Rasul Allah]
    Author: Seoung Yun Shin
    Poblication Year: 2014
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Science of Religion
    A Study on the Acceptance of the Arab Islam Civilization in Egypt
    A Study on the Acceptance of the Arab Islam Civilization in Egypt -Focusing on the Rashidun Caliphate Era- In the seventh century, the Arabs began to politically organize their tribes in the Arabian Peninsula and to bring about their monotheistic Islamic religion in that region. Their accomplishing unity and acquiring religious power led the Arab Muslims to open their eyes beyond the Arabian Peninsula. The first territory that the Arab Muslim military conquested beyond the Arabian Peninsula was Egypt. Egypt had had close political, economical, religious relationship with the Arabs for a long time due to the geographical contiguity. Furthermore, Egypt was one country that the Arab Muslims coveted for all the wealth and prosperity that it possessed. Therefore, the Arab Muslim military began their campaign against Egypt, which had been ruled by the Byzantine Empire. The Arab culture and Islamic civilization have a distinctive character. Namely, it gradually blended with the indigenous culture in the conquered territory and the amalgamation of the cultures resulted in a new indigenous culture with a passage of time. As such, some historians have called this phenomenon an ‘Islamic Miracle’. However, we do know that the Islamic Miracle is not the swift military campaign but the permanent Arabization and Islamization in the conquered territory. In this paper, I will research the spreading of the Arab-Islam civilization and its acceptance and the resulting characteristics in Egypt where the Arab Muslim military went beyond the Arabian Peninsula for the first time in the seventh century. To accomplish the goals of this research, I will discuss the situations in Egypt before the Arab Muslim military arrived in year 640 and also examine the Arab Muslims’ conquest of Egypt and their rule over that country.
    Keyword: Arab, Islam, Coptic, Military Campaign, Rome, Byzantine, Amr bn al-As, Dhimmy
    Author: Yong Su Youn
    Poblication Year: 2014
    Language: Korean
    Country: Egypt
    Institute: Institute For Mediterranean Studies
    Science of Religion
    Pío Baroja and Anti-Catholicism
    It is not difficult to find anti-Catholic attitude of Pio Baroja in many of his novelistic works due to the negative image formed through his childhood. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyze the various aspects of his anti-Catholicism, which can be found in his novels. To achieve the goals of this study, I chose the following four works in which his religious attitude is most clearly revealed: - Camino de perfección (1902) - César o nada (1910) - La leyenda de Jaun de Alzate (1922) - El cura de Monleon (1936) To analyze his anti-Catholicism, I paid special attention to several sub-themes (religious views of Pio Baroja / Baroja as agnostic/ Catholic clergy as novelistic characters / anti-Catholicism / anti-clericalism/ Vasque traditional beliefs). With the analysis of the texts, I can come to the following conclusion: Baroja can be considered agnostic and he adheres to the scientific positivism. Therefore, he can not help showing his negative attitudes toward the Chatholic dogma or the religious rites of the Catholic church. According to his opinion, the Catholic clergy which consists of a rigid hierarchy and pyramid structure is an obstacle to the development of the country. For this reason, through his entire life, he keeps taking a negative and critical stand for Spanish Catholicism.
    Keyword: Pío Baroja, Anti-Catholicism, Camino de perfección, César o nada, La leyenda de Jaun de Alzate, El cura de Monleón
    Author: Hyo Young Park
    Poblication Year: 2014
    Language: Korean
    Country: Spain