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    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    이라크 개혁(1880-1920)에 대한 터키의 시도
    북아프리카 이슬람 원리주의 운동의 중요한 한 갈래로 여겨지는 사누시 종단의 오스만 제국의 술탄과의 관계, 나아가 1차세계대전에 이은 터키 독립전쟁 기간에 터키의 독립영웅 무스타파 케말 파샤와의 특별한 관계를 다루었다. 전세계 이슬람 세력을 결집하여 서구열강으로부터 오스만 제국를 지키려던 술탄 압둘 하미드의 범이슬람운동에 힘입어 세이크 사누시는 오스만 제국의 특별한 보호를 받으며 정치적 활동과 조세 징수에서 많은 특혜를 누렸다. 오스만 왕정이 멸망한 이후에는 케말 파샤에 협력하여 터키 독립전쟁을 도왔다. 이교도인 침략자를 성스런 이슬람 제국의 땅에서 몰아내는 것은 신성한 투쟁이라고 보았기 때문이다. 사누시의 이슬람 영향력을 지속해서 감시하고 통제해 온 영국의 방해로 결국 그의 이슬람 통합 여파는 크지 않았지만, 오늘날 그의 종교적 권위는 이미 1920년대 탄탄한 길을 다지고 있었다.
    Keyword: 사누시, 오스만 제국, 술탄 압둘 하미드, 범 이슬람 운동, 무스타파 케말
    Author: Cezmi ERASLAN
    Poblication Year: 2004
    Language: English
    Country: Turkey
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Science of Law
    A Study on the Philippine Adat Law
    The present rebellion in the Southern Philippines by the Bansa Moro could not be totally blamed on the Muslims. This is part of the centuries-old "attitudinal animosities" between brother Filipinos: Moros and Christians, brought by the "divide and rule" policy of outside colonizers- including the "inner colonials." Cultural understanding is tantamount to national progress. It is high time, that educators, scholars, lawlyers, and researchers of both the private and government entitles come together and do something that can bring about understanding among as. The Philippines is a country populated with various cultural communities. Obviiously, each has its own custom law. In order to shape the destiny of the nation's legal system, for it to be more appropriate and meaningful, the legal systems of the different cutural communities must be partly, at least if not totally, considered as part of Philippine jurisprudence. This, in part, can help combat cultural ignorance and bring about understanding.
    Keyword: Tausug Adat Law Southern Philippines Muslims
    Author: Wang-Jong Yoo
    Poblication Year: 2001
    Language: English
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Islam Philosophy
    A Study on the Discourse of Authoritarianism in Iran
    Political and economic reform in Iran began with Western political, economic and cultural penetration, and these reforms clearly had a double effect. On the one hand, there was an effort made for political reforms in democratic development, but on the other hand, the reaction to foreign penetration took the form of a turning to traditional culture as a way to keep the national identity. Therefore, the political transformations in Iran took on an equivocal shape, with democratic reforms and the culture of nationalism all mixed together. But democratic culture was unable to ally itself with traditional culture to create a new cooperative culture. Instead, these two cultures entered a coexistence of conflict, and Iranian political life of the contemporary period has resulted from that. Political reform was perceived as connected with imperialistic penetration, which provoked the reaction of traditional groups and their followers. For this reason,  returning to the tradition  became a big political and mental event in Iran, leading to the Islamic Revolution. Three main attitudes were found among Iranian intellectuals faced with Western culture and colonialism: 1) undisputed acceptance of all Western culture and civilization; 2) the alliance of Western material culture with Eastern intellectuality; 3) the acceptance of Western technology and economy depending on Islamic values. These three tendencies struggled with each other for a century. The Pahlavi shahs, with the exception of some values which were confirmed by the legitimacy of kingship and authoritarianism, were pursuing a full-scale reform in accordance with Western culture. Their dependence on foreign power and their political autocracy caused the growth of a reaction against Western cultural appearances. Jalal Al-e Ahmad, an intellectual and academic writer, published a book in 1962 called  Westoxication,  which was the beginning of a new paradigm, attacking the intellectual movement that had entered Iran along with the Constitutional Revolution as a kind of social disease. Al-e Ahmad said that in order to confront this disease, we have to return to the traditional culture, protected by the clergy. Dr. Shariati was another intellectual who wrote many books and made many speeches in that direction requesting a  return to ourselves.  Shariatis theories and writings turned some of the existing tendencies in the Islamic culture into political discourses. Nationalism and populism were the basic content of these movements, and these movements and thoughts in turn became the basis of the Islamic Republic Revolution.
    Keyword: Authoritarianism Iran political discourse Westoxication Westernism
    Author: Dal Seung Yu
    Poblication Year: 2002
    Language: English
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Islam Philosophy
    The Contemporary Moro Conflict in the Southern Philippines
    This study is focuses on the contemporary Moro conflict in the Southern Philippines. To achieve this goal, the study has proposed the grievances and demands of these Moro people, the successive Manila governments been responding to their demands, the alternatives which can be tried to resolve the crisis. Primary findings underscore the ethnic distinctness of the Moro people as a historical factor in the conflict. Corollary to this, is the role played by Islam in Moro people's lives plus their history of resistance against foreign cultures. The Moro Islamic Liberation Front, a hostage crisis perpetrated by the extremist Abu Sayyaf group, and a wave of bombings in Manila's main shopping malls - all these events helped to bring the Southern Philippines issue into focus, injecting gloom in the political outlook in the country. Violence is rife in the southern Philippines where Moro people are fighting for an independent homeland. This ongoing conflict in the Mindanao region has to be studied in the context of the social, cultural and economic issues of the region, as some of the worst-off areas in central and western Mindanao are inhabited by a sizeable Moro population.
    Keyword: Southern Philippines Mindanao Christian Filipino Muslims
    Author: Wang-Jong Yoo
    Poblication Year: 2002
    Language: English
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Science of Religion
    The Muslims in Hong Kong and their Religious Symbols
    The history of Muslims in Hong Kong, or we can say in this area, dates back to 7 th century AD, when the Holy Prophet Muhammad sent one of his companions to Canton, now Guangzhou, in China, thus started the Muslims religious and cultural life in this part of the world. The Muslims have their distinct religious and cultural values and norms and the Muslims of Hong Kong are no exemption. The Muslims of Hong Kong like other Muslims in other parts of the world have preserved their religious life and culture through their religious symbols. Amongst these religious symbols the most important and omnipresent are their worshiping places known as Mosques and their burial places known as graveyards. Mosques are not only the prayers’ places but also community gathering places where the Muslims are supposed to not only pray five times daily but also to discuss their worldly as well as religious problems. The graveyards are the last abode of Muslims, which are visited by the Muslims on all auspicious occasions for the remembrance of their dead family members as well as friends.
    Keyword: 무슬림
    Author: Syed Minhaj ul Hassan
    Poblication Year: 2015
    Language: English
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Arab History
    The Struggle for Supremacy between the Turkic and Chinese Empires for the Trade on the Silk Road
    In the past, the Silk Road3) in the Northern Eurasian continent4) was initially the main passage to trade, transportation, and civilization. The Silk Road, which connected the East and West for the first time, became the center for exchanging ideas and culture, trading and diplomatic relations. The Silk Road played a significant role for linking China with the West and interchanging various civilizations in the regions. However, more important is the fact that the interchange of civilizations on the Silk Road was facilitated by commercial activities. In short, the Silk Road was the trade and cultural web that enriched human civilization. The leading parts of the Silk Road history were the sedentary state China and the migratory states of Northern Eurasia. Although China was the nation that manufactured and exported silk and the Roman Empire was the ultimate importer, it was the nomadic state in the Northern Eurasia region that mediated the two nations located on the opposite ends of the Eurasian continent. In this regard, the mediator role of the northern nomadic states cannot be omitted when discussing the history of the Silk Road. The nomadic states that lived in the region continuously sought to trade for the national wealth and source of war funds. Thus, not only did the Northern Eurasia’s Silk Road link the civilization and history of the East and West, but was also a place of strategic competition for the struggle for existence. Merchants of the Silk Road had transported silk with camels, crossing the Pamir plateau and the central Asian desert to Rome. Between the long distance between Rome and China, the Turkic Empires, such as the Xiongnu (匈奴)5), Göktürk (突厥), and
    Keyword: 실크로드, 중국, 유목국가, 튀르크제국, 흉노, 돌궐, 위구르, 무역, 패권
    Author: 이희철
    Poblication Year: 2016
    Language: English
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Etc language Literature
    Islamic Perspectives on Shakespeare’s King Lear
    In this paper, we are going to discuss Shakespeare’s King Lear from an Islamic perspective with particular emphasis on the issue of filial ingratitude, and in particular its building motifs. We will show how justice, family, gender, society and class, and, to some extent, language and communication are a conditio sine qua non in the understanding of the dynamics of filial ingratitude as a motif. To put our discussion in perspective, we will also reflect upon attitudes of Islam towards this dominant theme drawing from the Islamic holy book, Qur’an, and situating it within the perimeters of King Lear. The methodology behind this paper is New Historicism since it allows us to relate the play to its past and to our present time. The paper does not venture into the problems of comparisons, or boundaries or indeed theoretical paradigms by particular schools or particular thinkers. Instead, whereas filial ingratitude is a universal theme, the question this paper seeks to answer is, what is the point of view in Islamic perspective on thematic aspects emerging from King Lear? What is the position of sons and daughters in Islamic societies who display ingratitude and cruelty towards their parents? The presupposition is that Islamic ethos must be put within proper context and by integrating common norms and universally acceptable tenets of mankind with a recognition of what constitutes the world of Islam. We are aware, in this regard, of the fact that there is a big difference between what Islam stipulates on Muslims and what Muslims may actually do. In other words, we speak here about Islamic values not the practises of Muslims.
    Keyword: King Lear, Shakespeare, drama, ethos, Surah, filial ingratitude, Qur’an, Islam
    Author: Hesham Khadawardi Mohamed Elaskary
    Poblication Year: 2016
    Language: English
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Science of Religion
    Moroccan Religious Identity to Fight Fundamentalism
    This paper examines the religious reforms launched by Morocco in the aftermath of the suicide bombings of Casablanca in May 16, 2003, which aims to foster a national religious identity capable of countering the increasing intrusion of extremism. This religious identity focuses on promoting the Maliki rite ‘madhab’, Ash’ari theology, and Sufism against the growing peril of Jihadi and the rising threat of fundamentalist groups such as al-Qaeda and ISIL. The main research question of this paper is to what extent promoting a national religious identity was successful in combatting internal terrorism menace in post 2003’s attacks? This paper argues that Morocco has successfully prevented the occurrence of any major terrorist attack similar to the suicide bombings of 2003, through promoting and enforcing a national religious identity. This paper will test the success of the religious identity in curbing fundamentalism by measuring the number of terrorist attacks carried out across the country, ‘de-radicalization’ of Salafi-Jihadists, and the request made by other countries to import Moroccan expertise in deradicalization, namely Mali and France.
    Keyword: Religious Identity, terrorism, Moroccan model, Salafi-Jihadists
    Author: Mohamed El Bouchikhi
    Poblication Year: 2016
    Language: English
    Country: Morocco
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    THE EMERGENCE OF ETHNO-RELIGIOUS CONFLICTS IN IRAQ
    AS the first part to study ethno-religious conflicts and rebuilding the state in Iraq 2003 to 2009, the thesis will ultimately discuss why ethno-religious conflicts in Iraq emerged among the Sunnis, the Shiites and the Kurds in the beginning. In terms of studying the emergence and the brutalization of ethno-religious conflicts in Iraqi history, this paper will chronologically investigate these conflicts from a transitional period between the end of the Ottoman Empire (1550 - 1914) and the British mandate (1914 - 1932) in terms of the state formation of Iraq by the British authorities and according to the British interests in Iraq. As well, this paper will discuss how these conflicts played a significant role in the Iraqi political situation under the monarchy (1932 - 1958) and the Saddam regime (1958 - 1990). It explains how and when the Ba'th party emerged as the Iraqi political entity and how Saddam grew to play a significant role in Iraqi politics, how he manipulated these conflicts and used them as a means for his suppression of Iraqi political and religious minorities and maintaining his power.
    Keyword: Ethno Conflicts, Religious Conflicts, History, Iraq, Iraqi War, The US  Invasion of Iraq, Ottoman, Saddam Husein
    Author: 진용기
    Poblication Year: 2016
    Language: English
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    Monarchy and Political Parties in Morocco A Study on The Power Relationship
    This paper aims to study the power relationship between the monarchy and political parties in post-independence Morocco. In the midst of the struggle for independence against the French and Spaniards, political parties came to light in Morocco early 1930s. It was a turning point in the struggle for independence when the urban elite took the lead by political means. As the kingdom gained its independence mid-1950s, the political parties and the monarchy that fought together for independence turned against each other seeking to monopolize the political sphere mainly the Istiqlal [Independence] Party (PI). This paper seeks to examine the power relationship between the monarchy and the political parties in post-independent Morocco through the main research question, how did the monarchy ensure its political supremacy over other political entities in the kingdom. This paper argues that the monarchy weakened the opposition parties using all the means such as harsh repression, marginalizing, mirroring pro-monarchy political parties, fragmenting the partisan sphere, and co-opting to weaken its political opponents. The result, as a distorted partisan sphere, numerous numbers of useless political parties, while the monarchy emerged as the vanquisher of a fierce political struggle with the political parties.
    Keyword: Monarchy, Political Parties, Political Supremacy, Co-opting. 군주국, 정당, 흡수, 정치적 최극위
    Author: Mohamed El Bouchikhi
    Poblication Year: 2018
    Language: English
    Country: Morocco
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    Concepts of Conquest and Occupation
    In the past era, earlier before establishing the modern international law and the United Nations, both conquest and military occupation were worldwide happening all over the world. This includes the period of the existence of Islamic power in the Iberian Peninsula, which some describe as an occupation of other countries territories, while others describe it as a conquest for those territories. However, the word ‘conquest’ almost disappeared on describing wars for long time but reappeared in some news about wars of recent era, while the word ‘occupation’ continued and did not disappear from our modern world. Approaching the two concepts and explaining the similarity and difference between them can clarify the indications of applying each concept and the intentions behind this. In Arabic language, the language of Muslims holy book of Quran, the indication for the two concepts of ‘conquest’ and ‘occupation’ is totally different, in a way that many arguments can arouse to prove which of the two concepts give the right description for some cases. However, both of the two concepts have similarity in meaning on the point that both of them refer to an action using the force (usually military force) to control another country. In Arabic the ifference indications of the two concepts is very obvious to show that one has a positive meaning and the other implies a negative sense of hostility. This can be clear seeing that the Arabic word for conquest (fatḥ فتح (is only used to express Muslim rule of other countries, while the Arabic word for occupation (iḥtilāl) is used to describe foreign rule for Muslim countries. In this sense, there are Arabic writings defending the Muslim rule of Iberian Peninsula (Andalusia) calling it conquest and refuse to call it occupation. This paper will try to discuss the difference between these two concepts (conquest, occupation), and on the other hand, it will try to apply these terms onto the case of Muslim rule in Iberian Peninsula, to determine whether it was a conquest or an occupation for the territories.
    Keyword: Conquest, occupation, Islam, Iberian Peninsula, Andalusia, Reconquista.
    Author: Mona Farouk M. Ahmed
    Poblication Year: 2019
    Language: English
    Country: Spain
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    The Prospects of Political Islam and State Policy in Central Asia
    This paper will determine the nature of the politicization of Islam, analyses the causes and consequences of this process in the countries of Central Asia. The main stimulating factors behind the politicization of Islam are the collapse of the bipolar system of the world and the discrediting of the dominant communist ideology, which led to the Islamic Renaissance in the region. The negative consequence of the politicization of Islam was the spread of extremist organizations of a radical sense, which puts the security level of the countries of the region under control. After the collapse of the former USSR, the Muslim communities of the countries of Central Asia were able to return to normal conditions of religious life, legally carry out their rites and traditions (Akbarov, 2003). Confirmation of this process is the rapid increase in the number of mosques, madrasas, higher theological schools, the emergence and active dissemination on a large scale of religious literature. It was the collapse of the former USSR that was the starting point of the Islamic Renaissance of the Central Asian region and pushed the countries of the region under study to the world of Islam. Meanwhile, in the Islamic world, there is a vigorous activity of religious-political organizations and radical extremist movements. Islam in the 20th and 21st centuries is a factor that has a direct impact on the internal and external political processes of countries at the regional and international level. The politicization of Islam is the subject of social and political tensions in the world. The disintegration of the bipolar system and the selfdestruction of the communist ideology were the stimulating factors of the politicization of Islam in the countries of Central Asia.
    Keyword: Islam, Central Asia, politics, process, religion.
    Author: Azamat Akbarov
    Poblication Year: 2019
    Language: English
    Country: Turkey
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Science of Religion
    Discourses on Diversity in Medieval Interpretation of the Qur’ān
    References to historical conceptions of diversity in the Islamic tradition have become an important part of modern debates about Islam, tolerance, and pluralism. While the concepts of ikhtilāf (recognised difference of opinion among the Islamic jurists) in jurisprudence and ahl al-dhimma (protected communities of non-Muslims under Islamic rule) in the domain of interfaith relations, have received most scholarly attention, this article draws attention to conceptions of diversity in the field of exegesis of the Qur’ān (tafsīr), and in particular to the practice of many medieval exegetes who included into their commentaries a diversity of interpretations of the Qur’ānic verses. This practice has not passed unnoticed in modern scholarship. It has been attributed, for example, to the literary conventions of the genre of classical tafsīr, and explained as being beneficial for intraMuslim disputations in cases where the exegetes recorded the interpretations of their doctrinal opponents. It has also been treated as a manifestation of the juridical principle of ikhtilāf in the field of Qur’ānic exegesis. To complement this focus on the practice, this article raises a question about how medieval Muslim thinkers themselves engaged with the question of interpretative diversity with regard to the Qur’ān. The article offers a preliminary consideration of this question through an overview of the five selected discourses on exegetical diversity from among the medieval Muslim authors. Although their contributions by no means exhaust the treatment of this subject in medieval Islamic literature, they nevertheless exemplify a range of approaches to interpretative diversity, from explaining its causes by reference to epistemological challenges and the nature of language, and validating it through the recognition that the text itself has several levels of meaning; to attempts to justify exegetical diversity as reflecting the divine will, and, on the opposite side, to narrow its boundaries. As such, these discourses could provide a starting point for further study of conceptions and attitudes to interpretative diversity in the Islamic tradition.
    Keyword: Diversity, Qur’ānic exegesis, tafsīr, interpretation of the Qur’ān
    Author: Alena Kulinich
    Poblication Year: 2019
    Language: English
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    The Utility of Organization of Islamic Cooperation in Solving Political Crisis
    In international law, governments have been trying to resolve conflicts by interactions with other governments; this has led to the foundation of various international and regional organizations. The Organization of the Islamic Cooperation has formed on the basis of interaction between Islamic states as well as nonmember states. The Organization of the Islamic Cooperation is a political and international organ which is the only international governmental institute formed on religious principles. Although the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) stands to foster cooperation among Muslim states in economic, social, and cultural fields, its prime objective is to 'promote Islamic solidarity among member states'. Conflict resolution among member states, therefore, is one of the principal functions of the OIC. Recent changes in the Middle East can be considered as a trial of the Charter of the OIC to investigate how it resolves disputes among member states. As the Organization of Islamic Cooperation is a cultural and political organization; the question is how it has been successful in resolving disputes between member states and nonmember governments, and what legal and political methods are applied by OIC? This article seeks to address the legal status of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation as one of the international capacities that attempts to provide grounds for peaceful negotiations and security. It seems that the organization has significant potentials to consolidate the dialogue among member states; however, despite the capabilities, it has failed to play an important role in resolving disputes among the member states and maintaining regional peace and security.
    Keyword: Organization of Islamic Cooperation, Middle East, Regional Security, Islamic Countries, Political Crisis .
    Author: Motahare Mozafari
    Poblication Year: 2019
    Language: English
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Science of Law
    Halal Sea food as per Five Major Islamic Jurisprudences
    Islam is a law oriented religion. Its instructions cover all aspects of the individual and social life of Muslims. Halal in terms of the dietary standard means permitted and lawful eating, drinking, and using. Halal and haram (prohibited) as divine orders are important code of conduct for Muslim lifestyle. It is also important for non-Muslims, because they have close ties with Muslims. Since Muslim countries are one of the largest and most attractive markets in the world, having a deep knowledge of their culture, values and food standards is an important issue. This study attempts to examine the halal and haram seafood from the main five Islamic legal point of view. It is a qualitative, comparative, and jurisprudential study. Therefore, by referring to the primary sources of the five legal schools (Hanafi, Shafi’i, Maliki, Hanbali, and Shia), relevant materials were collected, classified, and discussed, and the conclusions were drawn accordingly. This paper classifies the jurisprudential differences resulting from the application of different research methods on halal seafood, such as evaluation of the authenticity of the prophetic traditions, classification of the primary sources, interpretation of words, applying the scientific researches, and using modern technology. About the halal seafood standards, it concludes that without any controversy, all scaly fishes and shrimps are halal, but the jurists disagree on other seafood. Even there is no consensus among the jurists from the same school on certain seafood.
    Keyword: Sea Food, Jurisprudence, Halal, Haram, Permitted, Lawful, Prohibited.
    Author: Mozafari, Mohammad Hassan
    Poblication Year: 2019
    Language: English
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Science of Religion
    Presence of Islam in Spain Since the Reconquista
    Spain’s history has witnessed a serious decline of the presence of Islam for long period after the end of Muslim rule through the so-called Reconquista, which was followed by a Christian rule that persecutes Muslims and forced their conversions to Catholicism until Islam’s presence in Spain had vanished within the 17th century. However, in Modern times, Spain started to adopt democratic policies that permit the freedom of religions, which allowed Islam to re-appear in Spain with the emergence of a Spanish Muslim minority. This paper will try to shed light on this Muslim minority in Spain trying to search for its linkages with Medieval Muslim Spain (Al-Andalus). This would be through searching the formation of the Modern Spanish Muslim minority, and its activities, to see how far it has relations with the Andalusian identity. These relations might be based on the self-estimation within the Muslim minority itself according to the internal perception of Muslims Spaniards themselves for their roots or connections with the Andalusian heritage of Spain. From the other hand, linkages with Al-Andalus also could be according to the external vision of other members of Spanish society for the Andalusian roots of the risen Muslim community in Spain, as this may have impacts on the social cohesion in Spain.
    Keyword: Islam, Muslim minority, Al-Andalus, Reconquista, Spain.
    Author: Mona Farouk M. Ahmed
    Poblication Year: 2019
    Language: English
    Country: Spain
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    칼디란에 관한 소고
    Competing Kurdish nationalist movements have been an integral part of Middle Eastern politics in at least four states for over a century now. Yet, scholars disagree on the origins, significance, and development of Kurdish nationalism. Moving beyond the misleadingly binary “constructivism vs primordialism” paradigm that has left the field theoretically perplexed, this paper scrutinizes the often-mentioned, but glossed over pre-modern Kurdish consciousness. Most scholars who address this phenomenon argue that it began with the literature of the late-16th and 17th centuries, but in doing so they ignore a paramount milestone in Kurdish cooperative political development. By employing Anthony Smith’s concept of ethnie, this paper argues that the Kurdish emirs’ decision to coordinate their efforts in the Battle of Chaldiran in attaining their desired political outcome marks the origin of pre-modern Kurdish political organization.
    Keyword: 쿠르드, 쿠르드 민족주의, 칼디란(Chaldiran), 민족의식, 에스니 (ethnie), 수평적 에스니(lateral ethnie). Kurds, Kurdish nationalism, ethnie, Chaldiran, national consciousness, lateral ethnie.
    Author: Robert Lawrence
    Poblication Year: 2022
    Language: English
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Folklore
    이슬람에서의 진(Jinn)과 민속신앙
    Islam is the union of politics and religion and consists of belief and behavior. That is to say, Islam is not only a system of belief(religion) but also a way of life covering politics, economies, society, etc., the human life in general and a high-levelled complex culture, and is a world of belief and practice containing both religion and mundane life. The fact that Islam is union of politics and religion and consists of belief and behavior can be construed that Islam consists of Shari'ah (Islamic Law) and belief, and the relation of the two is not clearly separated each other but retains a form of mutual complement. Accordingly, faith includes the law of Islam, and the law of Islam is grounded on belief. the role of Islamic Law is wider than the positive laws of other cultures, and is belief and ideology as well as law at the same time. Therefore, the trend of non-Islamic world to make the same use of the meaning of legislation of the positive law and the concept of Shari'ah by interpreting it as an Islamic law is the result of either the narrow interpretation of the concept of Shar'ah or the misunderstanding of wrong interpretation. Belief constructs Aqīdah (creed) and Aqīdah is the practical principle of Islamic law. Belief and behavior or Aqīdah and Sari'ah have such a corelation as tree and fruit, cause and effect, or prologue and epilogue have each other. Aqīdah means the belief in the absolute said and emphasized through the foreseers and prophets whom He sent to do so on His belief, the ideology of the one only God not permitting any belief in other gods and the original belief being aware of obedience in general to the owner of power. Therefore, Aqīdah in Islam is alpha and omega of the Muslims' belief and as well as a metaphysics based on the unquestionable said grounds (God's saying). Such belief can be divided into six beliefs; First, the belief in the one and only God as the Creator, second in such invisible beings as Angel, Satan and Jinn, third in the Scriptures, fourth in the foreseers and prophets, fifth in the Judgement Day and sixth in fate. This study aims at seeing into the definition. characteristics and role of those phrases about Jinn as described in the Qur'an and Hadīth in order to know the way of how the Muslims understand the being of Jinn, the one of the six belief as mentioned above. The Jinn did not appear first with the advent of Islam, but originally existed in Arab folk religion and its concept changed with the advent of Islam. Also the Jinn is surmised to have played a important role in absorbing the spirits of the areas and to have contributed a lot to the settlement of Islam. Therefore, the study is to see into the concept of Jinn in the Arab folk religion after looking into the same in Islam,. There appear a great number of devils in the such a novel as the Arabian Nights read a lot by the general public, the phrases where the devils confess themselves Jinn and expression where the Jinn converted at cetera. It very widely in the general public. The ideology of spirit which the Arabians had absorbed, assimilated and Islamized many of the neighboring different cultures in the course of becoming a general religion as the Islam spread all over the world, and also the spirit ideology of the areas was absorbed into and assimilated with the Jinn, contributed a lot to the settlement of Islam and is still present mixed with the concept of Jinn of the orthodox Islam in the general public.
    Keyword: Jinn, Folk Religion, Islam, Arab, Sharī'ah, Creed, Creation, Angel, Insanity, Poet
    Author: Won Sam Lee
    Poblication Year: 2003
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Islam Philosophy
    철학자들에 대한 알 가잘리의 비판과 그 정치적 배경
    Al-Ghazālī(1058-1111), the great Ash‘arite theologian, is well known as the author of Incoherence of philosophers(Tahāfut al-Falāsifa). In this work, he discussed twenty questions of philosophical doctrine in which he regarded philosophers as mistaken and misguided. Especially three of them he denounced as more serious than the others and tantamount to infidelity. The three doctrines are: the eternality of the world, God’s ignorance of the particulars , and the denial of bodily resurrection. He has completed the work in 1095. After about 10 years, he wrote Difference between Islam and Zandaqah(Fayṣal al-Tafriqa Bayn al-Islām wa `l-Zandaqah) to expound the legal ground upon which he condemned the philosophers to infidelity. Here we can say that al-Ghazālī was very sincere and consistent in the rejection of philosophy throughout his lifetime. This paper aims to understand the reason why al-Ghazālī attacked the philosophers. To do this job, al-Ghazālī’s main works such as Incoherence of philosophers and Difference between Islam and Zandaqa will be analyzed in detail. This paper consists of 5 parts: 1. Introduction, 2. Whom does al-Ghazālī exactly mean by the name ‘philosophers’?, 3. The pronouncement of infidelity and the three philosophical doctrines, 4. The pronouncement of infidelity and its political background. As conclusions, following points will be mentioned. First, In Incoherence of philosophers, al-Ghazālī’s attack was mainly focused on Ibn Sīnā. All of the three philosophical doctrines, upon which he denounced the philosophers as infidels, are Ibn Sīnā’s opinions appearing in his main works. Second, al-Ghazālī made attacks on Ibn Sīnā as a preparation to attack Ismā‘īlites. The Ismā‘īlites, as a main Shi‘ite sect, disapproved the ‘Abbāsid caliphs and maintained political rivalry with them between 10th-12th centuries. After they established the Fāṭimid dynasty in 969, they started to threaten the ‘Abbāsid government ideologically and militantly. Al-Ghazālī refuted the Ismā‘īlites and Ibn Sīnā at the same time, because both of them belonged to the same neo-platonist trend. Third, the Ash‘arite school , to which al-Ghazālī belonged, has been traditionally involved in defending the ‘Abbāsid government from the Ismā‘īlites. Al-Ghazālī’s attack on Ibn Sīnā was a part of his political attacks on the Ismā‘īlites.
    Keyword: Al-Ghazālī, Incoherence of philosophers, Ibn Sīnā, the Ismā‘īlites, Neo-platonism, The Theory of Emanation, Niẓām al-Mulk, Niẓāmiyah Madrasa, al-Azhar, Ikhwān al-Ṣafā
    Author: Jeoung Myoung Kim
    Poblication Year: 2003
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Women
    팔레스타인 여성과 이슬람 근본주의
    It has been usual that the men encourage or lead the women to participate in the ethical movements in many cases of colonial movements of the third world. Also, in the case of Palestine, the men stirred up the women's participation in the political affairs by the recognition of their role in the secular movement under the urgent situation of the national liberation movement. As the result, many Palestinian women's organizations were established to encourage women's social and political activities. Nevertheless, their radical statue is not changed nor developed. First, it is ascribed to the patriarchal system that has been prevailed in that society. Secondly, Palestinian Authority is not willing to deal with the gender problems, or even so, it has insufficient power to resolve the problems. And thirdly, Islamic fundamental movements in Palestine effect on the role, statue, and activity of Palestinian women. Islamic fundamentalism has settled down in Palestine since it has spreaded wide in Islamic world during 1970's. Islamic fundamentalists have made use of the matter of women to confirm their identity. Focusing on the matter of women's Ḥijāb, they could attract the people who have been tired of the secular government's policy. So, this paper will discuss Palestinian women's activities before the spread of Islamic fundamentalism, the appearance of Palestinian Islamic fundamentalism, Palestinian Islamic fundamentalism and the women, and the women's responses and views on Palestinian Islamic fundamentalism. And finally, it aims to study on the relation between Palestinian Women and Islamic fundamentalism to figure out the role of Islam in Muslim women's role and position.
    Keyword: Gender, Feminism, Palestinian Women, Muslim Women, Palestine, Islamic Fundamentalism, Palestinian Islamic Fundamentalism, Hamas, Ḥijāb, Intifada
    Author: Hee Sun Cho
    Poblication Year: 2003
    Language: Korean
    Country: Palestine
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Science of Religion
    중앙아시아에서 종교지도자의 기능과 역할
    The aim of this paper is to examine the function and role of clerics in Central Asian Islam with emphasis on Mullah, Sheik and Bibiotun. In Central Asia there are two categories of mullah: official ones and unofficial ones. The social status of the two groups is very different. The first group, who have diplomas, conduct their religious activities openly on a legal basis. The unregistered mullahs conduct their religious activities clandestinely. They are recruited from among the students of the underground maktabs. While the unregistered mullahs conduct their duties on an illegal basis, their should have jobs to lead their lives. Comparing to the former, the latter serve Islam very well on daily level, because they know very well what their people need irrespective of islamic knowledges. Sheiks have a very large influence on the population of Central Asia, because they are in constant contact with people. The sheiks' primary influence is on the female portion of society, since the majority of pilgrims to the mazars are women, who believe the keepers of the mazars without question. It is here that the main shaper of children gets the values that she then transfers to the younger children. In Central Asian Islam, it is not too much to say that bibiotuns play very important roles in spreading islamic knowledges to society. The bibiotuns' primary influence is on the female portion of society like the mullahs. The job of the bibiotun is to oversee all the female rituals in the mahalla. It is taken by a woman who has been specially prepared for the role. In addition to absolutely thorough knowledge of the rituals, she must know the norms of good Muslim behaviour. Candidates for the post of bibiotun are chosen from among girls seven to eight years old. who then go through the same preparation in the girls' maktabs as the boys who will become the future mullahs do in theirs. As our important future task, the function and role of bibiotun should be reexamined well through field work.
    Keyword: mullah, sheik, bibiotun, Central Asia, Islam, mahalla, muslim, Official Islam, Parallel Islam, mazar
    Author: Duck Chan Woo
    Poblication Year: 2003
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Arab History
    팔레스타인 이슬람운동의 현황과 전망
    The Islamic religious movement in Palestine is not how to confront Zionist barbarities; it is rather to ensure that the second Intifada (appropriately named the al-Aqsa Intifada) does not suffer the same fate as the first Intifada(1987-1993). Then, the sacrifices of the Palestinians were bartered away in Oslo, culminating in the infamous accords signed on the White House lawn in September 1993. The PLO, which had played little part in the first Intifada were imposed upon the Palestinian people to do the Zionists
    Keyword: Palestine, the Islamic Religious Movement, Palestine Muslim Brotherhood, Islamic Liberation Party, Palestinian Islamic Jihad, Hamas, the Palestinian popular uprising(the Intifada), the al-Aqsa Infifada, Palestinian Islamic fundamentalism, Palestinian Authority
    Author: Wang Jong Yoo
    Poblication Year: 2003
    Language: Korean
    Country: Palestine
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Women
    튀니지 가족법을 통해서 본 튀니지 현대 여성상
    Until now, from the perspective of the Western world, it is known that Muslim women in the Arab world are oppressed by Muslim men, Muslim Religious Laws, and a patriarchal society, and they cannot exercise any social or institutional rights By contrast, Family Law in Tunisia, which is characterized by monogamy, concentrates on respect for basic human rights, and is considered different from the laws of neighboring Arab Muslim countries. It is not too much to say that Tunisian women have become an ideal example of the improvement of Muslim women's rights in Arab countries, as a result of its Family Law. Like other Muslim women, traditional Tunisian women used to be considered so incompetent and weak that they could not work, and had to depend on men. The turning point for the transformation of these traditional Tunisian women was the Family Law which was enacted in 1956. Tunisia's Family Law can be said to be a product of Islamic reform movement from the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century. As Tunisians became increasingly interested in the issue of women, the Family Law was established. Tunisian reformist thinkers emphasized the gender equality of the original religion based on the Islamic scripture the Qurān, and the memoirs of the prophet Muhammad Ḥadīṯ. Thus, they demanded education and inheritance rights that women at that time were not allowed , together with the right to take part in society. In addition, the reformists emphasized the need to reinterpret Sharī'ah Law, (which had influenced the Muslim world for a long time), and reintroduced the notion of gender equality into Muslim philosophy, presenting an open attitude towards women. Responding to these movements, Tunisian Family Law was promulgated in 1956, and subsequently revised 6 times, as a result of changes of government and the development of society. The status and the rights of women in contemporary Tunisia have been improved
    Keyword: Muslim women, Tunisian woman ,Tunisia's Family Law, Sharī'ah Law, monogamy, Islam Reform Movement, Tunisian reformist,, gender equality, Inheritance right of the woman
    Author: Hyo Jung Kim
    Poblication Year: 2003
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Language
    요르단 구어체 아랍어의 변종과 음운적 특성에 대한 연구
    The purpose of this paper is to provide the classification of Jordanian Colloquial Arabic variations and its phonological features by way of surveying the linguistic situation in Jordan. Since Ferguson(1959) first proposed the English term "diglossia" modeling it on the French diglossie, there have been several attempts to describe the diglossic situation within the Arab world. But the concept of diglossia which refers to the coexistence of the High variety (MSA) and the Low variety (regional dialects) in a society has recently changed to the triglossic situation in which three Arabic varieties(including the Middle varieties) or more than it exist. In this respect, Jordan society also does not go beyond the triglossic situation. Likewise, Jordan society has the High variety (MSA) , the Middle varieties, and the Low varieties. Chapter 2 is simply a survey of the linguistic situation in Jordan in terms of the triglossic situation, and classifies Jordanian Arabic into three varieties - Madani, Fallahi, and Bedouin according to the regional and phonological distinctions. Chapter 3 provides a linguistic analysis of each of three varieties, focusing on the phonological distinctions such as preservation of the interdentals, voiced realization of the /q/ as /g/ , and preservation of the gender distinction in the second and third person plural of pronouns and verbs. In order to attain the goal the paper is designed to investigate Jordanian Colloquial Arabic spoken by educated groups and most particularly by the university students.
    Keyword: Sociolinguistics: Arabic Dialect
    Author: Jin Young Choi
    Poblication Year: 2003
    Language: Korean
    Country: Jordan
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Language
    안달루스의 아랍어-스페인어 상호관계 연구
    With the dominance of Islam among the Andalusian population, the Arabic language naturally began to spread until it soon became the common language of the different races that were being fused in the Andalusian crucible. Even Spainards who persisted in their adherence to Christianity soon assimilated Arab culture and adopted the language of their conquerors without reluctance. It is quite natural during this amply extensive period to observe considerable cultural and linguistic influence of Arabic on Spanish. What is interesting is the fact that the influence seems to be a two-way traffic of cultural and linguistic exchange though more in the direction of Spanish than in the direction of Arabic. However this did not mean that Spain had forgotten its Latin. In the case the Latin vernacular, this was spoken not only among Christians but also among Andalusian Muslims. This use of two languages in Andalusia is highly important, as we shall later see that it gave birth through Andalusian invention to a new genre of lyric poetry which was a mixture of Arabic and Latin vernacular- namely, the poetry of the muwashshah and the zajal, which were destined to exert a far-reaching influence on the literature of the Arab East as well as on that of Europe in the West.
    Keyword: Andalusia, Arabic, Spanish, linguistic influence, linguistic exchange, lyric poetry, muwashshah, zajal
    Author: Jong Wha Lee
    Poblication Year: 2003
    Language: Korean
    Country: Spain
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Arab History
    카와리지의 급진주의와 반정운동
    Khawarij is the first political sect in the Ummah al-Islamiyah(Islamaic community) which rose in opposition to the Ummayyad dynasty on issues of tradition and theory of Sunni caliphate system throughout Ummayyad period. By the time went, it became a religious sect that stood on speculiar dogmatic such as 'one who commits a big sin (kabirah) becomes nonbeliever(al-kafir)' with the gist of the belief inspiring by a idea of that 'the main idea of their religion is practice'. Their activism of strict belief on the teachings of Islam like 'do good and forbid bad' berates others as nonbelievers and produced extreme radicalism who believed that big sinners and apostates should be killed. As a result of this fanatic radicalism, most of their sects except al-Ibadyyah, who took a moderate road, had disappeared in the 8th century. Though it is true that their creed was extremely dogmatic, stressing on the strict harmony between belief and practice, but their teaching contributed to the theological development of other sects such as Sunni, Shi'a, Murji'a and Mu'tazila since then. In addition to this, their puritanic belief and radical thought influenced the movement and thought for the modern Muslim reformation.Their teachings are still fresh in mind of radical extremists struggling against secular regime with the anti-westernism and anti-secularism of Islamic fundamentalists such as Muslim brotherhood in the every corner of world today.
    Keyword: Khawarij, Radicalism, Islamic sects, Kabirah, l-Ibaddyyah, Fundamentalism, Muslim extremist, Fanatic Radicalism, al-Kafir, Anti-regime movement
    Author: Joo Young Sohn
    Poblication Year: 2004
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Arab History
    팔레스타인과 이스라엘의 분쟁에서 이슬람 원리주의 운동의 역할
    This study is designed to research on the role of Islamic Fundamentalism in the conflict between Palestine and Israel from the establishment of Israel in 1948 to the Agreement of Wye River. In Chapter Ⅰ, the purpose of this study is presented with some explanation of Intifada, the Road Map of Peace Process in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and the possibilities of a peaceful settlement between Palestinians and Israelis. This study is deeply concerned with the establishment of the Palestinian independent state and the nature of Islamic Fundamentalism in Israel. In Chapter Ⅱ, the theory of formation of Islamic Fundamentalism and its application is described. The theories of Marty, Appleby, John L. Esposito, Daniel Pipes, John Obert Voll, John Obert Voll, and Gilles Keppel are presented. Marty and Appleby presented crisis theory. John L. Esposito and Daniel Pipes presented success theory. John Obert Voll and Gilles Keppel presented evolution theory. But it is almost impossible to adopt only one theory to explain Islamic Fundamentalism. So it is important to understand exactly on the various movements of Islamic Fundamentalism and to analyse the Islamic Fundamentalism on the basis of evolution theory. In Chapter Ⅲ, the history of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and its background is presented. The history of the Jews in Europe, the emergence of political Zionism, the Balfour declaration, the Mandate for Palestine, British Administration, the Jew's immigration, the Jewish community in the World War Ⅰ and Ⅱ and the birth of the State of Israel were described. In Chapter Ⅳ, the activities of the Islamic Fundamentalism in Palestine are presented. The history of the Islamic Fundamentalism in Palestine, its process, the Intifada in 1987 and 1991, the internal competition and cooperation of the Islamic groups in Palestine, and their pragmatic attitude to establish the independent state of Palestine were mentioned. In Chapter Ⅴ, the nature of Islamic Fundamentalism in Israel ie presented. It contains the political environments of Israel, historical background of Islamic Fundamentalism in Israel, the formation of the Duruzs, its activities, the Islamic movements in 1970s - 1990s, the attitude on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and their pragmatic line(the acceptance of a two-state solution). In conclusion, it is said that the pragmatic line to solve the Israeli-Palestinian conflict peacefully is witnessed both in the Islamic Fundamentalism in Palestine and in Israel. The Arab-Israeli peace process will influence the development of the Islamic Fundamentalism in Palestine and Israel. The main trend in the Islamic Fundamentalism in Palestine and in Israel will be characterized by pragmatism. And the birth of the independent state of Palestine might result in the weakening of the radical Islamic movements in Palestine and Israel.
    Keyword: Palestine, Israel, Islamic Fundamentalism, Intifada, Duruz
    Author: Byung Ha Hwang
    Poblication Year: 2004
    Language: Korean
    Country: Palestine
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Arab History
    팔레스타인과 이스라엘의 분쟁에서 이슬람 원리주의 운동의 역할
    This study is designed to research on the role of Islamic Fundamentalism in the conflict between Palestine and Israel from the establishment of Israel in 1948 to the Agreement of Wye River. In Chapter Ⅰ, the purpose of this study is presented with some explanation of Intifada, the Road Map of Peace Process in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and the possibilities of a peaceful settlement between Palestinians and Israelis. This study is deeply concerned with the establishment of the Palestinian independent state and the nature of Islamic Fundamentalism in Israel. In Chapter Ⅱ, the theory of formation of Islamic Fundamentalism and its application is described. The theories of Marty, Appleby, John L. Esposito, Daniel Pipes, John Obert Voll, John Obert Voll, and Gilles Keppel are presented. Marty and Appleby presented crisis theory. John L. Esposito and Daniel Pipes presented success theory. John Obert Voll and Gilles Keppel presented evolution theory. But it is almost impossible to adopt only one theory to explain Islamic Fundamentalism. So it is important to understand exactly on the various movements of Islamic Fundamentalism and to analyse the Islamic Fundamentalism on the basis of evolution theory. In Chapter Ⅲ, the history of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and its background is presented. The history of the Jews in Europe, the emergence of political Zionism, the Balfour declaration, the Mandate for Palestine, British Administration, the Jew's immigration, the Jewish community in the World War Ⅰ and Ⅱ and the birth of the State of Israel were described. In Chapter Ⅳ, the activities of the Islamic Fundamentalism in Palestine are presented. The history of the Islamic Fundamentalism in Palestine, its process, the Intifada in 1987 and 1991, the internal competition and cooperation of the Islamic groups in Palestine, and their pragmatic attitude to establish the independent state of Palestine were mentioned. In Chapter Ⅴ, the nature of Islamic Fundamentalism in Israel ie presented. It contains the political environments of Israel, historical background of Islamic Fundamentalism in Israel, the formation of the Duruzs, its activities, the Islamic movements in 1970s - 1990s, the attitude on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and their pragmatic line(the acceptance of a two-state solution). In conclusion, it is said that the pragmatic line to solve the Israeli-Palestinian conflict peacefully is witnessed both in the Islamic Fundamentalism in Palestine and in Israel. The Arab-Israeli peace process will influence the development of the Islamic Fundamentalism in Palestine and Israel. The main trend in the Islamic Fundamentalism in Palestine and in Israel will be characterized by pragmatism. And the birth of the independent state of Palestine might result in the weakening of the radical Islamic movements in Palestine and Israel.
    Keyword: Palestine, Israel, Islamic Fundamentalism, Intifada, Duruz
    Author: Byung Ha Hwang
    Poblication Year: 2004
    Language: Korean
    Country: Israel
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Science of Religion
    종교 다원주의의 도전과 이슬람
    Issues of pluralism, democracy and Human Rights are of crucial importance to those Muslims who are in search for progressive Islam beyond 9/11, particularly to those who live in countries where Islam is a minority religious tradition. Historical Islam began as a minority tradition in a non-Muslim setting. When the Prophet Muhammad received the revelations in 610 CE, the people around him were largely tribal and polytheistic with christian and jewish minority. As with any new religious tradition, Islam would not have developed had it not been tolerant to other religions. Even after it became political and religious majority Islam was a tolerant religion. It was especially towards monotheistic religions such as Judaism and Christianity. Islam theology based on Qur'an identifies those religious tradition as the Providence of God. 'The People of the Book' as Christian and Juwish who dwell in Islamic countries were classified as dhimmis. They were under the social and economical protection of the government and enjoyed religious autonomy. But with the advent of modern society which is accompanied by humanism and secularism, the religious generosity of Islam lagged behind. Especially the Shari'a of ridda, 'apostasy' is contradictory the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Although islam recognizes other monotheistic religions such as Judaism, Christianity, it cannot embrace any new religious movements even they believe in the God. The question is what's the islamic view of religious pluralism. This article attempts to manifest the possibility of religious pluralism in islamic world.
    Keyword: Islam, Pluralism, Human Rights, New Religion, Religious Tolerance
    Author: Young Kyung Kim
    Poblication Year: 2004
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    인도네시아 4․5 총선거와 이슬람계 정당의 대연합 가능성에 대한 소고
    Indonesia is the biggest Islamic state in the world whose total population is 220 milion in 2003. During the last six decades in the modern government in Indonesia, Islamic parties have managed to create coalition governments. However, they have failed to organize their own strong government in long-term basis. During the Soeharto regime of 32 years, Islamic parties were forced to obey the military government. Fall of Soeharto regime immediately open the era of civil government. Therefore through the General Election on 7th June 1999, Abdurrahman Wahid, who was supported by Islamic PAN party, was elected as the first civilian president in Indonesia. But his presidential duration is very short due to the lack of harmony of power politics. Indonesia scheduled to have her 9th General Election on 15th April 2004 that contains very important meaning. There is no doubt that the coalition of non-Islamic parties including Megawati's PDI-P party and Akbar Tanjung's Golkar is more powerful than that of Islamic parties. But the economic dilemma under the Megawati government helped to reduce the nation-wide support for the PDI-P party. In the meantime, the second largest Golkar party has many presidential candidates. That means Golkar now is under the hard competition of leadership. In these circumstances, it is possible for Islamic parties led by Amien Rais to win the second round presidential competition, which is scheduled on 20th September 2004, if he succeeds to invite Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono as his running mate.
    Keyword: Indonesia`s General Election, Islamic Parties, Non Islamic Parties, Coalition Parties
    Author: Sueng Yun Yang
    Poblication Year: 2004
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    정치발전과 이슬람: 이스라엘 아랍 섹터의 사례연구
    Since the third wave of democratization of developing countries in the 1970s, the Western leading scholars in the field of the Middle Eastern studies have argued that the political underdevelopment in the Arab Muslim countries of Middle East originates from the religion of Islam without concrete empirical evidences. The aim of this paper is to explore the inter-relationship between political development and Islam in the Muslim sub-sector in Israel, defining the political development as an institutionalization of politics which pursues to advance the universal values such as freedom, equality and human rights, and the process of strengthening the capability of political system. This study focuses upon the question of whether the Islam as a religion and Arab Islamic movements in Israel have contributed or hindered to its political development by explicating. It examines interactions among the Israeli government's policy toward the Arab Muslim sector; its political system, consisted of mainly political parties of Israeli Arab sector; the domestic and international environment of the Israeli Arab political system. It also attempts to explore the changes in the values and attitudes of the constituents of the Israeli Arab society with the macro approach and micro politico-cultural approach. The Islamic movement of Israeli Arab sub-sector has been developed and increasingly become influential political actors in both of the level of local governments and the level of Israeli national politics with the tacit support of major Israeli national political parties, basing upon the social welfare institutions such as medical, educational and cultural organizations. After the Islamic movements had risen and become important actors, however, they have struggled for the strengthening of the identity of Palestinian Muslim and the political and economical equality of Arab Muslim Palestinians with the Israeli Jewish sector within the Israeli legal bounds. Their struggle and activities of the Islamic movements with the identity of Palestinian Arabs in the Jewish state have collided with the Israeli national regime of mainly Jewish identity. But their conflict resolution process has been institutionalized by Arab political parties in the Israeli Arab sector, the Palestinian national representative organization, human rights movements both of Israeli and Palestinian, Israeli Supreme Court, and the struggle and activities, and the institutionalization of the Islamic movements contributed to the strengthening of the Palestinian Muslim Arab identity, the increase of the capability of the Israeli Arab sub-political system. In this regard the Palestinian Islamic movements in the Israeli Arab sub-sector have played positive role for the political development of the Arab sub-sector political system.
    Keyword: Islam, Political Development, Israeli Palestinian Arabs, Islamic Movement in Israel, Israeli Arab sub-Political System, Israel Political System.
    Author: Young Chol Choe
    Poblication Year: 2004
    Language: Korean
    Country: Israel
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Economics
    이슬람 무이자 은행에 관한 연구
    A global network of financial institutions such as Islamic banks has started to take shape based on the principles of Islamic Economics. Islamic banking, based on the Quranic prohibition of charging interest, has moved from a theoretical concept to embrace hudreds of banks operating in more than 40 countries with 150 billion dollar deposits world-wide. Now Islamic banking is widely regarded as the fastest growing sector in the Middle Eastern financial market. The purpose of this paper is to explore and examine the foundation of prohibition of riba(interest) and its application to contemporary Islamic society : interest-free Islamic Banking. This paper consists of five parts. part 1 for introduction of this paper. Part Ⅱ deals with the general introduction(including objectives and principles) for Islamic economic system, basic purposes and operating principles of interest-free Islamic Banking. Part Ⅲ will be devoted to the detailed operating system of interest-free Islamic Banking. Part Ⅳ explicate the alternatives of prohibition of riba (profit & loss sharing system of Islamic interest-free bank) and some problems and prospects. Part Ⅴ for summary and conclusion. Interest-free banking seems to be of very recent origin. They have all recognized the need for commercial banks and the evil of interest in that enterprise, and have proposed banking system based on the concept of Mudarabaha, Musharaka, profit and loss sharing. The study revealed that adapting of interest-free Islamic banking system can be a good alternative to troublesome modern economic system and further attempts to adapt Islam to contemporary economic realities can be expected, as a Muslim might prefer to fix the contemporary economic problems by the Islamic ways. However, all efforts to deal with interest or other partial issues will not solve the problem of current Muslim societies, because it does not provide them with a system of their own which applies, represents and clarifies the Islamic philosophy. A partial application of Islamic ideas and policies have not been successful in most Muslim countries. To merely substitute interest on loans by other forms of interest or profit fails to offer a real alternative Finally, the study calls for more research to develope the concept and the instrument of Islamic financial system in order to be employed effectively in our economic life.
    Keyword: Islamic Bank, Interest-free bank, ushur-free bank, Profit & Loss Sharing System, Mudaraba, Musharaka, Murabaha
    Author: Deck Kyu Han
    Poblication Year: 2004
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Arabic Literature
    아도니스, 바야티, 사이얍의 시에 나타난 그리스신화
    Today some primary modern poets of free verse borrowed to use the several symbolic elements from the Greek myths and also from the Christian myths and the ancient Near-East myths. For the muslims who believe the only God Alla the use of the polytheistic Greek myths was properly denied for a long time. So the literary concern about the Greek myths was started from the nineteenth century under the influence of the French and the English literature. The Mahjar poets in America, actually most of them are christians, had used the Christian myths as a spring for their literature, but the use of the Greek myths was to be in fashion in Egypt. It was Abu Shadi that borrowed the style of the Greek myths in the Arab romantic poetry. He accepted the Greek myths from the poems of the English romantic poets, Shally and Keats and from the ones of the poets in Elizabethan era, Shakespeare, Spenser and Marlowe. In the thesis I will study how to express the Greek myths in the most famous Arab poets'(Adonis, Abd al-Wahab al-Bayyati and Badr Shakir al-Sayyab) poems. I will classify the contents in Sisyphus, Kerberos and Medusa. As a result of study I got the several things as follows. The above-mentioned poets used the symbols from the Greek myths in the negative. The image of Sisyphus condemned to ceaselessly rolling a rock to the top of a mountain, for Sayyab, were the painful Arabs and for Bayyati was the arab democrat expelled from his fatherland and wondered without any hopes. Meanwhile Sayyab used the Kerberos as the symbol of Iraqian communist to massacre his people, and used the Medusa as the light of the street lamp. In the poems of others except Sayyab and Bayyati I could not find the examples of the Greek myths. I think this is the proof of that the use of the polytheistic Greek myths in Arab world up to the present was denied as usual.
    Keyword: Adonis, Bayyati, Sayyab, the Greek myths, Sisypus, Kerberos, Medusa
    Author: Byung Pil Lim
    Poblication Year: 2004
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Folklore
    Study on the prophets in the Quran
    This paper deals with Adam and Hawwa in the Quran. They are the first man and the first woman created by Allah and lived in paradise. However, Iblis tempted them by saying that they could live for ever if they ate from that tree and would become like angels. They forget Allah's command and ate unintentionally from the tree, against Allah's command. But they soon came to regret their disobedience. They asked Allah for His forgiving. Allah forgave them and told them to go down to earth as vicegerency and live there for some time. At the same time Allah promised that they would be allowed to return to paradise as long as they and their children were obedient to Him in future. On the other hand Iblis was expelled from the paradise to earth because he disobeyed Allah's command to prostrate to Adam but he did not it on purpose. So, Adam and Hawwa came down to earth as vicegerency. On earth, they raised their children including Cain and Abel.
    Keyword: Allah, Adam, Hawwa, Iblis, Forgetting
    Author: Young Kil Choi
    Poblication Year: 2004
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Science of Religion
    Islam of Oman & its prospect
    It is not known when Oman was first settled but archaeological finds dating back to the 4th millennium BC. In 630 AD at the dawn of Islam the Prophet Muhammad sent a letter with 'Amr ibn al-'As to Jaifar and 'Abd, the two sons of al-Julanda ibn Mustansir who jointly ruled Oman from Sohar. The two brothers sent emissaries to meet the Prophet with their message that they embraced Islam and swore allegiance on behalf of their people. The Azd of Oman, after their early conversion, played a key part in the formative days of Islam when Basra in southern Iraq became an influential city and was the main base camp for Muslim conquests. It was here that the Ibadi doctrine which predominates in Oman was evolved. The Ibadis derive their name from Abdulla ibn Ibadi who appeared on the scene in about 683, growing up in the Caliph Mu'awiya's reign and dying in Abdul Malik ibn Marwan's(685-705). The Omanis adopted the doctrines of Ibadi Islam in the late 7th or early 8th century. Ibadi Islam in its earliest and strictest form was opposed to the idea of the Muslim community being ruled by a hereditary leader, which was to have repercussions throughout Oman's history. The Omani Ibadis elected their first Imam in 749, and a hereditary imamate emerged, which represented a break with strict Ibadi doctrine, lasting into the late 9th century. The Abbasids(750-1258) managed to suppress the imammate, but Oman itself managed to remain relatively free of Abbasid control. It also remained loyal to the Ibadi strain of Islam which is still dominant in the country today. In July 1970 Sultan Said ibn Taimur was overthrown by his only son, Qaboos, in a bloodless palace coup. He began to modernize his country. He affirmed his country's tradition of religious broadmindedness and vision in his National Day Speech in 1994. Condemning fanticism based on lack of correct knowledge among Muslim youth about their religion, which could lead to violence, discord and hatred, In an Omani Islamic society no distinction is made between the religious and the secular. But all matters specifically affecting Islam are now dealt with by the Ministry of Justice, Awqaf and Islamic Affairs. Other religions are tolerated and there are a number of Christian churches and Hindu temples in Oman. Oman will be changed in Islam by the government of Oman moderately.
    Keyword: Islam, Oman, Ibadi, Imam, Sultan
    Author: Kyung Keun Song
    Poblication Year: 2004
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Science of Religion
    The Islamic Movement of Yemen and Prospect
    Yemen is a country with deep Muslim traditions, but is often most mentioned for its relatively large Zaydi Shi'i group, even if this represents a minority in the country as a total. Yemen's north is the centre of Zaydism, the second largest group inside Shi'i Islam. Zaydism is known for putting less importance on the position of the Imam, than among the Twelver (Iran), perhaps because the Zaydis have enjoyed far more political and religious freedom than the other. The Zaydis have professed military and violent activities in this century (examples of this is the stubborn fight against the British colonialists in Aden and the occupation of the great mosque in Mecca in 1979). The people of Yemen have practically the experience of passing through a multitude of political ties, ideologies and government systems like no other state on the planet, from Marxism, democracy, Islamism, monarchy and a range of occupations (British, Ottoman to name a few). Their experience with Islamists had been soaked with support at times and total rejection at others, and today, it is at the point of rejection. The Islamists and the Islamic movements are at an end in Yemen. The international community represented by the United States will pinpoint and eradicate all whom they deem to be a terrorist, basically an Islamically oriented individual, and the government will gladly add to that list some of its own opponents that they deem to be a threat even if not an Islamist. It
    Keyword: Yemen, Zaydis, Sufism, Islamic movement, Islah
    Author: Wang Jong Yoo
    Poblication Year: 2004
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Women
    Islamic Family Law, Possibilities of Reform from a Women's Rights Perspective
    Among the four countries above the most consensus is observed in regard of the positive correlation between women's social status and development of the society. However the change of women's status in the family law depends on the social value. In Egypt and Morocco islamic identity is more emphasized, whereas the strong influence of western family law is most obvious in Turkey. In interview the Egyptians tend to resist the western influence with strong defence of their islamic family value. They believe the reformation of family law should be based on the interpretation of their religious code, which can be varied. Most of the Moroccan interviewee regard the bill of reformed family law in 2004 brings the islamic identity and promotion of women's status together. While in Egypt and Morocco the western influence on family law is generally denied, it is more accepted even with their strong identity as Muslim in Tunisia. Especially it appears that Tunisian government supports this moderate adoption of modern family law. In contrast the westernization of the family law is the only way of modernization in Turkey. But the westernized family law in Turkey seems to have conflict in reality, particularly in respect of kinship, rural life, and ignorance of uneducated women. In islamic value the promotion of women's right is limited to protection of motherhood and control of women's sexuality within the community. Muslims consider that the individualism in western family results in irresponsible sexuality, which endangers the value of community. For Muslims the marriage is a holly contract, in which fairness is more important than equality of man and wife.
    Keyword: Family law, Women's status, Islamic identity, Westernization, Fairness of gender
    Author: Hee Sun Cho
    Poblication Year: 2004
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Science of Law
    Research Study on Awareness of the Personal Status Law in Morocco
    The personal status law in Morocco was established and codified as follows: laws pertaining to marriage and the dissolution of that contract, December 22, 1857; laws pertaining to birth and its results, December 18, 1957; laws pertaining to legal qualification (legal capacity) and legal representation, January 25, 1958; gift laws, February 20, 1958; law of succession, April 3, 1958. These laws were legislated in accordance with the traditional Fiqh methodology. However with the advancement of society a portion of the personal status law was revised in 1993 as a result of a wide range of policies. The revision of the personal status law in 1993 stirred much controversy between those who supported the revision and those who were against it. The dispute continues even to this day. As a result, in 1999 the Morocco government began to formulate the family relationship institution and the form of personal status law in the direction of expanding the rights of women. In 2001 the royal advisory committee was formed for the personal status law. The policies for the advancement of women promoted by this committee have been promoted as a measure to protect society and the family. Presently the bill for the new personal status law has been completed and has been presented to the national congress. This study is a follow up of the "Islamic Personal Status Law, Possibilities of Reform from a Women's Rights Perspective - A Study through Changes of the Personal Status Law in Morocco." The study was conducted through interviews in the country. Replies given by the Moroccan intellects were analyzed to study the problems and awareness towards the personal status law in Morocco and to discover the characteristics of Moroccan society. The study was conducted from January 5th to the 25th, 2004 by interviewing nine people in Morocco engaged in various fields. Among those interviewed were intellectuals in various fields including an official from women organizations, a professor majoring in the Shariah, an official from the political party wielding influence in the legislature and advisor to the king on women issues. Those interviewed were selected from those classes related directly and indirectly to the establishment of the personal status law. This selection was conducted in hopes of getting an overall understanding of the characteristics of the Moroccan society through the perspectives toward the personal status law from a wide range of samples. In the interview comprehensive questions on the characteristics of the Islamic personal status law, the priorities for reform of the personal status law, the role of education and the state, the possibility of coexistence of traditional and universal human rights and detailed questions on marriage, divorce, child rearing, inheritance and other major items of the personal status law were presented. The interview was recorded and questions were asked in order of the questionnaire or were changed to avoid disrupting the conversation with the respondent.
    Keyword: Islamic Personal Status Law, Morocco, Moroccan Women, Women's Rights, Sharī'ah, Fiqh
    Author: Won Sam Lee
    Poblication Year: 2004
    Language: Korean
    Country: Morocco
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Science of Law
    A study for Tunisian family law toward its recognition
    Tunisian family law is considered as secularized compared other Islamic countries based on abrogation of polygamy and legalization of divorcing procedure. Tunisian Ulama claimed that their family law is revolution based on Ijtihad of Islam and hope to be discriminated with Turkish's that adopted European civil law and comes secularizing. The two axis of Tunisian family law and policy of women is, political organization including women council in politic party and other women's union. This study has been completed based on the study of documents of Tunisian family law with interview those organizations and from 22th. Jan. 2004 to 2nd. Feb. For collecting various view name interviewee from various side. Firstly name the people from governmental organizations and related people for checking the its idea of basis, and secondly name the management of women's union for analysing women's view. Additionally, name Ulama of Sharia for Islamic view, and professors and lawyer for getting the view based on their free position. The interview asks its general specification and limitation and the possibilities of revision based on the marriage, divorce, custody, alimony and succession which considered core idea of modern Tunisian family law. And survey its formal meaning and idea by asking the question that it comes from copy after western law or should be understood from religion way. Asking their view toward the marriage, is abrogation of polygamy violation of the Islamic law, the divorcing, is the divorcing law guarantee the equalities of the sexes for legally and actually and what's the social understanding for divorced women. For the parental prerogatives and custody we've asked their view whether their custody is burden for divorced women who on the work, and is there any political system for care those women. And for the succession that still keeps Islamic ideology, is there any possibilities of revision in a view of equalities of genders and the issues toward Tunisian women and limitation of family law and its revision. Finally, is there any idea for human right and women right as general idea in Islam.
    Keyword: gender, muslim women, Family law, Sharia, Tunisia, marriage, divorce, custody, alimony
    Author: Hyo Jung Kim
    Poblication Year: 2004
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    Emergence of Regence conflict in Post-Suharto Indonesia
    In Indonesia the very foundation of its post-Suharto national policy of 'Indonesian Unification' is being shaken to its very core: the Aceh and Papua regions have been involved in separate independence movements; and religious and ethnic tensions have been occurring in Moluccas, Kalimantan, and Celebes regions. Why is large-scale bloodshed continuing to occur after the fall of the Suharto regime? All of this appears to be spontaneous uprisings fueled by the strong resentment and dissatisfaction of the minorities op- pressed during the 32 years of iron-fisted rule of Suharto accompanied by the post-Suharto power vacuum, economic recession and a drive towards democratization. The regional conflicts naturally arose during the process of unifying many island-regions in the archipelago inhabited by a diverse eth- nic population into one country. Moreover, it became an intrinsic element of the Suharto regime's national policy implementation. Although inhabited by 60% of the nation's population, Java Island occupies a mere 6.7% of the entire national land area. Therefore, concen- trated economic development for Java Island and the subservience of re- gional governments and public institutions outside Java to the Javanese population have sown the seeds of discontent into the region's political elite. More- over, the expanded immigration policy implemented for the sake of balanced development of the entire archipelago and regional military defense strategy has caused economic and religious conflicts between the natives and im- migrants of different cultural backgrounds. Although the natives were strongly displeased with the immigration policy, they had to keep silent about the regime's implementation of the
    Keyword: regional conflict in post-Suharto, Aceh, Papua,Celebes, Moluccas, separate independence movements
    Author: Dae Sik Je
    Poblication Year: 2004
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Economics
    An Interpretation on Economic Value of the Zakat
    Economic concept of Islam does not particularly concern itself with those causal relations which Neo-Classical treats as objective and scientific laws and tendencies. Whereas the economic system and behavior in Islamic society are entirely based on the Islamic axioms and criteria founded in the Sharia. The object of this paper is to analysis the Zakat tax system, one of ideal and real phenomenon of the Islamic economic tradition. In order to distinguish one economic system from another, it need to focus on and compare the fundamental elements. The Zakat is different from the Kharaz, Jizya and Ushr on the way of management, that is discussed in this paper. The characteristics of the Zakat system could be distinguished by: (i) a rational macro distribution structure; (ii) a co-ordinating mechanism based on the tax system; (iii) the promotion of proper economic behavior through moral incentives as well as collective incentives. In the conclusions, the Zakat system would be identified as an proper experience in the form of religion provides a framework by the aid of people to another according to the Shria, which is divine basic Islamic law. An economic system, whether theoretically articulated and recorded or traditionally practised over the centuries, is a right function of how society organizes itself to address the basic economic problems of what is to be create the economic justice. In the process of the satisfying the economic balance, all the factors in the Zakat interact through organizations and institutions that may developed typical Islamic tax system.
    Keyword: Islamic Economy, Islamic Tax System, Zakat
    Author: Joong Kwan Kim
    Poblication Year: 2004
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Economics
    Economic Globalization and Develpoment in Saudi Arabia
    The purpose of this paper is to examine the process of economic globalization of Saudi Arabia and analyze the performance. This paper consists of four chapters. Continuing from the introduction, in the second chapter, this paper investigates the distortion of Saudi economy since the 1980's that it is inevitable for Saudi economy to accept the economic globalization. In the third chapter, this paper analyzes the process and performance of domestic structural reform and open policy which can be the major measures for the economic globalization. And this paper briefly measures the globalization level of Saudi Arabia with some quantitative indicators. And for the conclusion, this paper evaluates the overall globalization process and its performance and indicate tasks and prospects. Entering the 80's low oil price period, Saudi Arabia revealed problems which indicates typical low growth structure due to stagnation in the oil sector, chronic budget deficit, enlargement of inefficiency of stated-owned enterprises, distortion of labor market, and the protection policy of domestic industry and people. Under this circumstance, in the mid 90's, the Saudi government positively adopted the globalization strategies advised by IMF which is based on neo-liberalism economics. According to these globalization strategies, Saudi government is implementing a strong structural reform and open policy such as reduction of government subsidies, expansion of privatization of state-owned enterprises, labor market reform and stimulation of domestic market opening. This paper evaluates that this globalization strategy has not revealed visible accomplishments, due to the failure of cutting back subsidies, poor progress of privatization process, slow saudization, retaining a variety of the barriers of trade and investment. Finally this paper suggests that it is essential to carry out strongly globalization strategy such as structural reform suitable to market economy and removing the barriers of trade and investment in order to find a way out of continuous stagnation,
    Keyword: Economic Globalization, Structural Reform, Privatisation, Saudization, Open Policy, Government Subsidies
    Author: Geon Jang
    Poblication Year: 2004
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Language
    A Study on the developments of Yemenite spoken Arabic and the phonological features of San‘ā’ dialect
    Recent studies by Ingham(1982) accord to the classification of the dialects in the Arabian peninsula into three groups: North-east Arabian dialects(dialects of the Najd), South-west Arabian dialects(dialects of Yemen, Hadramaut and Aden), West Arabian dialects(dialects of Hiagazi and Tihama). According to this division, Yemenite dialects belong to South-west Arabian dialects. The dialect map of Yemen is complicated because the geographical fragmentation of the area has produced a great deal of dialect variation. Behnstedt(1985) distinguished the following main areas : the Tihama dialects; the k-dialects, the dialects of the central plateau(the dialect of San‘ā’); South-east dialects(mahriyah, shaḥriyah, suqturiy, taʕizz). This paper aims at investigating the developments of Yemenite spoken Arabic and analyzing its phonological features focusing on San‘ā’ dialect. The reason why San‘ā’ dialect has become a subject of this study is that San‘ā’ dialect represents the mixed zone between the eastern and western dialects. In the second chapter, we'll make a diachronic approach to the developments of Yemenite spoken Arabic. Yemenite spoken Arabic is divided into dialects derived from the old Yemenite languages such as Minean, Sabean, Qatbanean, Himyaritic and dialects influenced by dialects of Higaz. This chapter will deal with the historical developments of two kinds of dialects respectively. In the third chapter, we'll make a synchronic analysis of the phonological features of San‘ā’ dialect focusing on the Bedouin features of San‘ā’ dialect such as the voiced realisation of the /q/, the retention of the interdentals, and the gender distinction in the second and third person plural of the verbs and the pronouns as well as the deletion of hamzah, the variations of the /ḍ/ and the diphthong, the contraction of the long vowel, and the deletion of the short vowel.
    Keyword: Yemenite spoken Arabic, the Tihama dialect, the k-dialect, the dialect of San‘ā’, The phonological features of San‘ā’ dialect
    Author: Jin Young Choi
    Poblication Year: 2004
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    아라파트 이후 중동평화와 미국의 대중동정책:
    This study researches and analyzes current changes of Middle East Politics after the Palestinian and the Iraqi general elections of 2005 January. Re-elected Bush Administration oughts to renew peace process based on "a road map" between Arab and Jews in order to keep its Pax-Americana position in the Middle East. Both of all areas, Iraq and palestine are suffering by armed insurgent threats of violence, for example, suicide car-bombings. Palestinian Hamas and Iraqi Sunni muslims are fearing of depriving their political power from their peoples. Therefore, Hamas has joined the PLO in wishing a political role for formulation of a collective Palestinian national leadership that would lead the Palestinian people in the absence of its enduring symbol. A logical justification for the proposed leadership is the prevention of chaos and lawlessness and possibly a destructive power struggle. Palestinian people wants a united national leadership after free election in which all palestinians have participated first time. But there are uncertainty of chaos after Iraqi general elections because of geopolitical conflicts rooted in old history. The post-Iraqi election, Iraqi people has not to think a united leadership because of country devide, the south Shi‘ite, the north Kurd and the middle Sunni societies. The Middle East Peace needs the United States' positive mediator and Israeli concessions.The study proposed the concept of valuable criteria of conflicts as researching mechanism of political struggle. The paper explained that political values of area politics make new changes after introducing the first free election in the Middle East. There are no solution of social chaos in the Middle East. The free election system is not solution of conflicts in the area. This study try to examine the process of passing phenomenon in the Middle East.This study is composed of five chapters; first chapter considers geopolitical background of Middle East politics as introduce. Chapter Ⅱ examines the Palestinian autonomy and the Oslo Accord for its military operations to keep its occupied arab territories, specially, Jerusalem city. This chapter is the first to employ rigorous research to analyze all sides of official negotiations over Israeli- Palestinian territorial disputes, and to compare with Iraqi War of 2004 and American national interests. Chapter Ⅳ focuses on new Mahmoud Abbas leadership in the post Arafat ear. The second term of Bush administration considers a cooperation with EU and Russia to arrange new order of Middle East. The political environment of Middle East is to show strong constraints of Islamic Fundamentalism and anti-American attitude. The final chapter reviews general values of political criteria and reassesses the Middle East Policy led by USA and Israel.
    Keyword: Middle East Peace, Palestinian uprising, the Oslo Accord, Palestinian autonomy, Israeli security, settlement policy, Iraqi war, American interest, Mahoumd Abbas, leadership, fundamentalism, Islam, election
    Author: Hong, Soon-Nam
    Poblication Year: 2005
    Language: Korean
    Country: Palestine
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Islam Philosophy
    이슬람 부흥주의와 이슬람의 이데올로기화
    어느 무슬림 공동체든지 그 사회 내부에 이슬람 부흥주의 운동을 추진하는 개인이나 조직이 존재한다는 것은 의심할 여지가 없다. 일부 권력을 쥔 실용주의 무슬림들은 권세유지와 이권을 지키기 위한 방편으로 이슬람을 이용하였고, 반대편에 선 무슬림들은 집권층이 이슬람을 겉모양만으로 상징화하면서 불의와 부정의 통치를 하는 데 저항하며 반정투쟁을 벌렸다. 그리고 서구로부터 수입된 세속적 이데올로기에 기초한 실용주의자들의 근대화 프로그램들의 실패는 그 대안으로 이슬람 이데올로기화운동이 등장하게 하는 주요인으로 작용하였다. 그러나 우리가 주목해야 할 것은 현대 이슬람 부흥주의와 이슬람의 이데올로기화가 과거 어느 때보다 광역화․다양화하였을 뿐 아니라 활기와 생명력이 넘치며 무슬림세계 어느 곳에서든지 지속적으로 발전해 가고 있다는 점이다. 그 결과 이슬람의 이데올로기화 운동은 어느 특정의 무슬림 조직, 단체에서의 활동목표나 운동이 아니라 대중화․보편화한 대중적 통용어로 인식되고 있다. 사실상 독실한 무슬림이면 누구나 꾸란과 이슬람원리를 쫓으려 하고 ‘순수한 이슬람’으로의 회귀를 원하기 때문에 무슬림은 모두가 원리주의자들이고 이슬람주의자들이라 해도 과언이 아닐 것이다. 이슬람원리주의운동, 이슬람의 이데올로기화에 서구인들이 적대해야 할 이유는 없을 것이다. 원리주의운동은 기독교전통에서도 찾아볼 수 있는 종교적 현상일 뿐이다. 서구인들이 이러한 종교운동의 확산에 민감한 반응을 보이는 것은 지나친 자기방어의식이라는 것이 현대 무슬림세계 이슬람 학자들의 일반적 견해이다.
    Keyword: 이슬람 이데올로기
    Author: Sohn Joo-Young
    Poblication Year: 2001
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Islam Philosophy
    이스마일파(Ismā‘īlīs)의 생성 및 발전과정 연구
    역사적으로 이스마일리즘은 나중에 열두이맘 시아파가 된 조직의 지류로 시작한 것 같다. 그러나 오히려 열두이맘 시아파를 이스마일리즘의 지류로 보거나 정치적 성향이 가미된 것으로 볼 수도 있다. 정치적 시아신앙은 누군가 정치 정의를 옹호하는 것을 추구했다. 이 누군가는 알리의 후손 중에서 중근동의 이원론에서 넘쳐나온 교리를 가지고 있어야 하는데 이것의 가장 순수한 형태가 바로 이스마일리즘이다. 시아파는 몇몇 알리의 직계 후손들을 인간과 하나님 사이의 중재자라고 믿고 있다. 이맘에 대한 열두이맘 시아파의 개념과 이스마일파의 개념에는 신학 관점에 있어 상당한 차이점이 있지만 순니파들은 그것을 결코 받아들이지 않았다. 그들에게 이맘이라는 단어는 오직 예배 주관자만을 뜻한다. 영지주의 이원론(Gnosticism-Dualism)의 형이상학은 우주를 절대 실재의 “그림자”로 해석했기 때문에 이스마일파는 학문 연구를 왕성하게 추구하였다. 이스마일파는 모든 종교의 내적이고 비밀스러운 진리의 후계자가 자신들이라고 생각했기 때문에 대부분의 순니 추종자들 보다 다른 신앙에도 많은 호기심을 보여왔으며 더욱 깊이 있게 다른 신앙들을 살펴보았다. 순니파는 대개 다른 종교들을 멀리서 바라보고 그 종교들을 거의 전적으로 이슬람의 평가 기준으로 해석하는데 만족하였다. 더구나 이스마일파는 그리스도교 신앙에 관해 잘 알고 있었다. 그리스도교에는 보이지 않는 영적 진리와 화신의 교리가 있어 이스마일리즘과 아주 비슷한 점과 차이점을 분명하게 제시해 주었다. 이러한 사실들은 이스마일파와 그 밖의 영지주의 이원론의 관점이 다른 종교들을 잘 꿰뚫어 보고 있었음을 설명해 준다. 이스마일파의 특정 체계적 서술은 순니 이슬람에는 아주 유용했고 많은 사상가들이 인용했다. 그들 가운데 몇몇은 누르 무함마디(Nūr Muḥammadī, “무함마디의 빛”)와 사흘 알 투스타리(Sahl al-Tustarī’)의 우무드 알 누르(‘umūd al-nūr, “빛의 기둥”)와 같은 사상들이 실제로 어디서 나왔는지에 관계없이 그 창의적 사상 자체에 경탄을 보내었다. 바스라에서 340/951년 무렵에 세웠던 조직체인 순수 형제단(Ikhwān al-Safā’)의 글에서 밝혔듯이, 이스마일파는 모든 사상들에 문을 열어 놓았기 때문에 이슬람 안에 있는 헬레니즘 사상에 동화되고 순응하는 것을 촉진시켰다.
    Keyword: 이스마일파 시아파
    Author: Kim Jong-Wee
    Poblication Year: 2001
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Business Management
    동남아에서의 이슬람은행
    동남아에서의 이슬람금융의 정착과 확산현상을 우리는 우리의 전통 문화와 금융에 대한 외부효과로 인식하여야 할 것이다. 우리도 우리의 전통금융에 대한 새로운 논리와 기법을 개발하여 전통토착 금융의 얼과 뿌리를 계승보전하고, Citibank와 Chase 은행이 이슬람 금융을 도입 운영하여 금융세계화를 추진하는 것처럼 우리도 이슬람권과의 공존과 경제공영을 위해, 나아가 한국금융의 세계화를 위해 이슬람금융에 대한 이해를 가속하고 이슬람 금융의 도입을 서둘러야 할 것이다.
    Keyword:
    Author: Shim Ui-Sup
    Poblication Year: 2001
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Women
    중앙아시아의 이슬람과 여성
    중앙아시아 여성들의 지위는 어떤 수준에 있는가라는 질문은 매우 광범위해 용이하게 답할 수 없다. 이곳 여성들의 사회적 지위는 이 지역에서 지금까지 형성되어 온 융합된 문화 속에서 규정될 수 있다. 중앙아시아 여성조차 자신의 가치관에 따라 그 지위와 정체성을 다양하게 평가하고 있다. 보수적인 무슬림 여성들은 현상에 익숙해져 여성의 사회진출과 활동에 의미를 별로 부여하지 않을 뿐 아니라 여성의 활동이 가사에 국한되는 것이 바람직하다고 주장하는 반면 진취적인 여성들은 이슬람과 유목민의 전통이 여성의 활동을 과도하게 제한한다고 비판한다. 심지어, 중앙아시아의 진보적 여성들은, 서구의 페미니스트들도 국가별 특성, 상이한 전통과 문화적 상대성 등을 고려하여 이슬람권 여성의 지위 개선을 권장하는 데 소극적 입장을 취해 왔다고 평가한다. 이 지역 여성의 지위는 각 국가별 인종 구성비, 지역적 특성과 전통적 관습 등에 따라 변할 수밖에 없어서 국가별로 상이하게 나타난다. 보수적 이슬람 성향이 나타나는 우즈베키스탄 농촌 지역에서는 카자흐스탄에 비해 여성의 생활과 교육 환경이 열악하다. 참고로, 여성의 교육수준과 사회진출에 관한 통계자료를 찾는 과정에서도 우즈벡 여성에 대한 자료에 접근하는 과정이 어려워 카자흐스탄의 자료만큼 객관성이 있는 자료를 확보할 수 없었다. 엄격한 가부장제에서 비롯되는 여성성에 대한 차별, 여성에게 균등한 교육기회의 차단, 여성이 소유한 잠재력의 발견과 활용의 제한이라는 측면에서 중앙아시아 무슬림 여성의 지위신장이 서구와 일부 아시아 국가들의 그것과 비교해 볼 때 일정 범위에 머물고 있음을 인정해야 할 것이다.
    Keyword: 중앙아시아 여성 사회적 지위
    Author: Kim Dae-Sung
    Poblication Year: 2011
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Arab History
    현대 이집트의 건국자, 무함마드 알리에 대한 연구
    많은 사가들은 무함마드 알리는 실패할 운명이었던 산업화에 너무 많은 재화와 생명을 퍼부었다고 한다. 그러나 그는 그가 계획하지도 않았고, 결코 그가 한 일에 대해 알지 못함에도 불구하고 진정코 이집트를 이집트화 하였다. 그는 이집트와 그 주민을 자신의 권력을 강화하고 유지하는 도구로 생각했다. 그러나 그는 현대 이집트의 아버지가 되었다. 하지만 그는 첫 이집트 민족주의자는 아니었다.
    Keyword: 현대 이집트 건국자 무함마드 알리
    Author: Song Kyung-Keun
    Poblication Year: 2001
    Language: Korean
    Country: Egypt
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Islam Philosophy
    레바논 히즈불라
    이란과 시리아에게 히즈불라의 가장 큰 자산가치는 무력투쟁능력이다. 시리아는 히즈불라를 이스라엘 괴롭히기에 적절히 이용할 것이다. 시리아가 레바논통합을 포기하지 않는 한, 시리아는 히즈불라를 레바논 세력균형 게임에 중요한 자산으로 이용할 것이다. 히즈불라 지도자들은 대미관계 개선을 희망해 왔다. 지난 9. 11사태 직후, 히즈불라의 사무총장인 나스룰라( Nasrullah)는 9.11테러를 전 세계의 무고한 사람들을 죽인 사건이라고 비난했다. 미국은 9.11 테러 이후, 美國內 히즈불라의 자산을 동결시키는 한편, 레바논 정부를 압박하여 레바논 정부가 국내 히즈불라의 자산을 동결하도록 종용하고 있다. 이에 대해 레바논 정부는 국제테러와의 전쟁을 택한 유엔 안보리 결의 1373에 동의하지만 히즈불라의 저항과 히즈불라의 사회사업활동이 적법한 것임을 내세워 미국의 요구를 거부하고 있다. 미국의 테러보복공격 대상이기도한 히즈불라의 미래는 미- 이란관계, 시리아- 이스라엘 평화회담개최, 레바논의 정치 안정과 경제개혁여부에 달려있다고 보나 레바논 정치. 경제발전 그리고 위에서 지적한 국제관계개선이 가까운 장래에 이뤄지지 않을 것으로 보인다.
    Keyword: 쉬아파 운동 히즈불라 이스라엘 레바논
    Author: Lee Jong-Taek
    Poblication Year: 2001
    Language: Korean
    Country: Lebanon
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    세계화에 대한 아랍의 적응과 대응에 관한 연구
    아울러 세계화에 대하여 국가의 자율성의 범위 내에서 행하고 있는 아랍의 대응을 살펴보았는데, 먼저 아랍의 세계화에 대한 대응논리는 아랍국가들이 갖고 있는 이슬람을 세계화논리와 타협시키는 것이었다. 이러한 타협에 입각하여 세계화와 타협한 아랍국가들은 적절히 세계화에 적응하는 가운데서도 그 국가들이 처한 대외적 환경의 개선을 꾀하고 위상을 높이면서 현실적인 대응을 하고 있었다. 특히 이집트와 사우디 아라비아에서 보여주는 바와 같이 자발적 경제개혁과 아랍자유무역지역, 지중해 아랍자역무역지대의 설립추진 같은 신지역주의 정책이 현실적으로 대응수단으로 되고 있다. 한편으로 세계자본이 행하는 과정 속에 놓여 있는 사우디 아라비아를 비롯한 아랍걸프 산유국들의 경제는 향후 지속적으로 석유가로 자국경제를 보존하려하기에 석유가를 적정가로 올리려는 시도를 한다. 이러한 가운데 세계체제의 패권국인 미국을 비롯한 선진국들은 생산품의 자유무역과 금융자본. 기술수출 등에서 잉여를 남기고 이익을 보존하면서 자본축적을 달성하려한다. 이러한 구조 속에서 석유가 생산되고 있지 않는 한국을 포함한 개발도상국과 후진국들은 원유가의 인상분을 떠맡으면서 한편으로는 선진국들에게 자국의 잉여를 이전시키게 되는 악순환을 반복할 가능성이 있을 수 있다.
    Keyword: 아랍 세계화 유인 메카니즘 국가 역할
    Author: Kum Sang-Moon
    Poblication Year: 2001
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Arabic Literature
    아랍어가 西歐語에 끼친 영향에 관한 고찰
    지금까지 본 연구에서는 유럽의 언어 가운데 영어, 프랑스어, 스페인어에 존재하는 아랍어 계통의 어휘를 주로 고찰해 보았다. 아랍어에 기원을 둔 외래어의 수는 언어에 따라 혹은 연구자의 입장에 따라 상당히 많은 차이를 보였으나 그 가운에 공통적으로 생각되는 약 100개의 어휘를 집중적으로 고찰해 보았다. 본 연구에서는 주요 유럽어(영어, 프랑스어, 스페인어)의 차용에 대해 전반적으로 고찰하였으나 이후 각 국가의 특수성을 고려하여 각 언어에 존재하는 외래어가 보다 세부적으로 연구되어야 할 것으로 생각한다. 유럽어에 차용된 아랍어는 원 뜻 그대로 차용된 것들이 대부분이나 상당수의 어휘들에는 의미변화가 발생되었다. 스페인어에 차용된 아랍어 계통의 어휘에는 아랍어 정관사 알(al-, 또는 ar-)이나 강을 나타내는 /guad/가 붙은 단어가 있는 것, 도시를 나타내는 /medina/, 성채를 나타내는 /qalat/ 등이 그대로 존재하는 것 등은 스페인어의 아랍어 차용이 직접 이루어졌다는 것을 반증한다. 반면 프랑스어나 영어와 같이 간접적으로 차용이 이루어진 경우에는 아랍어의 음운이 많이 변형된 상태로 나타났다. 여러 개의 언어를 거쳐 차용되면 될수록 원음이 그만큼 더 상실된다는 것을 보여주는 것이라 생각된다.
    Keyword: 서구어의 아랍어 차용 배경 영어 프랑스어 스페인어
    Author: Jung Kyu-Young
    Poblication Year: 2001
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Economics
    아랍세계의 공기업 개혁과 경제발전
    중동경제는 이상 비대해진 공공부문의 실적악화와 방만한 정부지출로 인한 재정적자의 심화, 사회주의 복지제도로 인한 국민들의 근로의식 약화, 그리고 임금과 고용조건을 둘러싼 노사간 갈등 등으로 심각한 경제중병에 처해 있으나 위기 때마다 막대한 석유판매대금의 유입으로 위험한 고비를 넘겨왔다. 그러나 중동 전반에 걸쳐 이러한 만성적인 중병의 근본적인 치료의 필요성은 널리 인식되고 있으나, 개혁에 따른 정치․사회적 충격에 대한 두려움과 개혁저지세력의 집요한 반대 등으로 소기의 성과를 거두지 못하고 있는 실정이다. 이러한 사회적 분위기를 감안해 볼 때, 향후 개혁의 목표는 사회보장제도의 골격을 유지하면서 실업과 재정적자 문제를 동시에 해결하는 것이 되어야 할 것이다. 이를 위해 임금인상 억제와 과잉고용해소가 이루어지는 가운데 사회보장제도의 개혁, 노동시장의 유연성 확대와 각종 규제완화를 통한 시장기능의 강화, 고용촉진, 공기업의 민영화, 국가재정의 건실화를 위한 노력이 있어야 할 것이다. 국민들의 근로의욕을 고취하고, 각종 보조금과 수당을 과감히 감축하고 기업들에게 다양한 고용 인센티브를 제공함으로서 중동지역의 모든 국가들이 가지고 있는 어려움 중의 하나인 재정적자와 실업문제를 해결할 수 있을 것이다. 또한 정부는 경쟁촉진과 시장기능의 강화를 위해 각종 규제를 대폭 완화함으로서 경제 자유화에 앞장서야 할 것이다. 그러나 중동지역의 경제개혁이 성공하기 위해서는 무엇보다도 경제개혁에 대한 강한 국민적 공감대와 지지, 정부의 과감한 결단력, 정책의 일관성, 노사간의 신뢰회복 등 정치․사회적 밑받침이 무엇보다도 절실히 필요할 것이다.
    Keyword:
    Author: Han Duck-Kyu
    Poblication Year: 2001
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    중동내 반미(反美)정서의 배경과 성향
    Since the U.S has taken the hegemonic role in the international politics, anti-Americanism has been showing up throughout the world in different types. Anti-Americanism is not only coming out from countries which is formally hostile or neutral to the U.S, but it also seems to be a general phenomenon in the developing countries and in the developed countries. Anti-Americanism in the Middle East sometimes involves ideology and sometimes resorts to means of violence. Therefore anti-Americanism in the Middle East and the Islamic World regarded as threatening and challenging to the U.S. The Aim of the study is to understand the reason why anti-Americanism in the Middle East is revealing more serious than in other regions and the prospect of future. For these purposes, I would like to review the background factor of anti-Americanism that has rooted in relationship between the Middle East and the U.S. and analyze the phenomenon and types of anti-Americanism. Though anti-Americanism in the Middle East has revealed on extension line with anti-Westernism, it started from the time since the U.S. has begun to exert hegemonic influence on this area. It has directly been fueled by the U.S government's policy to the Palestain-Israel conflict, and also the political, military and economic role in this area which is based on America's interest. These factors reacted as the Palestain Liberation Movement, and the anti-establishment movement or the Islamic revivalism movement in many of the Middle East countries. These movements basically involved the anti-Americanism more or less in the different times. Anti-Americanism in the Middle East is not wholly due to Islam, but it is a single phenomenon which is rising from the Islamic movement. An explanation for violence of anti-Americamism in Middle East can be found from the fact that radical Islam organization or terrorist groups make use of violence in order to achieve their own objects. The direction of anti-Americanism in the Middle East seems to depend on how the pending problems between the Middle East countries and the U.S. will be settled.
    Keyword: 중동 반미 정서 공산권 이슬람
    Author: Moon Eun-Young
    Poblication Year: 2002
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Islam Philosophy
    팔레스타인 이슬람 저항운동단체 하마스
    Hamas, which is the acronym for Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya (the Islamic Resistance Movement) in Arabic, was born of the first intifada in the 1980s as a wing of the Muslim Brotherhood movement in Palestine. This study explores the formation process of Hamas, its ideology, objectives and strategies, and relates them with the Palestinian and Israeli peace process. Hamas has expanded and strengthened its organizations and influences through its increasing control over the religious institutions of the waqf (religious endowments), the mosques, and educational and social organizations. Concerning Palestine, Hamas denies the Israel's right to exist in Palestine because it argues that the land of Palestine is an Islamic trust (waqf) and Jihad is a duty for Muslims to expel the Jewish regime out of the land. It, therefore, recognizes neither the Oslo Peace Process nor the "Self-rule" of the Palestinian Authority. Hamas, with other radical movements such as Islamic Jihad, has initiated the military and armed actions and terror attacks against Israel. While Hamas has made great gains, becoming a major political force in Palestinian society, it has problems and challenges. It has benefited from being opposition and the failure of the PLO in the peaceful settlement with Israel. One of the most difficult but crucial problems is how to justify its denial of co-existence with Israel and bloody terror attacks against innocent civilians, and convince the Palestinian people and the world.
    Keyword: 하마스 이념 이슬람 운동 무슬림 형제단 투쟁단체
    Author: Choe Young-Chol
    Poblication Year: 2002
    Language: Korean
    Country: Palestine
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Islam Philosophy
    인도 무갈 시대 이슬람 성자(聖者) 세밀화(細密畵)의 기원과 발달
    Ⅰ. Introduction Ⅱ. The Origin of Islamic Saints Miniatures 1. Sufism and the Worship of Muslim Saints 2. The Influence of Persian Miniatures Ⅲ. The Development of the Islamic Saints Miniatures 1. The Patron of the Mughal Court for Sufism and Art 2. The Prevalence of Sufi Literature 3. The Influence of European Paintings Ⅳ. Conclusion This thesis aims to pioneer the study of Islamic art for the first time in Korea and thus introduce it to the Korean academic world. Although Islamic art is exquisite and splendid, it has been absolutely disregarded in Korea. Generally speaking, figural representation such as the depiction of human and animal forms has been prohibited by Islam. However, this research intends to support how much the Islamic painting of the Mughal Empire(1527-1825) flourished and bloomed, especially during the 100 years from Akbar, the Great Emperor to Shah Jahan, and specifically deals with the miniatures of Islamic saints. This thesis suggests the origin and development of the Islamic saints miniatures of the Mughal court within the contexts of religion, art, history, and society. It was originated under the circumstances of Sufism and Persian paintings. Moreover, it developed under the royal patronage and protection of art followed by the influence of Sufi literature and European paintings. In conclusion, Islamic saints miniatures in the Mughal court are a wonderful example, proving the magnificence and great development of Islamic paintings. Although Islam currently still proscribes figural representation such as in the extreme case of iconoclasticism of Bamiyan Buddhist cave in Afganistan by Taleban, Islamic paintings do exist in beautiful features. In addition, it is hoped that this thesis is to establish a further foundation for Islamic art studies in Korea.
    Keyword: 인도 무갈 시대 이슬람 성자화 수피즘 페르시아 유럽 회화
    Author: Oh Jung-Eun
    Poblication Year: 2002
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Arabic Literature
    꾸란 어휘의 알 이드감(al-ʔIdghām)현상 연구
    The ancient Arabic scholars laid a significance on the exact recitation of the Holy Quran and it leaded to the formation of a distinct science "al-Tajwīd". The theory of the Tajwīd was completed in the early times by some scholars who had focused on the exact recitation of the Quran. Even now, modern Arabic phonetic scholars follow up their theories on the Tajwīd without addition and deletion. The Tajwīd was classified into four parts, al-ʔiẓhār, al-ʔidghām, al-ʔiqlāb, and al-ʔikhfāʔ by ancient Arabic scholars. This paper aims to study al-ʔidghām among the four parts, which is one of the most important subject in reciting the Holy Quran. This paper includes introduction, meaning of al-ʔidghām and reason, sorts of al-ʔidghām , condition of al-ʔidghām and objection, opinion of modern Arabic phonetic scholars on al-ʔidghām, difference between al-ʔidghām and assimilation, and conclusion.
    Keyword: 알 이드감 현대음성학의 동화현상실현조건 제약 꾸란 어휘
    Author: Park Jae-Yang
    Poblication Year: 2002
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Arabic Literature
    현대표준아랍어와 팔레스타인 구어체 아랍어의 비교 연구
    Ferguson(1959) prescribed the character of Arabic community as 'Diglossia', coseistence situation of two varieties in a community (written language and spoken language). Also in Palestinian community, modern standard Arabic and Palestinian dialect are both axis that have carried the each functional role. The Palestinian speakers use the two varieties according to the various factors, for example age, educational background, hometown and speech condition and so forth. For understanding the linguistic situation in Palestinian, we have to understand not only the linguistic character of two varieties, but also their socio linguistic feature. I will try to analysis the linguistic character of Modern Standard Arabic and Palestinian colloquial Arabic in order to compare the two varieties in this study. Why I choose the palestinian dialect in this study is that it have considered the one of the prevalent dialects in Levant area. According to Kees Versteegh(1997), the Palestinian dialect is classified into Syria-Lebanon dialect with Jordanian dialect. And I carried the field research in this area in 2000 and collected the research material.
    Keyword: 음운론 형태론 통사론 팔레스타인 아랍어
    Author: Yoon Yong-su
    Poblication Year: 2002
    Language: Korean
    Country: Palestine
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Islam Philosophy
    중세 이슬람 정치사상과 칼리파제
    The real situation of the medieval Abbasid caliphate was quite different from the ideal of the caliphate which was characterized by the principle of equality of religion and state. In their heyday, the early Abbasid caliphs neglected their religion while pursuing secular political power. But especially after losing their political power at Baghdad, they had sustained titular caliphate with religious authority only. However muslim petty monarchs in local areas showed their oathes of allegiance(bai'a) to their caliph for their legitimacy on kingship based on the traditional islamic recognition that the caliphate should be established by Shari'a. Muslim jurists such as al-Mawardi and al Ghazali had tried to verify the inappropriate relationship between the lines of theory and practice and they established the juristic theory make this relationship continue. The political thought of the medieval muslim jurists had gradually inclined to realism though they had kept their stances on caliphate theory in the issue of state and religion. It is inevitable that they had to compromise with the political reality which had been revealed already, despite their eagerness to keep the practice of caliphate. As a result, the Islamic caliphate could survive while sustaining the dignity and supremacy of Shari'a. However the fall of the Abbasid caliphate was a turning point in the stream of Islamic political thought on the issue of secular political power and religion. The political thought that stressed realism began to have an influence while keeping the political power of state as it was. This political thought was called "siyasa as-shari'a (the politic on Shari'a)" by Ibn Taymiyya which was considered legitimate. He said that the state was still Islamic as long as it was governed by Shari'a. And whoever governs state according to Shari'a and walks through pious religious path could be called Caliph. Ibn Taymiyya considered the Caliph a legitimate ruler as long as the political system was based on realism without affecting the fundamental structure of Islamic principles. An advocate more progressive than Ibn Taymiyya for such a political theory was Ibn Khaldun. He said that the monarch was permissible and agreeable system if it wholly depended on Shari'a. This is the same as the Shari'a politic by Ibn Taymiyya and a copy of his theory. He divided politics into religious politics(siyasa diniya) and rational politics(siyasa 'aqliya), the former belonging to Islamic politic and a government based on the Gods law, Shari'a, and the later a political system ruled by secular qanun legitimized by human reason. Religious politic emphases the merit of the caliphate system both in this world and beyond while rational politic stresses the merit of the monarchy in this current world only. To him, Islam, as a religion, is the best regulation and foundation for the political system of state. A uniformed assertion from these Islamic jurists concluded with politics based on the Shari'a. This is not only the backbone of the political thought of medieval Islam, but also became common sense pervading Muslim world today. Indeed it is not flattering that these muslim jurists had created the form of rational political theory which modern Islamic states should be adapted, applied and followed.
    Keyword: 칼리파제 압바스조 초기 샤리아 정치론
    Author: Sohn Joo-Young
    Poblication Year: 2002
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Islam Philosophy
    예언자 무함마드의 다처관에 관한 연구
    At his age of twenty-five, Prophet Muhammad married widow Khadijah who was fifteen years older than he. There are no historical materials which show that Muhammad had concubines or a second wife during the twenty-five years with his first wife. However, it is believed that he had eleven or twelve wives after losing his first wife, died at the age of sixty-five. Some of orientalists and missionaries of other religions in the west described the prophet as a sexual pervert who adopted polygamy system for his sexual appetite. Muslims, on the other hand, insist that his polygamy at that time was the indispensable example for educational, political, legislative and social purposes under the special circumstances. Due mainly to religious prejudice, the dominant Western perspectives on the polygamy of Muhammad have been biased. In fact, the polygamy of Muhammad was based on realistic consideration and multi-dimensional purposes, not on his sexual perversion. According to the program, The Expedition of The Earth, broadcasted by KBS 2, on December 22, 2002, the king of Swazilan, 34 years old, has nine wives. To get a new wife every year, he selects one girl among 25,000 girls, age of 13 to 18 who gather to the royal place from the whole country. It is said that the polygamy of this kingdom has contributed to the peace of this country and among the tribes for two century. In this sense, the polygamy of prophet Muhammad before the 14th century might be more reasonable than that of Swaziland in terms of it's purpose and propriety
    Keyword: 예언자 무함마드 아이샤 메디나 알라 하나님
    Author: Choi Young-Kil
    Poblication Year: 2003
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Islam Philosophy
    이슬람법의 현실적 적용에 관한 연구
    In this paper, I will present apply of Sharī'ah on the basis of 9.11 tragedy. In order to understand Islamic view on 9.11 tragedy. We must understand principle of Islam at first. and then We must understand apply of Islamic law. because Islamic law(Sharī'ah) is rightly considered to be the most important method of research ever devised by Islamic Thought. Indeed, as the solid foundation upon which all the Islamic disciplines are based, Islamic law not only benefited Islamic civilization but contributed to the intellectual enrichment of world civilization as a whole. It will not be out of place to note here that the methods of analogical reasoning developed within the framework of Islamic jurisprudence constituted the methodological starting-point for the establishment and construction of empiricism, which in turn is considered to be the basis of contemporary civilization. In the first and second section of this paper, I will introduce meaning of apply of Shar?'ah. In the third section, I will present methodology of apply. In the fourth section I will present and appraise methodology of apply on the basis of 9.11 tragedy.
    Keyword: 이슬람법 9.11 미국 테러 현실적 적용방법 이즈티하드 합의 지하드
    Author: Lee Won-Sam
    Poblication Year: 2003
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Arabic Literature
    아가한 건축상과 남아시아 현대 이슬람 건축의 이해
    The Aga Khan Award for Architecture is one of the endeavors led by the Aga Khan IV, the hereditary Imam of Nizari Ismailis who form the second-largest branch of Shia Islam. Initiated in 1977 and awarded every three years, the last Award was presented in 2013, with its prestige rivalling the annual Pritzker Architecture Prize. However, while the Aga Khan Award for Architecture rewards projects which demonstrate architectural excellence and respond to their social, economic, technical, physical, and environmental challenges, it also emphasizes a heightened awareness of the roots and essence of Muslim culture, as well as the potential to stimulate related developments elsewhere in the Muslim world. This article examines the awardees of South Asia, focusing on three examples: the Mughal Sheraton Hotel, Agra; Sher-e Bangla Nagar or the National Assembly Building, Dhaka; and the Grameen Bank Housing Program of Bangladesh. Through these examples, I argue that the Award has been responsive to the history and plights of South Asian Muslims; however, I argue its emphasis on Mughal heritage has discouraged further development and understanding of contemporary Islamic architecture and its vocabulary in South Asia.
    Keyword: 이슬람 건축
    Author: 구하원
    Poblication Year: 2015
    Language: Korean
    Country: Israel
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    중앙아시아 자디드 운동과 러시아 혁명
    The primary focus in this article is the intellectual and political trajectory of Central Asian intellectuals, the ``Jadids," from 1917 to 1920. Through a close reading of several key texts by Jadids, we seek to outline the Jadids`` shift from reform to revolution in this period. The revolution marked a turning point in the history of Central Asian Jadidism. Three years following 1917 were the period of intense upheaval during which the entire social and political order in the former Russian empire was reconstructed in a multifaceted struggle of various social groups. For the Jadids these period was transformative of both their world view and their strategies. They succeeded in becoming active agents in the contests over the reestablishment of state order in Central Asia, in which the future of Central Asia was defined. When the exclusionary policies of the Tashkent Soviet changed under pressure from the central government, a remarkable concatenation of circumstances allowed the Jadids to first enter, and then briefly take over the new institutions of power being created by the Soviet regime in Turkestan. Although the attempt was unsuccessful, the state had come to play a significant role in Jadid strategies. Although the Jadids continued to blame ignorance for the ills of their society, and struggles in the realm of culture and education remained at the forefront of their agenda, they had realized that new methods were required in the new era. Years of exhortation had produced scanty results. As Soviet attitudes changed, the Jadids came to see the state not as an enemy but as an instrument of change. The new regime was quite different from the old, and presented its own opportunities and constraints. Jadid strategies accordingly shifted in the years after 1917. The revolution provided the chance for a politicized and radicalized cultural elite to win control of the destiny of the nation. Since autumn 1917, earlier Jadid exhortations to seek admonition from the "civilized" nations of Europe gave a way to a bitter anti-imperialism. This anti-imperialism had its own revolutionary logic, one in which class was replaced by nation and which shared fully in the iconoclastic mood of the moment. The Jadids found much to admire in the Bolsheviks and their methods.
    Keyword: 자디드 운동, 러시아 혁명
    Author: 손영훈
    Poblication Year: 2015
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    아랍의 봄'과 사우디아라비아의 정치개혁
    This paper reviews the political reform processes in Saudi Arabia since 1990s mainly focusing on the period under the King Abdullah``s rule. And then it analyzes the responses and political reform efforts of the Saudi government after the ‘Arab Spring.’ It also discusses the petition movements for the political reform in Saudi Arabia which have intensified after the Arab Spring and explores the consequences for the Saudi political reforms. The author argues that Islamists and liberal elites demanded political reforms such as political liberalization, expansion of participation and political openness after the 9/11 in 2001 and the Saudi government had responded to the pressure positively taking an incremental political liberalization strategy with the carrot and stick policy. One of the symbolic liberalization measures was the municipal election, held in 2005. This study found that Saudi ruling family``s response to the ``Arab Spring`` was a preemptive counter-revolutionary strategy which combined a harsh repression of political challengers and co-optation with a package of social welfare subsidies and financial inducements. The first positive response of the Saudi ruling family to the political reform pressure after the ``Arab Spring`` was the municipal elections, held on 22 September 2011. And in September 2011, King Abdullah granted women the right to vote in the 2015 municipal election. As another positive measure to the political reform pressure, the King Abdullah appointed 30 women to the previously all-male 150 members Majlis al-Shura (Consultative Council) in January 2013. In the concluding chapter, the author argues that the factors which have contributed to the relative political stability in Saudi Arabia, compared to Tunisia and Egypt, are 1) vast government financial reserves of the Saudi government, 2) the effectiveness of the state``s coercive apparatus, 3) well-developed patron-client networks, 4) division of the reform camp between liberals and Islamists, 5) conservative and religious education system, and 6) traditional and conservative ethical norms of the Saudi society. He also argues that the positive factors for the political liberalization are as follows: 1) the currents of political liberalization process in Saudi Arabia since 1990s even though it is incremental, 2) the strengthening trend of the functions of Majlis al-Shura (Consultative Council), 3) the growth of Saudi civil society such as human rights NGOs, 4) the growth of the horizontal communications means of the social networking space, and 5) influx of human and material resources and information from the international community.
    Keyword: 아랍의 봄
    Author: 최영철
    Poblication Year: 2015
    Language: Korean
    Country: Israel
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Economics
    Panzar and Rosse H-통계 모형으로 살펴본 GCC 은행산업 경쟁 현황 분석
    This paper examines the level of market competition in the emerging GCC banking industry that is leading the world economy. In addition, it explores the growth and competitiveness of the islamic and commercial banks in the GCC. In doing so, this paper, in practice, employs the PR H-statistics model as well as 11 peer group analysis in identifying the level of market concentration in the GCC banking industry. The main finding of this research is that both the islamic banking industry and the commercial banking industry are competitive. This result corresponds to the Gini index of net income, total asset, operating income to turnover, and market capitalization, which are measured by the Lorenz curve tool. As such, the author strongly recommends Korean domestic banks to take the simultaneous strategy in employing ‘exploitation’ and ‘exploration’ approaches. The former concerns the resource commitment aiming at the increase in banks’ profitability in foreign markets. The latter emphasizes the significance of seeking the potential growth engine for the future beyond the current survival in markets.
    Keyword: 은행사업
    Author: 양오석
    Poblication Year: 2015
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Language
    현대 아제르바이잔어에서의 시간관련 표현 연구
    This paper suggests that aspect is more basic category in Azerbaijani than tense. In summary, Azerbaijani appears to have five distinct markers for aspect: the perfect of direct experience {-di}1, the perfect of indirect experience {-mis}1, the progressive {-(y)ir}, the prospective {-(y)AcAQ}, and the habitual/iterative {-(A)r}. These considerations lead to the view that the present tense receives zero marking in Azerbaijani. This proposal is certainly one which needs further investigation, particularly in view of the formal asymmetry between the past and the non-past is aspect marking, with there being no aspectually unmarked present tense in Azerbaijani. In conclusion, I hope that this paper, in raising some questions as well as answering some, has revealed the necessity for more systematic analyses of the thense-aspect-mood system in Azerbaijani within a perspective not determined by the categories of the Indo-European languages, in order to explain the intricacies of a most interesting system.
    Keyword: 아제르바이잔어
    Author: 연규석
    Poblication Year: 2015
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Science of Religion
    코란 한역 비교 연구 2
    This is a part of the study of Koran translated to Korean. This study concentrates on some problems in the versions translated from Arabic to Korean. The problems happened from the differences between Arabic and Korean, especially in the structure or the range of the meaning of the word. To study these, this article is composed as following. 1. Introduction 2. Comparison between the 4 translated Koran in Korean 3. Translation in Korean 4. Conclusion
    Keyword: 코란
    Author: 이영태
    Poblication Year: 2015
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Language
    타우피크 알하킴의 제3 언어에 관한 연구
    The Egyptian playwright Tawfiq al-Hakim was known as an advocate and founder of the Third Language in modern Arabic play. This type of language was, for al-Hakim, a compromising solution for the standard Arabic Fusha, and the colloquial Ammiyah. In al-Safqa, published in 1956, al-Hakim clarified that the Arab theater faced a major challenge because of the disparity between Fusha and Ammiyah. He thought that Fusha, the written Arabic, was too formal that it could not convey the vividness of everyday life of ordinary people. Ammiyah was more lifelike than Fusha and was able to comprehend the character``s personal traits, social status and education, but it fell under geographic and temporal limits. Al-Hakim proclaimed that what he called the Third Language would fill the gap, since it would be understood as Fusha when reading, and as Ammiyah when pronouncing. Al-Hakim moved forward further through his play al-Warta which was printed in 1966. The paper described the issues of diglossia in Arab society and the use of colloquial languages in modern Arabic literature, particularly in the dialogue of the novel and play. The paper excerpted sentences from above-mentioned plays of al-Hakim to compare the features of the Third Language with that of Fusha and Ammiyah. The paper pointed out that al-Hakim``s Third Language had its own merits; easier and simpler than Fusha. The language, however, lacked naturalness, because it had been a fruit of the writer``s intention and deliberation. It would be hard to say that al-Hakim``s experiment was a success, for he could not find companions who share the mission, but his Third Language should be recognized as a positive initiative to reach a balance between social reality and literary means.
    Keyword: 타우피크 알하킴의 언어
    Author: 박재원
    Poblication Year: 2015
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Italian Literature
    유럽에서의 "천일야화" 번역 과정 연구
    This paper studies on the history of process of 『The Thousand and One Nights』 translations in Europe. In the 17th century, Europe began to concern about orient as a romantic region. So, many of Europeans traveled orient, and they recorded customs, traditions and cultures of their visiting countries. They wrote books about orient and introduced to Europeans. In this time, the most important book, which has influenced on European was『The Arabian Nights』. Antoine Galland(1646-1715) was the first European translator of 『The Arabian Nights』. He published the first two volumes of 『Les Mille et une nuits』in 1704 and the twelfth and final volume in 1717. And then in England two writers translated 『The Arabian Nights』by English language. They were Edward William Lane(1801-1876) and Richard F. Burton(1821-1890). Lane translated Bulaq version of 『The Thousand and One Nights』and published『The Arabian Nights』in 1838-1841. Burton translated CalcuttaⅡ version and published『The Arabian Nights』in 1885 by the ten volumes and he added six volumes in 1886-1888. In France, Joseph Charles Mardrus translated Bulaq version and North Africa version of 『The Arabian Nights』and published sixteen volumes in 1899-1904. In Spanish Andalus was considered to bridge of transformation of arabian literature into Europe in medieval ages. So 『The Arabian Nights』 was circulated in medieval Europe by the name of 『Sendebar』. This book was generally known as the『Libro de los enganos』in spanish version, and the latin version by 『Libre de septem sapientibus』.
    Keyword: "천일야화" 번역
    Author: 이종화
    Poblication Year: 2015
    Language: Korean
    Country: Italy
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    사우디아라비아 석유정책이 제2차 석유파동에 미친 영향
    It is generally believed that the increasing political instability in Iran in late 1978 and the consequent Islamic Revolution in 1979 caused the second oil shock in the world oil market. Although these political events in Iran increased the instability of the world oil market, their impact on skyrocketing oil prices was limited. When we look into the world oil market during this period in detail, it was Saudi Arabia, which gave market forces opportunities to agitate the world oil market by skyrocketing oil prices. In the first half of 1979, Saudi oil policy was deviated from its long-term economic interests in maximizing oil wealth through price moderation mainly due to short-term political exigencies. During this period, Saudi Arabia had two main political concerns, the political unrest in Iran and the conflict in Yemen. The Saudi government needed to appease the new Iranian government and tried to show its amicable attitude towards its oil policy. On the other hand as the skirmishes between the Yemen Arab Republic and the People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen erupted into a full scale war by February 1979, diplomatic cooperation from Iraq and Syria was needed to achieve the cease-fire. Furthermore, Saudi Arabia tried to press the US to change its controversial foreign policy in the Middle East based on the Camp David Accords. All these political considerations in early 1979 reflected on Saudi Arabia’s oil policy by reducing its oil production and raising oil prices. However, politically motivated Saudi oil policy aggravated a tighter world oil market and the consequent rising oil prices in the spot market with the growing influence of market forces over the world oil market mainly contributed to the second oil shock.
    Keyword: 석유정책, 석유파동
    Author: 송상현
    Poblication Year: 2015
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    이슬람국가와 알-카에다의 이념적 그리고 전략적 차이
    The ‘establishment’ of Khalifa system by Islamic State (IS) will generate long-term instability in the Middle East. IS is an Sunni extremist organization which has a clear difference with the conventional Jihadist groups like al-Qaeda. IS and other Islamist groups have a similar ultimate goal of building an Islamic state, but they have different strategies and methodologies. The major targets of Osama bin Laden's al-Qaeda is ‘far enemy,’ i.e., the West led by the US and Israel, IS has prioritize ‘near enemy’ rather than 'far enemy’ cleansing the Muslim community. While Al-Qaeda seeks a ‘defensive jihad’ to protect the Islamic world from the threat posed the West, IS has combined the ‘defensive’ with ‘offensive jihad.’ IS has resorted to a strategy of building Islamic state to remove non-Islamic elements in the Middle East. This study explores how much ideology and strategy between al-Qaeda and IS are different. Despite the fact that the two radical Islamist organizations have utilized the religion of Islam to justify their activities and atrocities, this research assumes that IS, which declared the establishment of Khalifa state, has more assertively put the emphasis on its territorial domination and governance than al-Qaeda did. In order to demonstrate the ideological and strategic difference between the two organizaton, this study analyzed the speeches made by the main leaders of the two groups, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi and Osama bin Laden. The texts in the speeches of the two leaders were analyzed through the KH Coder. The result of the analysis showed considerable differences in word usage and co-occurrence networks.
    Keyword: 테러
    Author: 서경민
    Poblication Year: 2015
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    영국의 팔레스타인 위임통치와 시온주의프로젝트
    This article analyzes the Zionists Project of British Mandate to elucidate the cause of the current Israeli/Palestinian Conflicts. During the Mandate period(1920-1948), The British government created the racial discrimination in Palestine as supporting the Jewish-Zionists, Immigrants and excluding Muslim?Christian-Arabs, Natives. The British government and Zionists were the major collaborators to control Palestine as keeping and strengthening the racial discrimination policies. In the result, the current unstable political structure in Palestine was established by British Mandate policies. The purpose of British Zionists Projects was for British to control the strategic location, Palestine and they expressly presented the construction of the Jewish State for Jewish people as the goal. During the Mandate period, Muslim?Christian-Arabs, Natives continued to resist the Zionists Projects involving Jewish massive immigration to Palestine and organized the strong Arab Revolts. As the response to the Arab Revolts, the British Mandate organized the Haycraft Commission of 1921, the Shaw Commission of 1930, the Peel Commission of 1936 and announced Churchill White Paper of 1922, the Passfield White Paper of 1930, MacDonald White Paper of 1939. In this process, there were some advances and retreats of Zionists Projects. But finally, in 1948 Zionists incapacitated Palestinian Arab Natives nearly completely and achieved the goal of Zionism, the construction of the Jewish State, Israel in Palestine.
    Keyword: 위임통치, 시온주의프로젝트
    Author: 홍미정
    Poblication Year: 2015
    Language: Korean
    Country: Israel
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Economics
    아랍 지역 마케팅 환경 및 전략에 관한 연구 - 마케팅 사례를 통한 분석 -
    With the growth of the Arab economy, the interest of the Arab Region has increased in South Korea In addition, many South Korean companies are advancing to the Arab region, and this is also increasing the interest of the marketing environment and strategy in the Arab region. However, research on the marketing environment and the strategy to the Arab region still lacks in South Korea. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to present an improvement plan for future marketing activities in the Arab region by collecting various examples of companies in Arab region and by analyzing the success or failure causes of the cases. To collect the stories, we analyzed many marketing cases on various industries such as electronics, fashion, cosmetic, service, culture, and retail. And through these examples, we derived the problems and studied the solutions. We hope this paper to be a small cornerstone of the studies of Arab regions’ marketing environment and strategy.
    Keyword: 마케팅
    Author: 이일영
    Poblication Year: 2015
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Language
    A Modern Approach to al-Malakah al-Lisāniyyah in Ibn Khaldun
    본 연구의 목적은 이븐 칼둔의 언어연구에서 중요한 부분을 차지하고 있는 al-Malakah al-Lis?niyyah 즉 ‘언어적 자질 또는 능력’을 현대적으로 재해석하는 것이다. al-Malakah al-Lis?niyyah 는 이븐 칼둔이 그의 저서 『역사 서설』에서 언어습득과 관련하여 제시한 개념으로, 언어의 습득은 외형적인 행위로 보이지만 그것을 가능하게 하는 것은 언어적 자질 즉, al-Malakah al-Lis?niyyah 에 의한 반복적 연습으로 이루어진다는 개념이다. 이븐 칼둔은 인간사회에서 문화가 형성되는 것은 사회 구성원들의 al-Malakah 즉 '특정 자질‘이 지속적 연습 또는 교육을 통해 기술craft 의 형태로 발전됨으로써 가능하다고 보았고 이를 바탕으로 우월한 형태의 국가가 형성된다고 주장했다. 그는 al-Malakah 를 정신적 형태로 간주했고 인간의 본유적인 자질로 보았다. 그의 이러한 주장이 현대에서 주목을 받는 것은 현대 언어학의 언어습득 이론과 공통점을 공유하기 때문이다. 현대 언어학은 언어습득이 본유적 언어 능력을 바탕으로 특정 언어사회에서 반복되는 습관행위 즉, 후천적 교육을 통해 가능하다고 보고 있다. 이러한 주장은 촘스키Chomsky의 언어습득 이론에서도 잘 나타나 있다. 촘스키는 언어습득과정을 보편적 언어능력을 바탕으로 각 언어의 개별문법을 습득하는 것으로 간주했다. 본 논문에서는 이븐 칼둔의 al-Malakah al-Lis?niyyah 의 개념을 현대 언어학의 언어습득과정을 통해 비교함으로써 그 공통성을 입증하는데 주력할 것이다. 특히 이븐 칼둔의 언어에 대한 관점과 이를 통한 al-Malakah al-Lis?niyyah의 개념에 대한 정확한 정의를 현대 언어학적 측면에서 고찰하고 그의 언어관을 조명하고자 한다.
    Keyword: 이븐 칼둔
    Author: 최진영
    Poblication Year: 2015
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Sociology
    이슬람주의자 위협의 예방 - 과격 이슬람주의에 대한 관제종교기관의 대응
    .
    Keyword:
    Author: 서정민
    Poblication Year: 2002
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Sociology
    서구 사상과 이슬람사상에서의 여성, 그리고 제3세계 이론의 입장
    .
    Keyword:
    Author: 조희선
    Poblication Year: 2002
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    중세 이슬람 정치사상과 칼리파제
    .
    Keyword:
    Author: 손주영
    Poblication Year: 2003
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Human Geography
    예언자 무함마드의 다처관연구 - 이슬람적 입장에서
    .
    Keyword:
    Author: 최영길
    Poblication Year: 2003
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Economics
    꾸란 한역에 있어서의 문제점 - 암소의 장을 중심으로
    .
    Keyword:
    Author: 이영태
    Poblication Year: 2001
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Sociology
    이슬람법의 현실적 적용에 관한 연구 - 9.11 참사를 중심으로
    .
    Keyword:
    Author: 이원삼
    Poblication Year: 2003
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Israel History
    바하이교의 역사적 개관 - 19세기 중동에서 태어나 ‘세계종교’가 되기까지
    .
    Keyword:
    Author: 김영경
    Poblication Year: 2003
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Sociology
    美-이스라엘 間 '特別한 關係(Special Relationship)'와 팔레스타인 平和
    .
    Keyword:
    Author: 이종택
    Poblication Year: 2003
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Sociology
    이슬람 세계와 이자금지
    .
    Keyword:
    Author: 한덕규
    Poblication Year: 2003
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Language
    아랍어 읽기의 선행학습 연구
    .
    Keyword:
    Author: 김종도
    Poblication Year: 2003
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Language
    아랍어 듣기전략과 교수법에 대한 연구
    .
    Keyword:
    Author: 최진영
    Poblication Year: 2003
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Language
    아랍어의 음운규칙 연구
    .
    Keyword:
    Author: 박재양
    Poblication Year: 2003
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Sociology
    아랍어 신문을 활용한 아랍어 교육- 초급단계 학습자를 중심으로
    .
    Keyword:
    Author: 공지현
    Poblication Year: 2003
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Arabic Literature
    니자르 깝바니의 작품세계
    .
    Keyword:
    Author: 임병필
    Poblication Year: 2003
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Language
    꾸란 정음법 연구
    .
    Keyword:
    Author: 최영길
    Poblication Year: 2003
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Language
    한국어에서의 아랍어 차용어에 대한 고찰
    .
    Keyword:
    Author: 이규철
    Poblication Year: 2004
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Language
    아랍어 주격연구 - 주격작용소를 중심으로
    .
    Keyword:
    Author: 이영택
    Poblication Year: 2004
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Language
    예멘 구어체 아랍어의 발전과정과 사나방언의 음운적 특성에 대한 연구
    .
    Keyword: 예멘구어체아랍어, 티하마 방언, k-방언, 사나방언, 사나방언의 음운적 특징
    Author: 최진영
    Poblication Year: 2004
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Language
    쿠웨이트방언의 음운 연구
    .
    Keyword: 음운론적 현상, 자음, 모음, 음운 변종
    Author: 박재양
    Poblication Year: 2004
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Arab History
    탄지마트 이후 이슬람
    This study is focused on the amendment of family-related law which was taken as a last step in the process of large-scale modification of laws and regulations after the modernization reform Tanzimat decree at the end of Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire was a great country which had retained the Caliph system to the last. After losing the World War I, the Ottoman Empire had been keeping its national identity as a Sunni Islamic Country until abolition of Caliph system in 1924. Before that, there was no choice but to carry out modernization and westernization of the country in order to restore national sovereignty and build up national power. It was almost a revolution to establish a modern state legal system from the Sharia law which had been the norms stipulating the relationship between God and man. Therefore, it is meaningful to study how the courts and the judicial system had been changed from the Ottoman Empire to Republic of Turkey. In particular, family law was the most controversial issue at the end of the Ottoman Empire. However, the amendment of family-related law and regulations had not been made until the last gasp of the Empire because the religious authorities obsessed with tradition and custom obstinately resisted change. Under such circumstances the enactment of Family Law Act 1917 has a historical significance because it was the first modern statutory law related to families and women in the most conservative religious state like Ottoman Empire. In this article we are analyzing the diverse aspects of the Family Law Act 1917 at a stage of conversion from god-centered and religious Islamic country to modern national state, including its background, details, characteristics, implications, limits as well as its influence on the political, social, cultural and historical change.
    Keyword: Shari’a, Tanzimat, Ottoman Turk, Turkey, Family law, Islam, Islamic Law. 샤리아, 탄지마트, 오스만 튀르크, 터키, 가족법, 이슬람, 이슬람 법
    Author: 오은경
    Poblication Year: 2016
    Language: Korean
    Country: Turkey
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    북카프카스 민족의 대 러시아 저항의 기원
    This article explores a study an origin of resistance in North Caucasus focused on life of Imam Mansur in 18th century, particularly on Imam Mansur's military operations and his sufism concept. I investigated political surroundings in North Caucasus and mutual relation between Osman Turkey and North Caucasus's political leadership in order to review political protest of Caucasus peoples. I mainly dealt with the meaning sufism as protest against Imperial Russia. Chapter II examines Imam Mansur's life and activity. Chapter III review Imam Mansur's military protest. Chapter IV analyzes religious spirit and resistance realization of Imam Mansur. This paper deals with the meaning of the relation military sufism and pure tariqa spirit in North Kavkaz. Military sufism was appeared already in 18th century in North Caucasus and became military doctorine from 18th century against Imperial Russia.
    Keyword: Sufism, Imam Mansur, Imperial Russia, North Caucasus, Chechen, 수피즘, 이맘 만수르, 러시아 제국, 북 코카서스, 체첸
    Author: 정세진
    Poblication Year: 2016
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    닉슨 행정부의 걸프지역 균형정책 폐기와 역내 도서 영유권 갈등
    This article attempts to examine the impacts of power transition from the United Kingdom to the United States on regional stability of the Gulf on the basis of structural realism. In this regard, the Nixon administration terminated British balancing policy whose purpose was to maintain equilibrium between Iran and Saudi Arabia. American government supported Iranian preponderance under the Nixon Doctrine. However, this strategy instigated Iranian aspiration to dominate the Gulf region, thus resulting in the intensification of the territorial disputes over Islands such as the Tunbs and Abu Musa. To prevent conflicts among Iran, Sharjah and Ras al-Khaimah, several proposals of mediation were presented. However, the agreement for peace couldn't be accomplished. Consequently, Iran occupied the Tunbs by dispatching military forces and dominated the northern parts of Abu Musa by dividing the Island into two sections. All things considered, the territorial disputes over the Islands during the Nixon administration can be seen as a historical case which reveals the impacts of structural changes on international relations in the Gulf.
    Keyword: Nixon Doctrine, Abu Musa, the Tunbs, Balancing Policy in the Gulf, Territorial Disputes over Islands
    Author: 김강석
    Poblication Year: 2016
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Anthropology
    국내 폭력적 극단주의 위험 요인 분석
    The media strategies of Islamic State’s propaganda has produced high-definition depictions of the most abhorrent brutality on an industrial scale, ensuring that the IS threat is digitalized and brought firmly into different continents. In response to this phenomenon, various countries have applied a strategy of so-called ‘countering violent extremism.’ Violent extremism can be defined as an ideology or trend which supports or commits ideologically-motivated violence to further political goals. The threat of violent extremism is neither constrained by international borders nor limited to any single ideology. Increasingly sophisticated use of the Internet, social media, and information technology by violent extremists adds an additional layer of complexity. Korea has also faced the threat of Islamic State which utilizes a remarkable media strategy. Thus, this research analyzed what factors can contribute to the emergence of violent extremism. In addition, this study evaluated how well Korean youths perceive violent extremism through a survey analysis. The survey was conducted with a sample group of high-school students on the basis of self-administered questionnaire.
    Keyword: Countering Violent Extremism, Islamic State (IS), Terrorism, Korea, Youths, Survey, 폭력적 극단주의 대응, 이슬람국가(IS), 테러리즘, 한국, 청소년, 설문조사
    Author: 서정민
    Poblication Year: 2016
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Islam Philosophy
    마크디시의 살라피즘과 IS의 살라피 지하디즘
    Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, present leader of IS(Islamic State), declared on June 29, 2014 that Khilafah returned(The Return of Khilafah). IS has been built on Salafism, state ideology by Salafism Jihadists. The first founder of IS is Abū Mus’ab az-Zarqāwī that founded (Society for Monotheism and Jihad) in 1999. Al-Zarqāwī was a petty criminal and an alcoholic, but he became a Salafism jihadist since he met Abu Muhammad Aasim al-Maqdisi in prison in 1990’s. Both of al-Maqdisi and al-Zarqāwī were born in Nablus in West Bank, so they felt brotherhood to each other much more. Especially, al-Zarqāwī has fallen under the influence of Al-Maqdisi. Al-Zarqāwī became a Salafism jihadist by influence of Al-Maqdisi’s Salafism. Al-Maqdisi has been one of the Salafism jihadists that follows pious Predecessors, as-Salaf as-Saleh and that strenuously insists that have to follow the robust belief of the early Muslims including Muhammad, the Companions(Sahabah), the Followers(Tabi‘un), the Followers of the Followers(Tabi‘ al-Tabi‘in) that provided Muslim the epitome of Islamic practice. In this paper, author reviewed Salafism in Islamic history, exchange of Salafism thought and Salafism ideology between two person, and then analyzed al-Maqdisi’s Salafism showing in Millat Ibrahim, al-Maqdisi’s work. In conclusion, the author of this paper insists that al-Maqdisi’s Salafism thought had a great effect on formation of al-Zarqāwī’s violent Salafist jihadism, and al-Zarqāwī’s Salafist jihadism has become a basic ideology of IS building. Al-Zarqāwī’s Salafist jihadism has become a violent ideology, has showed a seditious act of violence to world citizens. Present IS leader, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi is an extremist standing on Salafist jihadism.
    Keyword: Salaf, IS, ISIS/ISIL al-Zarqawi, al-Maqdisi, Salafy jihadism(Salafist jihadism), Khilafah, two camps, Millat Ibrahim, Wahhabism, Jama'at al-Tawhid wa-al-Jihad, millah(millat), imamah, tamkin, taghut, da’wah, shirk, takfir, hijrah, bay’ah, 살라프, 이슬람국가, 이라크-샴 이슬람국가, 자르카위, 마크디시, 살라피 지하디즘, 칼리프제 국가, 두 캠프론, 밀라 이브라힘, 와화비즘, 유일신과 성전그룹, 다와, 이마마, 탐킨, 우상, 다신교, 타크피르, 히즈라, 바야
    Author: 정상률
    Poblication Year: 2016
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    2001년 이후 미국의 대 이라크 정책: 이라크 석유자원을 중심으로
    This paper attempts to deal with the correlations between the 2003 US invasion of Iraq and petroleum resources in Iraq. It focuses on the US Bush administration's real intentions for the 2003 invasion such as the control of petroleum resources in the Persian Gulf area in general, and the control of huge amount of Iraqi crude oil resources in particular. The author argues that there were several factors that drove the United States into the Iraq war. First, the Bush administration sought to restructure the political and military order and to strengthen its uncontested hegemonic power in the Middle East after the 9/11 by disarming Saddam Hussein. Second, the Bush administration wanted to control Iraqi crude oil resources and maintain a steady supply of oil to the world capitalist economy including that of the US, Europe, Japan and China. Especially, its purpose was not to directly control the Iraqi crude oil resources; however, to improve the accessibility of international oil companies, both of private and national, to the Iraqi crude oil resources. Third, a group of the American 'neo-conservatists was a driving force which had succeeded to convince the Bush administration's policy-makers on the decision to invade Iraq in 2003. This study also analyzes the inter-relationships between international oil companies and both of the American and British administrations with respect to the Iraqi crude oil resources and its oil industry.
    Keyword: 2003 US Invasion of Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum Resources, International Oil Companies. Neo-conservatives, Bush, Cheney, Rumsfeld, Wolfowitz, 2003 미국의 이라크 침공, 석유, 국제석유기업, 영국, 부시, 체 니, 럼즈펠드, 울포위츠.
    Author: 최영철
    Poblication Year: 2016
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    아랍 스프링 전후 사우디 청년층의 변화 요구와 향후 전망
    The purpose of this research is to investigate Saudi youth's concerns on the future, and their request for social, educational, economical changes before & after Arab Spring. Their concerns are more related with the economy than politics and social stability. Two thirds of Saudi's 29 million person is under the age of 30. The consequences of this large youth segment will affect Saudi's politics, economy, and society in the future. Because they will be a major workforce within 10 years. So Saudi government has to create more jobs for them, and decrease the number of foreign workers. Economically they are afraid of the high cost of living and the availability of affordable housing. As for the education system, young Saudis consider their system is effective for teaching them Islam and basic academic subjects. However, they have expressed discontents on the lack of practical education system, problem solving skill, effective communication, and critical thinking. The lack of practical education system and its skills is closely related with the lack of career opportunities. The development of practical education system will produce various changes in the fields of gender issue, girls' education, allowing to drive, modification of the dress code, and social stability. Young Saudis consider the employment and job opportunities more important than political issues. So they will be likely to be more volatile and discontented forces, if Saudi government has not try to solve economic problems. And this situation will push them to have extremist versions of Islam, and make people more polarized.
    Keyword: Saudi youth, Islam, change, practical education, girls' education, unemployment, 사우디 청년층, 이슬람, 변화, 실용 교육, 여성 교육, 실업률
    Author: 황병하
    Poblication Year: 2016
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Economics
    터키 소버린 신용부도스왑(CDS) 프리미엄 결정요인
    The guiding research question of this study is to discover whether sovereign credit default swap(CDS) premium for Turkey is determined by market risk, regional risk and bank risk. The dependent variable is sovereign credit default swap premium for Turkey with the maturity of 1yr, 2yr, 3yr, 4yr, 5yr, 7yr, 10yr, 20yr and 30yr. Independent variables are the implied volatility of equity options, interest swap rate, Euro STOXX 50, Portugal sovereign CDS premium, Greece sovereign CDS premium, Akbank CDS premium. The baseline model is controlled by the time lagged sovereign CDS premium(t-1) and dollar index. The research time frame covers 3. March 2008 to 25. December 2015. The main findings are twofold: market and regional risks show statistically significant relationship with sovereign CDS premium, and there is no statistical correlation between bank risk and sovereign CDS premium in Turkey. These findings reinforce the view that the main determinants of CDS premium are the implied volatility in markets and interest rate.
    Keyword: Turkey Sovereign Credit Default Swap Premium, Market Risk, Regional Risk, Bank Risk, Pass-through Effect, 터키 소버린 신용부도스왑 프리미엄, 시장리스크, 지역리스크, 은행리스크, 전가효과
    Author: 양오석
    Poblication Year: 2016
    Language: Korean
    Country: Turkey
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Language
    탈소비에트 투르크 공화국들의 문자개혁과 과제
    The scripts that were employed to record Turkic Languages vary throughout history. In 1991, with the emergence of newly independent Turkic republics in the Soviet Union, the subject of the alphabet became an important issue again and, as a result, the Turks in the former Soviet Union changed their alphabets for the third time in the 20th century. Since 1991 special symposium, official and semi-official meetings conducted in Turkey have played an important role for the acceptance of the new alphabets among the Turkic republics. Less known are the alphabet reform debates in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. This paper has intended to reveal the debates surrounding Turkic alphabets and a representation of a struggle to consciously create common Turkic alphabet to represent a common Turkic identity, unified or not. This is still to this day an ongoing struggle that on some fronts may frankly be considered a complete failure. After discussing the unfolding of Soviet-led alphabet reform in Turkic republics in USSR and the debates and resolutions of the meetings focused on the future of Turkic alphabets or contemporary Turkic alphabet reform, I will proceed survey the events leading up to their latest implementation in the post-soviet Turkic republics
    Keyword: Turkic languages, Alphabet reform, Latin alphabet, Common Turkic Language, post-soviet Turkic republics, 투르크어, 문자개혁, 라틴문자, 공통의 투르크어 문자, 탈소비에 트 투르크 공화국
    Author: 손영훈
    Poblication Year: 2016
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Language
    교착어의 서술어부 구조 고찰
    The purpose of this paper is to critically examine the terms and concepts associated with the predicates in the school grammars of the Turkish and the Azerbaijani, and to check the validity of zero suffix and copula in the description of predicates of the two languages. In summary, Both Turkish and Azerbaijani appear to have zero suffixes and copula in the structures of their predicates. Also there is no room for setting mixed category in their grammars. In conclusion, I hope that this paper, in raising some questions as well as answering some, has revealed the necessity for more systematic analyses on the structure of the predicates in both Turkish and Azerbaijani within a perspective not determined by categories of the Indo-European languages.
    Keyword: Agglutinative Language, Turkish, Azerbaijani, Zero Suffix, Copula, Mixed Category, 교착어, 터키어, 아제르바이잔어, 영접사, 계사, 복합범주
    Author: 연규석
    Poblication Year: 2016
    Language: Korean
    Country: Turkey
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Etc language Literature
    중앙아시아 튀르크계 유목민 영웅 서사시 『데데 코르쿠트의 서』 고찰
    An epic is the collection of stories that deals with the courage of people. If a country has abundant amount of legends and epics, it could mean that their history is that much more resplendent. Heroic epics are in the memories of all communities and races. Important historical events were transformed into stories and certain rules that are common in various communities and cultures were embedded into the stories. In this sense, one of the important common characteristics of epics is that they become abundant in the form of orally transmitted literature and are passed down to future generations. Epics written in what can be called the repository of the Turks, the Dede Korkut Kitabı are narratives that carry valuable racial identity that cannot be calculated into certain amount of money. The stories included in Dede Korkut Kitabı are about the conflicts of Oghuz tribe, who resided in the landscape of Syr Darya located to the east of Caspian Sea and Aral Lake, with other tribes in the area. The book contains the preface that explains who Dede Korkut is, and twelve stories, which are believed to have been orally passed down, and was recorded in writing between 15th and 16th centuries. The reason behind this belief is that the characteristics of the language, orthography, and phoneme indicate that the text cannot have been written earlier. The existing works are the resden woodblock-printed book that is consisted of preface and 12 stories, and the woodblock-printed book in the Vatican library that is consisted of preface and 6 stories. The stories included in the book sometimes shows the epic characteristics, but what is notable is that it includes realistic contents of daily life. The work is assessed as the fruit of literature along the boundary of epics and folktale. Most of the narrative is written in prose, but the dialogues are generally written in verses with innate rhythm. The work can be considered as an epic, fairy tale, or history. For instance, surrealistic incidents occur and characters with superhuman powers appear in the stories. Also, fairies and god of death also appear, which shows the fairy tale side of the work. Additionally, the epic includes the lives of Oghuz Turks and culture, which shows the historic aspect to this work. In conclusion, Dede Korkut Kitabı connotes the social aspect, belief, customs, lives, history, culture, and tradition of the Oghuz Turks, and is a cultural masterpiece that also includes important informations of other contemporary tribes.
    Keyword: Turks, Nomad, Oghuz Tribe, Central Asia, Heroic Epics, Dede Korkut, Islam, 튀르크, 유목민, 오우즈 부족, 중앙아시아, 영웅 서사시, 데데 코 르쿠트, 이슬람
    Author: 이난아
    Poblication Year: 2016
    Language: Korean
    Country: Turkey
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Art & Physical Education
    터키 정부 차원의 국외 모스크 후원 활동과 함의
    Turkey patronized Busan Mosque's renovation and Tokyo Mosque's reconstruction through PRA and TIKA. They applied traditional Ottoman architectural styles, especially those of Suleyman and Sinan. Turkey attempts to express that it is one of the most powerful states in the modern Islamic world. Its ideology is very similar to that of Suleyman who was the most powerful Sultan and cemented the prototypical Turkish Mosque. Through various cultural projects, Turkey is impelling its positive image as main stream country in contemporary Islamic World. That image represents Turkey as the protector of Islam and organizer of the Middle East. This article examines Turkish patronal intentions implicit in the construction of the mosques in Busan and Tokyo.
    Keyword: Mosque, Turkey, Patronage of Mosque, PRA (Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı), TIKA (Türk İşbirliği ve Koordinasyon Ajansı Başkanlığı), Busan Mosque, Tokyo Mosque. 모스크, 터키, 모스크 건축 후원, PRA (Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı), TIKA (Türk İşbirliği ve Koordinasyon Ajansı Başkanlığı), 부산 모스크, 도쿄모스크
    Author: 이수정
    Poblication Year: 2016
    Language: Korean
    Country: Turkey
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Etc language Literature
    코란 한역 비교 연구 V
    This is a study of Koran translation to Korean. This research concentrates on some problems in the three copies of Korean Koran translated from Arabic to Korean. I point the mistakes happened from the differences in the range of the meaning of the words and the differences in word order or sentence structure between Arabic and Korean. And I suggest the correct translation. To investigate these problems, this article is composed as following. Introduction confines the research realm, the purposes and the way of the research. And in part 2, I compared the 3 copies of Koran translated in Korean in the range of the meaning of the word and the differences in the structures. And I show some mistakes in their translation. And in part 3, I showed my translation after the comparison between the 3 translations after conferring to some Arabic exegeses. And in part 4, I showed the mistakes in the meaning and the structure that 3 translations have made and I showed the reason why they made the mistakes.
    Keyword: Koran, translation, structure, meaning, 코란, 번역, 구조, 의미
    Author: 이영태
    Poblication Year: 2016
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Etc language Literature
    아랍어 기본어순에 대한 현대적 접근
    The focal point of this paper is to make a modern approach on the basic word order in Arabic as well as to account for the syntactic properties of empty pronoun. It will be argued that the basic word order is not a conception from a descriptive point, but a conception generated in the deep structure. In the literature on Arabic linguistics, two types of sentences(nominal sentence, verbal sentence)have been treated as having the different syntactic distribution, whereas in modern linguistics the nominal sentence and the verbal sentence are generated from one deep structure SVO. Therefore, the objective is to suggest the basic word order in the deep structure by virtue of X-bar schema and VP-internal subject hypothesis, and to explain the left-raising movement of the verb root and the subject in order to generate both VSO and SVO structure. In addition, this paper is focused on underlying the presence of empty pronoun(pro) and manifesting its syntactic properties. It will be made by analyzing the structures which contain raising verb and modal verb
    Keyword: Basic Word Order, Nominal Sentence, Verbal Sentence, X-bar Schema, VP-internal subject hypothesis, the Left-Raising Movement, Empty Pronoun(pro), INFL, Complement, Specifier, Raising Verb, Modal Verb, 기본어순, 명사문, 동사문, X-바 이론, 동사구내 주어가설, 좌측인 상이동, 공범주 주어, 굴절소, 보충어, 지정어, 인상동사, 양태동사
    Author: 최진영
    Poblication Year: 2016
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Economics
    아랍에미리트 경제 패러다임 변화에 따른 자국민과 이주민 간 관계변화 연구
    The United Arab Emirates(UAE) has pursued a “de jure and de facto” separation policy toward immigrants under the petroeconomy for the last several decades. The fact of the majority immigrants being uneducated and low-income caused a master-servant relationship between nationals and non-nationals. However, the shift in the UAE’s economic model from a petro-reliant economy to a knowledge-based one has transformed immigrants from blue-collar to white-collar workers. The influx of educated, elite immigrants signifies not only the emergence of a new foreign middle class in the UAE, but also a profound shift in the relationship between locals and immigrants from master-servant to one of rivalry. This study analyzes the history of UAE immigrants and their impact on social change, especially focusing on the relationship between UAE nationals and foreigners in accordance with the changes in the country’s economic model, as based on the literature review.
    Keyword: GCC, UAE, Economic model, Immigrants, Labour market, social integration, 아랍에미리트, 경제모델, 이주민, 노동시장, 사회통합
    Author: 엄익란
    Poblication Year: 2016
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Anthropology
    아랍 문화코드 내 이슬람주의
    Arab dramas have represented dominant popular cultural phenonenon among the Arab public during the last several decades. However, a thorough research on what culture codes dominate the drama serials has not attracted a great attention. Thus, this paper aims at exploring the characteristics of Arab dramas in order to understand what the main culture codes are represented in major drama products. This research was based on qualitative culture code approach in the analysis of collected dramas. This is because it may enable us to understand what constitutes main culture codes in the Arab public culture and visual contents. Through this analysis, Islamic or Islamism culture codes in major Arab dramas can be more scientifically measured. The data collected for this study are 13 Arabic dramas announced in ‘Ramadan 2015 Series List’ of www.elcinema.com. This study examined and analyzed contents of the collected drama serials on the framework of major 3 Islamic or Islamism culture codes: justice, fatalism, and communalism. Through these qualitative analysis, this study would extract to what degree these Islamic culture codes are reflected on the sample dramas.
    Keyword: Arab Culture, Popular Culture, Culture Code, Islam, Islamism, Arab Drama, 아랍문화, 대중문화, 문화코드, 이슬람, 이슬람주의, 아랍 드라마
    Author: 서정민
    Poblication Year: 2016
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Economics
    이슬람보험의 구조와 보험사 운영모델에 관한 연구
    Insurance has become a need of individuals and businesses for mitigating risks and alleviating the impact of losses on their lives and wealth. After islamic finance began to facilitate in the 1970s, it also required a Shariah compliant alternative to conventional insurance against Shariah principles due to the involvement of riba, gharar and maisir. Takaful system is developed as a pole of islamic financial ecosystem including islamic banking, asset management and capital market, which its service is provided by 200 more takaful operators globally. In this article we explain underpinning concept and operating models about takaful system as alternative to conventional insurance and see the overview and outlook of it. Also, to differentiate existing articles we present several considerations to launch the takaful business in the market and to operate its business. Through this article various issues which is incurred according to the difference between banking and insurance, conventional insurance and takaful should be an area researched to enter the market as a facility for getting new growth dynamics of our insurance companies.
    Keyword: islamic Insurance, Takaful, Wakala, Mudaraba, Takaful roadmap, 이슬람보험, 타카풀, 와칼라, 무다라바, 타카풀 로드맵
    Author: 정영천
    Poblication Year: 2016
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Science of Religion
    중앙아시아 이슬람과 종교적 신크레티즘(Syncretism)
    The peoples of Central Asia began to accept Islam from the middle of the 7th century; however, in those regions Islam took on different aspects. The purpose of this study is to analyze Islam in Central Asia from the perspective of religious syncretism. First I focus on how Islam spread throughout Central Asia in order to identify the origins of religious syncretism. Secondly I deal with the main factors of syncretism in Central Asia that can be explained both by Sufism and the Hanafi school of law belonging to the Sunni sect. When Islam appeared in Central Asia in middle of the 7th century, the people did not want to accept a new religion and in the process abandon their own indigenous religion. Therefore, the ruling class had to take a carrot and stick approach to convert people to Islam. In addition, Sufism and the Hanafi school of law played a significant role in accepting Islam in Central Asia. Sufis introduced a variety of religious practices to the Central Asians including new music, dance and dhikr. Above all, they respected the Saints in the mausoleum. Through this behavior, Sufis were able to gain recognition from the local people. Hanafi law was very flexible interpreting the Koran(Quran) and the Hadiths. Hanafis reinterpreted the concepts of indigenous Tengrism and religion so that local folk might be able to accept Islam. Consequently, Central Asian practices and customs such as Animism, Totemism, Tengrism and Shamanism, which had existed since ancient times could be assimilated into Islam, thus recreating Islam into a form called “Folk Islam”. Islam in Central Asia and Syncretism of Religion.
    Keyword: Islam, Central Asia, Syncretism, Folk Islam, Tengrism, Shamanism, Totemism, Animism. 이슬람, 중앙아시아, 신크레티즘, 민속 이슬람, 텡그리즘, 샤머니즘, 애니미즘.
    Author: 오은경
    Poblication Year: 2017
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Science of Law
    무슬림 여성의 재혼금지기간(잇다)에 대한 샤리아 규범 연구
    This paper aims to study the Shari‘ah regulations about the waiting period, that is Iddah, for a Muslim divorced or a widow. Actually Iddah has a relation to the wedding and the divorce which are very complicated. It is impossible for this paper to examine the whole situations about Iddah. So it is better to focus the types and periods of Iddah. The Shari‘ah regulations of Iddah were enacted by the process of the three steps, that is, Koran, Hadith(Sunnah), law schools. The first Koran told the five types and periods, and the second Hadith(Sunnah) extended to the eight types and periods, and then finally the four Sunni schools of law subdivided them to the twenty types and periods. In modern times some Arab countries accepted the Shari‘ah regulations about Iddah and reflected to the family law.
    Keyword: Iddah, Qur’an, Hadith(Sunnah), Sunni law school, Shi‘ah, family law in modern Arab. 잇다, 코란, 하디스(순나), 순니 법학파, 시아, 현대 아랍국가의 가족법.
    Author: 임병필
    Poblication Year: 2017
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Anthropology
    현대 중앙아시아 정착지대 이슬람에 대한 문명사적 접근
    The Muslim Communities in Central Asian Countries is divided by the countries of sedentary civilization and nomadic civilization. And most researchs on Central Asian Muslim communities have been conducted on the Muslim of sedentary civilizational Central Asia. In the beginning of 20th century Tajikistan and Uzbekistan shared sedentary tradition and communities. In terms of historic-ethnic process Tajikistan have been preserving tajik inheritance from ancient dynaty periods, while some part of tajik inheritances and communities have been located in the territory of modern Uzbekistan, which have been defined as modern Uzbek with the establishing of UzSSR. After breaking up Soviet Union Tajikistan experienced civil war among various groups of different political and religion backgrounds. In this process muslim political groups of Tajikistan had allowed to participate in government and had status of Political party, while similar movements of Uzbekistan have been restricted by the Uzbekistan government. The analysis on Muslim in Tajikistan can explain the dynamics of central asian communities.
    Keyword: Islam, sedentary Central Asia, Tajik, Tajikistan, Islam and Political Activity. 이슬람, 중앙아시아 정착지대, 타지크, 타지키스탄, 이슬람과 정치 활동.
    Author: 김상철
    Poblication Year: 2017
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    ‘붉은 초승달 지대’ 봉쇄를 위한 미·이집트 협력 하에서 나세르의 양면성 추구
    This article reconsiders the emergence of US-Egyptian rapprochement during the late Eisenhower years and examines the reasons behind its fragility. The aftermath of the Iraqi coup heightened Gamal Abdel Nasser's anxiety about regime insecurity largely because it prompted both the breakup of the UAR and the advent of a Red Fertile Crescent under intensified inter-Arab normative competition. In the face of common Communist threats, the ground for US-Egyptian rapprochement was established. However, Nasser's desire to search for state autonomy in the face of regime instability led to his ambivalent strategy towards Washington, thus preventing the emergence of a constructive relationship with the United States.
    Keyword: Ambivalence, State Autonomy, Iraqi Coup, Red Fertile Crescent, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Abd al-Karim Qasim . 양면성, 국가 자율성, 이라크 쿠데타, 붉은 초승달 지대, 가말 압둘 나세르, 압둘 카림 까심.
    Author: 김강석
    Poblication Year: 2017
    Language: Korean
    Country: Egypt
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    이란 쿠르드족 분리독립운동단체에 관한 연구
    This study analyzed the characteristics and limitations of KDPI and Komala which were representative Kurdish Separate Independent movement Parties led the armed struggle in Iran. As a result, first, KDP was founded as a nationalist party covering the left and right and Komala was founded with city nationalists. But after Mahabad Republic had been collapsed, KDPI was born again nation-pursue type party without the left and rebuilted Komala was reborn as a Marxism-Leninism-pursue type party. Second, as a result the political opposition and conflict each other for hegemony of the two parties was occured. Third, the cessation of leadership was serious. Fourth, Iran had stable political circumstance then Iraq and had overwhelmingly military forces than KDPI and Komala, so armed struggle of the Kurds had been limited. Fifth, international alliance with the regional countries and global powers was collapsed, Because of these five causes, it was stagnated that the ability of the armed ethnic conflict of KDPI and Komala in Iran. Kurdish nationalist movement in Iran was also stagnated by these same reason. So there is need much times for KDPI and Komala to recover there ability of its own armed force when they were prosperity.
    Keyword: Kurd, KDP, KDPI, Komala, Ethnic Conflict. 쿠르드, KDP, KDPI, Komala, 민족분쟁.
    Author: 박주성
    Poblication Year: 2017
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Economics
    터키 경제 불확실성의 주성분 분석
    The guiding research question of this study is to discover whether the principal component analysis leads us to the advanced understanding of economic uncertainty in Turkey. The time frame covers June 2004 to August 2016 and the basic components of economic uncertainty in Turkey consist of foreign exchange rate(to US dollars), overnight call interest rate, credit default swap spread(maturity 5 years), BIST National All Share Index, MSCI Turkey Index, JPM EMBI Turkey Index, JPM EMBI Composite Index. The main findings are twofold: JPM EMBI Indexes, BIST National All Share Index, and foreign exchange rate are the main principal components in the case of 3 months moving average, whilst JPM EMBI Indexes, BIST National All Share Index, and financial stress(national credit) are in the case of 6 months moving average.
    Keyword: Economic Uncertainty, Turkey, Principal Component Analysis, EGARCH. 경제 불확실성, 터키, 주성분분석, EGARCH
    Author: 양오석
    Poblication Year: 2017
    Language: Korean
    Country: Turkey
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Etc language Literature
    터키어 담화에서의 생략현상 연구
    The purpose of this study is to explore the characteristics of Ellipsis Phenomena in Turkish Discourse. Ellipsis is the common tendency of language toward brevity and conciseness. It is the omission of some identical words or phrases that are obviously understood but that must be supplied to make a construction grammatically and contextually. Ellipsis must be distinguished from similar phenomena such as incomplete sentences, deletion, elision and pro-form. The criteria for ellipsis are recoverability, context, identity, news value of information. Ellipsis occurs due to the three types of motivation: 1) language economy, 2) prominence of new information, 3) frequency of use. This study distinguishes three subcategories of Ellipsis on the basis of the source for recoverability: Textual Ellipsis, Situational Ellipsis, and Structural Ellipsis. Textual ellipsis has something to do with linguistic context but situational ellipsis with nonlinguistic context. In structural ellipsis, the omitted words are recoverable from the grammatical knowledge of the language.
    Keyword: Turkish, ellipsis, textual ellipsis, situational ellipsis, recoverability. 터키어, 생략, 문맥 의존 생략, 상황적 생략, 복원가능성.
    Author: 연규석
    Poblication Year: 2017
    Language: Korean
    Country: Turkey
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    세계 시온주의자 기구(WZO)와 보편적 인권
    This paper analyzes how the activities of WZO have related to universal human rights issues from 1897 to 2017, for 120 years. In 1897 the Zionist Organization (ZO, former WZO) was established with a aim to establish a Jewish national home in Palestine. In 1917 the United Kingdom suggested the Balfour declaration with supporting ZO’s aim in 1897. In 1947 UN resolution 181, resolution passed by the United Nations General Assembly that approved ZO’s aim to establish a Jewish national home in Palestine as calling for the partition of Palestine into three parts, Jewish state, Arab state and the city of Jerusalem as a corpus separatum to be governed by a special international regime. Since 1967 war, Israel has illegally occupied East Jerusalem, West Bank, Gaza and Golan Heights to cross the cease fire line of 1949. 2017 marks the 120th anniversary of establishing WZO, the 100th anniversary of the Balfour declaration, the 70th anniversary of UN resolution 181, the 50th anniversary of 1967 war. Since United Nations Resolution 181 in 1947, the problem of Palestinian refugees has continued to exist and no definite border has been settled. WZO instead of Israeli government is very active to construct the israeli settlements in occupied territories. The issue of Palestinian refugees and the construction of Israeli settlements are both sides of the same coin. Therefore, the research of 'WZO and universal human rights' is an important guideline to understand the Israeli-Palestinian conflic.
    Keyword: World Zionist Organization(WZO) , Universal Human Rights, Jewish National Fund(JNF), Jewish Agency(JA), Israel, Palestine, Jerusalem. 세계 시온주의자 기구, 보편적 인권, 유대 민족 기금, 유대 기구, 이스라엘, 팔레스타인, 예루살렘
    Author: 홍미정
    Poblication Year: 2017
    Language: Korean
    Country: Israel
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Art & Physical Education
    이슬람 아트 디자인
    In this paper, we introduce two methods of bisecting the Old Akkadian square band in relation to Islamic art design and examine the historical meaning of each method. In addition, examples of the use of the Old Akkadian square band were explored and analyzed in the Jameh mosque(Isfahan), Tillya Kari madrasa(Samarkand), Barak-Khan madrasa(Tashkent) and various walkway blocks(Tashkent). The Old Akkadian square band is a good material for the convergence education of Ancient Near East history, mathematics, and arts. And it can provide an opportunity to understand Islamic culture in middle and high school education. Moreover, Uzbekistan's sidewalk block can be used as a topic for artistic or mathematical gifted students by combining with the concept of wallpaper group.
    Keyword: Islamic Art Design, Uzbekistan Sidewalk Block Design, Old Akkadian, Old Babylonian, History of Mathematics. 이슬람 예술 디자인, 우즈베키스탄 보도블록 디자인, 고 아카디안, 고 바빌로니안, 수학사.
    Author: 박제남
    Poblication Year: 2017
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    사우디 내 IS 극단주의 확산과 와하비주의 논쟁, 그리고 사우디 정부의 대응
    In late 2014, IS declared war against Saudi Arabia, and has carried out a series of terrorist attacks on Saudi targets. IS has declared campaigns against the Shi'a and te Al Salul(Al Saud family). And IS has claimed its historical representative of Wahhabism, and declared itself as the 4th Wahabbi State. Debates on the Wahhabism in Saudi has appeared since 9/11 2001. After the foundation of IS in 2014, the debates and struggles between Saudi government and IS have increased and provoked ideological, political, social confrontations in Saudi Arabia. The contest between the two is not a close one, because IS's terrorist campaign has been focused mainly on the Shi'a targets and the Saudi government targets has gained only limited ground. But the more IS has gained power and territories in the future, the more the threat against Saudi Arabia will be considered severe. Till now, it is regarded Saudi government has controlled IS terrorism and struggles on Wahhabism systematically.
    Keyword: Saudi, Conflict, Wahhaism, IS Radicalism, Liberalism, Counterterrorism. 와하비주의, 논쟁, IS 극단주의, 자유주의자, 반테러 대응, 사우디.
    Author: 황병하
    Poblication Year: 2017
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Science of Law
    사우디아라비아의 형법과 종교 자유권에 대한 고찰
    The purpose of this article is to reveal how the right to religious freedom is being restricted in the Islamic world, focusing on the cases in Saudi Arabia. The right to religious freedom, including the right of individuals to change their religion, is taken for granted by most people in the modern civil societies. However, criminal laws in many Islamic countries stipulate that Muslims who abandon Islam should be punished. According to Shari’a, apostacy (ridda) from Islam is one of the most serious crimes that incur a God-prescribed penalty of death. Today, among the Islamic countries, eight countries such as Saudi Arabia, Afghanistan, Brunei Darussalam, Mauritania, Qatar, the Sudan, UAE and Yemen treat apostasy as a serious crime to be punished for death penalty. Among these eight countries, seven countries, except Saudi Arabia, have clearly defined apostasy as a criminal offense under the penal code. On the other hand, Saudi Arabia, which has no penal code, deals with religious crimes according to Shari‘a. This is the reason why many religious crimes in Saudi Arabia, such as false prophecy, blasphemy, witchcraft, sorcery, and atheism in addition to apostasy can be punished for death , flogging, long term imprisonment, etc in Saudi Arabia. In this context, firstly this paper is going to give an overview of what kinds of penalty Shari‘a has traditionally prescribed for apostasy and how they are applied in modern Islamic countries. Secondly, this article will show what kinds of religious activity are considered criminal offenses in Saudi Arabia. In particular, this article would like to analyze the cases that restrict religious rights of non-Muslim foreigners and non-Sunni Muslims such as Christians, Shi'ites and Ahmadis. Finally, this paper examines how religion-related penalties are being exploited to suppress anti-government activists who have advocated social reforms in recent years.
    Keyword: Saudi Arabia, Criminal Law, Shari‘a, Religious Freedom, Apostasy, Shi'ites, Ahmadis. 사우디아라비아, 형법, 샤리아, 종교자유권, 배교, 시아파, 아흐마디야파.
    Author: 김정명
    Poblication Year: 2017
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    쿠란 속 지하드의 역사적 변천과 활용
    Since the September 11 attacks and the later establishment of Islamic State (IS) in 2014, the word Jihad has become well known both in the Islamic and the non-Muslim world. Some politicians and media have used it to conjure up terrifying images of rabid Islamic fundamentalists. The word Jihad come from a religious context, and has a long history and has been used for a range of complex meanings. However, these days it tends to be translated “holy war” from its association with the medieval Crusades. Because of this, there is a continuous debate whether the usage of the term jihad without further explanation refers to military combat. Some apologists and western scholars insist that jihad is primarily nonviolent. On the other hand, some Islamic fundamentalists turn the confusion over the definition of the term to their advantage. In this article the author examines how the concept of Jihad was developed in the Quran and how each of the sub-groups of Islam history defines its meaning in their historical contexts. The author begins with the hypothesis that the common mistake made in the study of Islam by outsiders, as in the study of other religions, is to treat Islam as a unified religious system. The reality is that all Muslims are not same in their manner of thinking, believing, and living. In conclusion, the author suggests that we should not expect monolithic answers when we pose questions of Muslims. Instead, we should begin to ask what kind of world-view each particular Muslim person and community have. We will see that each group in Islam, including al-Qaeda and IS, has quite different perspectives on the meaning and practices of jihad.
    Keyword: Jihad, Defensive Jihad, Offensive Jihad, Greater Jihad, Lesser Jihad, Islamic State (IS), al-Qaeda, Radical Islamist Movements, Terrorism. 지하드, 방어적 지하드, 공격적 지하드, 대지하드, 소지하드, 이슬람국가(IS), 알-카에다, 과격이슬람주의운동, 테러리즘
    Author: 서정민
    Poblication Year: 2017
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Science of Law
    이란 형법의 배교죄 논쟁 연구
    Iran has prosecuted many individuals on charges of apostasy. Muslims who hold different views from the conservative establishment, Christian converts and Bahá'ís have been targeted of apostasy. In addition, Iran has used the charge of apostasy against her political opposition. Shari’ah law does not have a uniform definition of apostasy. While converting to another religion typically constitutes apostasy, jurists have various opinions on other acts that could render a person an apostate. The Islamic Penal Code has not defined apostasy. Therefore, judges have the discretion to adjudicate apostasy cases based on their own knowledge of Shari’ah law and fatwas. In many cases, the convictions have been eventually reversed, demonstrating the lack of clarity regarding apostasy laws. Prosecutions and convictions based on charges of apostasy and swearing at the Prophet are contrary to international human rights law. Iran is violating the freedom of thought, conscience and religion. Moreover, by imposing the death penalty for religious crimes, Iran is also violating the right to life.
    Keyword: Iran, islamic penal code, apostasy, religious freedom, human rights. 이란, 이슬람 형법, 배교죄, 종교의 자유, 인권.
    Author: 신양섭
    Poblication Year: 2017
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Arab History
    압바스 시대 바이트 알히크마(Bayt al-Ḥikmah) 연구
    This paper is a study on correlation between translation center and astronomical observatory of Bait al-Ḥikmah in Abbasid Era. Function of astronomical observatory and function of translation center had co-prosperity relations due to background of establishment of Islamic empire and settlement of sovereign power. Islamic empire had been influenced by Persian fertile cultural background and Sasanid political astrology, so as to be the translation of astrology in the core of translation policy. Khalifa al-Mamun established an astronomical observatory for accurate observation and astrological interpretation, and it caused diffusion of many astronomical observatories in the empire. They attracted many scholars and students to the observatories and there were various discussions and translations being based on precise observations and it caused verifying of previous translations and find of new theories. These cycles of reproduction could influence on other fields of knowledges addition to astrology. Function of astronomical observatory and function of translation center had good circulation relationship.
    Keyword: Bayt al-Ḥikmah, Translation Center, Astronomical Observatory, Abbasid Dynasty. 바이트 알히크마, 지혜의 전당, 번역원, 천문대, 압바스 왕조
    Author: 이동은
    Poblication Year: 2017
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    시리아 쿠르드 운동단체의 파편화와 성장한계요인
    Since the aftermath of the Arab Spring, the vacuum of power in the region caused by unsafety of Assad regime and the ISIS's rise led the international community to pay attention to the Syrian Kurds. It is because the People's Defense Units(YPG), supported by US troops, has played a major role in securing victories in battles in important bases of ISIS. The Syrian Kurds has been remain in the imperfect position of second citizen after being incorporated into the Syria. It is the first time that they had an important opportunity to demand and implement their full rights. However, the positions of Assad regime and the neighbor countries around the Syrian border are not aimed at protecting Kurdish interests. It is clear that the Kurds in Syria, a multi-ethnic nation, participate in anti-government campaigns with the Arabs in order to win the rights of ethnic minorities. The Kurdish goal, led by the main Syrian Kurdish movement groups, provides the justification for Turkey and Iraq's intervention, the neighboring countries, and is hampering the cooperation of the Syrian Kurdish Movement Groups and, as a consequence, becomes a serious threat to their achievement of their goals.
    Keyword: Syria, Kurds, PYD, YPG, PKK, KRG, Iraq, Turkey. 시리아, 쿠르드, PYD, YPG, PKK, KRG, 이라크, 터키
    Author: 남옥정
    Poblication Year: 2017
    Language: Korean
    Country: Syria
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Economics
    한·터키 경제 불확실성의 영향력 분석: 충격-반응 모형
    This study focused on the events that cause the economic uncertainty in Turkey. Aiming at discovering the causality, this study examines the information effect of social, political, and security events on the stock market in Turkey. In practice, this study discovers whether a specific event results in the change in the cumulative average abnormal return of listed companies during January 2000 ~ July 2016 by applying the event study. The main events refer to the political events(break-up conduct of islamic parties, the victory of AKP in the general election in 2002, 2011, and 2015, enterance to Parliament of a pro-Kurdish left wing party, HDP), foreign security events(the Russian fighter’s shootdown incident in Turkey), Terrors(wild shooting in the Turkey High Court, PKK rebels near Iraq’s borders, a series of bomb terrors in Istanbul and Ankara), and military coup, etc. The research objectives are the listed companies in the stock market in Turkey, which are capable of realizing the output of the cumulative average abnormal return. The main findings are as follows. First, the political events such as the victory of AKP in the general election(the year 2002)(+) and the entrance to Parliament of a pro-Kurdish left wing party, HDP(the year 2015)(-) exert the information effect on the stock market. In contrast, the victory of AKP in the general election of the year 2011 and 2015 does not exert an effect on the stock market. In the meantime, civil terrors(-) such as wild shooting in the Turkey High Court in 2006 exert the information effect on the stock market, whilst a recent series of terrors in Istanbul and Ankara do not exert an information effect on it. Unlike this, the military coup in 15. July, 2016 exerts a negative effect on the market investors’ expectation resulting in the decrease in the cumulative average abnormal return.
    Keyword: Turkey, Stock Market, Political Momentum, Event Study, Cumulative Average Abnormal Return. 한국과 터키, 경제 불확실성, 주성분분석, 충격-반응, 분산분해.
    Author: 양오석
    Poblication Year: 2017
    Language: Korean
    Country: Turkey
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Economics
    위험관리를 위한 이슬람옵션과 활용방안에 관한 연구
    As an alternative of conventional finance to providing a variety of financial services to Muslims, Islamic finance has been developed by applying the principle of Shariah to conventional finance. In this trend, the scope of the Islamic financial risk management sector is gradually expanding as applying Shariah principles to that. That is, forward (furtures), option and swap as derivatives of conventional finance has evolved to islamic financial risk management products applied islamic principles. In this research, we look out principles and application method of islamic option among islamic derivatives. Wheres forward and swap products is used as hedging instrument of interest rate or financial products, islamic option is mostly applied in hedging of FX market risk management. Since firms with foreign currency or necessary for have an exposure of possible loss, for hedging of those risk is used Fx forward or option. Islamic option for FX risk management is operated in combining Tawarruq, bal al-sarf and murabaha and promising with bank for currency exchange through wa’ad. Based on these operational principles of islamic option, we want to enlarge application scope of isalmic option by proposing hedging method of FX risk for Korean firms in GCC countries.
    Keyword: islamic derivatives, islamic option, risk management, FX risk, wa’ad. 이슬람 파생상품, 이슬람옵션, 위험관리, 환율변동위험, 와드
    Author: 장영천
    Poblication Year: 2017
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Economics
    할랄 주요국 소비자 행태 분석을 통한 할랄식품 수출전략 모색
    The purpose of this study is to seek export strategy through Halal food consumer investigation of awareness and their behavior analysis about Korean Food for advancing Halal market in Malaysia. First, according to consumer recognition to Halal certification mark , consumers mostly buy goods after checking Halal certification mark. Especially, they have high reliability of 'JAKIM'(their own Halal certification mark). Therefore, Korean export companies may have advantages if they take mark of 'JAKIM'. Second, consumers mostly buy imported foods which are frozen foods, snacks, neat processing products, canned products and they find information about Halal foods on the internet, TV/radio, newspaper and etc. So when Korean export companies choose export goods for selling in Malaysia, they need to choose relatively inexpensive snacks, canned products which of logistics delivery is easy. And also they need to utilize relatively inexpensive promotion method such as power blog and facebook. Third, Malaysian consumers think Korean foods have good quality and good taste, but their price is expensive. Therefore, export company should establish high-quality & high- cost strategy. Finally, we find Korean export company need to make strategic export approach to expend Halal export targets.
    Keyword: Halal, Halal food, Halal export market strategies. 할랄, 할랄 음식, 할랄 수출, 마켓팅 전략
    Author: 한상연
    Poblication Year: 2017
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Etc language Literature
    코란 한역 비교 연구 VIII
    This is a study of Koran translation to Korean. This research concentrates on some problems in the four copies of Korean Koran translated from Arabic to Korean. I point the mistakes happened from the differences in the range of the meaning of the words and the differences in word order or sentence structure between Arabic and Korean. And I suggest the correct translation. To investigate these problems, this article is composed as following. 1. Introduction This part confines the research realm, the purposes and the way of the research. 2. Comparison between the 3 copies of Koran translated in Korean This part compares the 3 copies of Koran translated in Korean in the range of the meaning of the word and the differences in the structures. And I show some mistakes in their translation. 3. Translation in Korean This is my translation after the comparison between the 3 translations after conferring to some Arabic exegeses. 4. Conclusion I show the mistakes in the meaning and the structure that 3 translations have made and I show the reason why they made the mistakes.
    Keyword: Koran, translation, structure, meaning. 코란, 번역, 구조, 의미.
    Author: 이영태
    Poblication Year: 2018
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    사회정체성과 취약계층의 극단주의 자생환경
    Extremism is mostly used in a political or religious sense to refer to an ideology that is considered to be far outside the (acceptable) mainstream attitudes of society. Extremism is a complex phenomenon, although its complexity is often hard to see. Most simply, it can be defined as activities (beliefs, attitudes, feelings, actions, strategies) of a character far removed from the ordinary. In conflict settings it manifests as a severe form of conflict engagement. The threat of extremism is neither constrained by international borders nor limited to any single ideology. Increasingly sophisticated use of the Internet, social media, and information technology by extremists adds an additional layer of complexity. Extremism is very difficult to deal with as it emerges from diverse political, social, economic, and cultural reasons. This study hypothesizes that social identity crisis in South Korea may contribute to emergence of homegrown extremism. Thus, this research analyzed whether five main vulnerable social groups can be influenced by extremism. Categorizing such five groups in South Korea as extremist internet communities, multi-cultural families, ill-treated foreign workers, religious extremists, and school maladjusted students, this study conducted surveys with them. The interview results show that the vulnerable social groups with social identity problems are likely to support or sympathizes extremism.
    Keyword: Social Identity, Vulnerable Social Groups, Homegrown Extremism, South Korea, Preventing Violent Extremism. 사회정체성, 사회취약계층, 자생 극단주의, 한국, 폭력적극 단주의 예장.
    Author: 서정민
    Poblication Year: 2018
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Economics
    소작제도와 이슬람의 무자라아 거래 비교 연구
    Among the factors of production, there is no alternative for the land which human can not create. Within historical times human societies, all over the areas, have needed some farming methods between landlords and some farmers who haven’t own their land. For a solution, Korean of the agricultural life had used tenant farming since the 7th century till prohibiting by the Korean Constitution. However, Muslim of the nomadic life has used muzāraʿah for their farming since the 7th century also. Muzāraʿah has been permitted by Sharīah since the prophet Muhammad conquered Khaibar in Hijaz in A.D. 628. Both of them are keeping long historical background and similar type as collaboration between landlord’s farmland and farmer’s labor power. The objective of this article is therefore to discuss tenant system in Korea and muzāraʿah in Islam from a comparative perspective.
    Keyword: Tenant farming, Muzāraʿah, Sharīah, Landlord, Collaboration. 소작제도, 무자라아, 샤리아, 지주, 소작료, 이윤공유
    Author: 김동환
    Poblication Year: 2018
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Economics
    국내 할랄축산물 시장규모 추계
    The purpose of this paper is to estimate the size of domestic halal meat market for chicken and beef and to draw the implication for the necessity of the establishment of halal slaughter house. One of our research results shows that the size of halal meat market for chicken is estimated to be 5,901 metric tons and halal beef meat market is estimated to be 2,764 metric tons in 2016. The value of total halal meat for chicken and beef is estimated to reach 55.4 billion won. As a non-Muslim country, Korea so far has no halal slaughter house. This result suggests that halal slaughter house in Korea is urgently needed. Another result of our research reveals that the establishment of the halal slaughter house can contribute greatly to the activation of the domestic halal meat market through the import substitution of imported meat and can provided a legitimate basis for halal meat supply chain.
    Keyword: halal meat, halal slaughter house, halal meat market, halal meat supply chain. 할랄축산물, 할랄도축장, 할랄축산물 시장규모, 할랄축산물 유통망.
    Author: 장건
    Poblication Year: 2018
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Art & Physical Education
    아랍에미리트 미디어 산업과 규제
    The aim of this research is to investigate the media industry in UAE and to prospect its media environment by analyzing media regulation. For this aim, this research conducted theocratical analysis of media in UAE. The research indicates that the state-led policy was implemented for the development of UAE media industry by establishment of The Dubai Technology & Media Free Zone including Dubai Media City. Internet City, Knowledge Village and International Media Production Zone since the development of Satellite TV in the Middle East in 1990s. Also the research implied that the media regulation has been implemented by the 1980 Emirate Press and Publications Law, the 2012 Cybercrime Law and the 2014 Terrorism Law which prohibit criticism on the Emirate government, the ruling family or ruller. Considering the all environments of media industry, the results were analyzed that the Authoritarian Model and Development Model are implemented in UAE media industry.
    Keyword: United Arab Emirates, Media Industry, Media Censo rship, Middle East Media, UAE. 아랍에미리트, 미디어 산업, 미디어 규제, 중동 미디어, UAE.
    Author: 김수완
    Poblication Year: 2018
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    2차 리비아 내전 연구
    Libyan political circumstances have generally taken three phases since Gaddafi's death on October 20, 2011. The first phase was the end of the first Libyan civil war and the reign of Transitional National Council(October 2011-July 2012). The second phase was the reign of the General National Congress (August 2012-July 2014), which was launched with the elections organized by Transitional National Council. The third phase was the time when the elections on June 25, 2014 replaced the General National Congress with the House of Representatives. To identify the internal factors of the General National Congress that caused the second Libyan Civil war, this paper analyses the General National Congress elections, the main political parties and the Political Isolation Law( Legislation No.13 of 2013 of the Political and Administrative Isolation) in the second phase.
    Keyword: Libya, The General National Congress, Political Isolation Law, The National Forces Alliance, Muslim Brotherhood. 리비아, 일반국민의회, 정치・행정직위 배제법, 국민세력동맹, 무슬 림형제단.
    Author: 홍미정
    Poblication Year: 2018
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    동예루살렘 무슬림 공동체의 발전과 변화
    East Jerusalem has three major religious communities including the Jewish, Muslim, and Christian Communities. The Muslim community is the majority community of East Jerusalem's population and history. It has occupied an unique position religiously, ethnically, and politically. This community has a relatively strong autonomy in East Jerusalem due to its large population under the Israel's occupation and control for the last sixty years. Despite of them, the Muslim community has shrunk in size and activity compared to its political rival, the Jewish community. The latter has, on contrast, enjoyed its residential expansion beyond the Jewish Quarter in East Jerusalem with the financial and social support of the Israeli government. Particularly, the Jewish settlement movement, mainly composed of Israel's religiously radical right wing groups, had affected the expansion of the Jewish community in the city. Given these challenges, the Muslim community has responded positively centered around East Jerusalem Awqaf Administration. The Awqaf Administration has played a key role in unifying and consolidating the Muslim society of East Jerusalem not only as a religion organization but also a social and political one in various fields of the Muslim community. It tried to defend the Muslim identity through establishing the cultural department, the Department of Islamic Archaeology. Therefore, this research will address the formation and development of the Muslim community, focusing on the competitive relation with the Jewish community. In addition, this research will also find various activities of the Awqaf Administration for protecting its religious community and cultural heritage, further, and the competitive relation with the Palestine National Authority for taking political hegemony and leadership in East Jerusalem. The conclusion of this paper also addresses the implication of East Jerusalem in creating its religious and political identities of the Muslim community.
    Keyword: East Jerusalem, The Muslim Community, Israeli-Palest nian Conflict, Muslim Identity, the Awqaf Admin stration. 예루살렘, 이스라엘, 팔레스타인, 동예루살렘 무슬림공동체, 이스라 엘-팔레스타인 분쟁, 중동평화.
    Author: 안승훈
    Poblication Year: 2018
    Language: Korean
    Country: Israel
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Economics
    터키 상업은행 성과 결정요인
    This paper explores the determinants of firm performance in Turkish commercial banks from the perspective of ownership advantages, financial capabilities, efficiency and the diversity of profit structure. The research time frame covers 1988 to 2017, and a positive analysis is employed for 43 Turkish commercial banks by collecting empirical data from Bankscope. The main findings are as follows: Tier 1 ratio, price to earnings ratio, firm age and non-interest income rato are positively correlated with firm performance, while risk-weighted assets ratio, coverage ratio, loan-to-deposit ratio, non-performing loan ratio, cost-to-income ratio and interest income ratio are negatively correlated with firm performance. As such, it is possible to conclude that as for Turkish commercial banks concerned, the main determinants of firm performance are financial capabilities and efficiency. In addition, it is noteworthy that they are currently employing more risk-weighted assets for the increase in profitability.
    Keyword: Ownership Advantages, Financial Capabilities, Efficien cy, Diversity of Profit Structure, Turkish Commercial Banks. 독점적 우위, 재무 능력, 효율성, 수익구조 다변화, 터키 상업은행.
    Author: 양오석
    Poblication Year: 2018
    Language: Korean
    Country: Turkey
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Economics
    동아시아 국가 미래비전과 할랄정책 비교연구
    China, Japan, and Taiwan began to pursue policies related to halal industry from the early of 2010s onwards. These countries are similar in their recognition of the necessity for nurturing halal industries within their countries for economic diversification despite less than 1~2% of their population being Muslim. Therefore, the motivation for entering the halal market did not spontaneously emerge by market necessity but was artificially introduced by top-down governmental policies. This situation is very similar to Korea. However, halal policy is differently developed in each country as their history of acceptance for Islam also differs. In this context, this study aims to elucidate the implications for Korea’s halal market advancement strategy through a comparative study of China, Japan, and Taiwan’s halal industry policies.
    Keyword: Halal, China, Japan, Taiwan, One Road One Belt Initiative, Revitalization Strategy, New South Bound Policy. 할랄, 동아시아, 중국, 일본, 대만, 일대일로, 재생전략, 신남방정책.
    Author: 엄익란
    Poblication Year: 2018
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Etc language Literature
    소설 『알리와 니노』에 나타난 아제르바이잔의 정체성 문제
    Situated right in between the Islamic world and the European world, the identity of Republic of Azerbaijan as a nation was very much shaped and influenced by the two distinct worlds. Such geopolitical factor of the Republic of Azerbaijan inevitably led to the coexistence of diverse cultural, ethnic and religious values as well as conflicts and clashes of contradictory beliefs and practices. The novel 『Ali and Nino』 is set in the Caucasus region, which was a melting pot of various cultures during the turbulent era of the early 20thcentury. The novel, which revolves around the love story of Ali and Nino, vividly demonstrates the conflicts and clashes of different cultures, religions, lifestyles, customs and values prevalently witnessed during the early 20th century in the Republic of Azerbaijan. Although marrying a woman of different religion was condemned with in the Islamic society, Ali, the male protagonist, marries Nino, a Christian woman from the Western culture. Through the power of love, he overcomes their reconcilable differences he encounters in a world he is unable to understand or relate to. Throughout the novel, Ali also displays the tenacity of successfully preserving his identity as a Muslim even during the trials and tribulations of the turbulent era, marked by the Westernization of the Republic of Azerbaijan. The fact that Ali loves the ‘desert’ while Nino loves the ‘wood’ symbolizes the different values and upbringings that set the two individuals apart. Ali and Nino both accept the fact they hold different values, yet they do not force their values upon each other. For instance, Ali does not particularly stand gainst the Islamic law, Sharia, yet this does not mean that he conforms to it either nor does he compel Nino to adhere to it. In other words, he is ready to embrace cultures different from his and wiling to find a suitable halfway point that satisfies both of them. In short, 『Ali and Nino』 is a story about a pair of lovers that undergoes an identity crisis as they become involved with each other and walk on the borderline of two different worlds, yet, ultimately overcomes the crisis through the power of love. The naming of their soon to be born baby ‘Tamar’, a name that is used in both Christianity and Islam, shows their willingness to retain both identities as a Muslim and a Christian. Through the struggles of Ali and Nino to define and preserve their identities, the novel implies that an identity, in its true sense, is founded on a particular ethnicity, culture or religion, instead, is formed while one autonomously and independently strives to create a world of harmony.
    Keyword: Ali and Nino, Republic of Azerbaijan, Georgia, Identity Problems, Conflict, The East, The West. 『알리와 니노』, 아제르바이잔, 조지아, 정체성 문제, 갈등, 동양, 서양
    Author: 이난아
    Poblication Year: 2018
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Science of Law
    마흐르에 대한 샤리아 규범과 여성의 권리
    Koran (Qurʻān) defined Mahr as "a monetary or non-monetary gift mandated by men to Muslim women and the Biblical women at marriage" . That is to say, Mahr is the gift which bridegroom gives to the bride and then it is the right of the bride. Sunna (Hadith) specifically described the meaning of the 'gift' mentioned in the Koran as all (gold, silver, commodity, real estate, etc.) that has worth, everything that the both bridegroom and bride satisfy, memorizing the Koran and it’s education, conversion to Islam, liberation of slave and so on. Nonetheless, the norms of the Koran and Sunnah were not enough to meet all the demands of the vast Muslim world extended after the 9th century. So the Islamic law schools have dealt with the details of Mahr to apply them to the whole Islamic world.
    Keyword: Mahr, Koran(Qurʻān), Sunnah(Hadith), women’s right. 마흐르, 코란, 순나(하디스), 법학파, 여성의 권리.
    Author: 임병필
    Poblication Year: 2018
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Economics
    할랄과 현대적 소비
    In 2014, the Indonesian Parliament passed Halal Product Assurance Law. When oppositions were raised, Muslims have tried to defend the bill. Under the circumstances where Muslims as the majority coexist with religious minorities, they justify the bill by resorting to such non-religious rationales as quality improvement, consumer rights, global competitiveness, and health. An investigation is made on the process of public hearing on the bill conducted by the Indonesian Constitutional Court in 2017. It is explored how the critical views of the bill were raised and how Muslims defended it against them. By examining the religious and non-religious discourse surrounding the bill, it is expected that multidimensional meanings Indonesian Muslims attach to Islamic consumption, and characteristics of Islamic modernity can be grasped.
    Keyword: Halal, Haram, Indonesia, Halal Product Assurance Law, Toyyiban. 할랄, 하람, 인도네시아, 할랄제품보장법, 토이반.
    Author: 김형준
    Poblication Year: 2018
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    GCC 국가별 족벌주의와 종파주의의 상호연관성 연구
    Generally speaking, it is said that sectarianism in GCC countries is a transnational phenomenon witnessed across national boundaries. However, in these days, some scholars say that sectarianism plays out in some countries in important ways, and that domestic politics and discriminations of national institutions contribute to the perpetuation of sectarianism. Recently, the authorities of GCC have used sectarian politics as a strategic tactic to solve social and political problems. This is the reason why this paper tries to research domestic problems in GCC countries, including power structure, royal family's conflict, descent-based conflict, nepotism, and tribal conflict. As for correlation of nepotism and sectarianism, the most important examples are 2016's execution of Shi'i cleric Shaykh Nimr al-Nimr and 2013's intervention of Saudi-UAE military and police into Bahrain, Shi'a-dominated GCC country. After 2011 Arab spring, in Bahrain major political upheaval has been witnessed, in Kuwait and Oman limited protests had been witnessed, in Qatar there was no popular reform demands. It means most GCC countries, regardless of their domestic sectarianism, have wanted stability and security of nation, politically and socially and religiously. In case of Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, we can find sectarianism cuts deeper into social network of both countries. To understand their situations, we have to research two major historical factors, one is the pushing of Saudi Sunni tribes from the interion into Bahrain in 18th century, the other is British's acceptance of Wahhabi expansionism to the Eastern province of Saudi and Bahrain in 20th century. It will be discussed in next paper.
    Keyword: nepotism, sectarianism, tribalism, GCC, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Qatar, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Sunni'ite, Shi'ah. 족벌주의, 종파주의, 부족주의, GCC, 사우디, UAE, 카타르, 바레인, 쿠웨이트, 오만, 순니파, 시아파.
    Author: 황병하
    Poblication Year: 2018
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Etc language Literature
    현대 이라크 아랍어 변종과 언어적 특징 연구
    The Arabic community, consisting of 22 allied nations in Southwest Asia and northern Africa, is seen as a monolingual community unified in Arabic language, but it has a very complex structure from the inside. The official language of the Arab League is the standardized written Arabic language(Fusḥā), but the communication in informal situations is generally used by the spoken Arabic(ʕāmmiya). The Arabs have religious faith and admiration for Fusḥā, but they seem to have a very proud pride in ʕāmmiya. Considering the linguistic situation of the Arabic community dominated by diglossia, the research on ʕāmmiya is as important as Fusḥā. In this study, Iraq Arabic was set as a subject among the contemporary Arabic dialects. Iraq was the foothold Abassiyya dynasty(AD750~1288) which was the golden age of the Arab and Islamic empire and the center of the Arab and Islamic culture. Iraq was a collective of Middle Eastern and Mediterranean culture in the middle ages. Thus, Iraq has provided the best environment for studying the change of the language by the external factors and linguistic layers deposited by age. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of non verbal factors(history and social factors etc.) on the variation of the spoken Arabic language and it’s development through contemporary Iraqi Arabic. And also I research the changed form of the spoken Arabic and it’s language identity.
    Keyword: Arabic Language, Iraq, Dialect, Linguistic Layer, Sociolinguistics. 아랍어. 이라크, 방언, 언어 지층, 사회언어학.
    Author: 윤용수
    Poblication Year: 2018
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Science of Law
    Sharī‘ah 해석의 현대이론
    The contemporary theories of Shari'ah is going beyond merely the explanation of the Shāfi‘ī, Ḥanbalī, Ḥanafī, Malikī, and Ja‘farī. However, an evident borderline still exists in schools of law; Sunni, Shī‘a and Ibāḍī. Moreover, some scholars still follow the four Sunni schools. This study aims to analyze the interpretation of shariah divided into Traditionalism, Modernism and Post Modernism with the need of emergence of new classification. This new classification for fiqh is more comprehensive system than previous one. Furthermore, this system includes all shariah scholars and researchers regardless of their backgrounds and geographical locations.
    Keyword: Shari'ah, interpretation, schools, Traditionalism, Modernism, Post Modernism. 샤리아, 해석, 학파, 전통주의, 모더니즘, 포스트모더니즘.
    Author: 이원삼
    Poblication Year: 2019
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Sociology
    제정러시아말기 카자흐지식인공동체의 대외 및 대내 변화요인과 변화과정
    The Kazakh Intellectuals in the late period of Russian Empire had been influenced by external Reform movements in Osman Empire and Tatar Turkic Intellectuals in the Russian Empire. Domestically Russian colonial policies on the Kazakh nomadic communities resulted social and economic structure of traditional Kazakh communities. With external influences and changes of domestic kazakh communities, Kazakh modern intellectuals had been established by various social-stratum and religion backgrounds of contemporary kazakh steppe. In the late of Russian empire various kazakh intellectuals integrated into the frame of Kazakh modern intellectuals, who took lead modernization of Kazakh society and active political participations.
    Keyword: Kazakh, Osman Empire, Muslim, Intellectuals, Pan-Turkism, Russian Empire. 카자흐, 오스만제국, 무슬림, 지식인, 범투르크주의, 러시아제국.
    Author: 김상철
    Poblication Year: 2019
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    동예루살렘에 대한 유대교·무슬림·기독교 공동체간 갈등 및 경쟁 구조 분석
    The conflict of the ownership and authority over East Jerusalem has been historically contested for about two thousands years. Many major empires tried to conquest the city of Jerusalem for several reasons: historical, religious, ethnic, and national. The Ottoman Empire proclaimed the so-called principle of the Status Quo in 1757 in order to resolve religious conflict over the management of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre among Christian sectors, and since then, the Status Quo has been recognized as a symbolic and legal principle for co-existence of three religion, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, in spite of power changes among great powers and states. Especially, the three religious communities of the Jewish, Christian, and Muslim communities strove to keep the power-balance within East Jerusalem, recognizing the others’ religious authority and tradition. But the historical tradition of the co-existence was challenged and threatened by the Israeli occupation of East Jerusalem after the Six-Day War of 1967. In particular, after the Israeli wing-wing party, Likud party, began to take power in Israeli politics, and strongly implement the policy of the Jewishness of East Jerusalem, the political competition for superiority over East Jerusalem among the three communities became strengthened, and the conflict structure among them remained complicated. Therefore, based on this historical narrative, this paper will examine the structure and dynamic of the political conflict and competition over East Jerusalem among three religious communities. Furthermore, this paper will find out the responses of the other two communities, the Muslim and the Christin communities against Israel’s control policy over East Jerusalem. In the conclusion, this will also seek the possibility and prosperity of the co-existence among three communities in East Jerusalem, and the istorical implication and meaning of the political and religious roles of the communities for resolving the conflict surrounding East Jerusalem.
    Keyword: East Jerusalem, Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, Middle Eastern Conflict, Identity Politics, Relations of Politics and Religion in the Middle East.동예루살렘, 이스라엘-팔레스타인 분쟁, 중동 분쟁, 정체성 정치학, 중동의 정치-종교 관계.
    Author: 안승훈
    Poblication Year: 2019
    Language: Korean
    Country: Israel
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Sociology
    ISIS이후 아랍세계의 변화와 이슬람포비아 (Islamophobia) 현상에 대한 고찰
    Generally there has always been hatred of foreigners in any society. In fact, hatred of foreigners, namely xenophobia, has existed in Western society as European white supremacy or American white supremacy in particular is coupled with cultural conflict. However, this xenophobia has increased steadily in the form of Islamophobia against Muslims since the 911 terrorism in 2001. The spread of Islamophobia is a reality to worry about in that Arabs or non-Arab Muslims are falling victim to the social prejudice as they are considered as potential terrorists. It has a negative influence on the issue of Yemen refugees in Korea as well as Muslims' immigration to Europe. In addition, the flood of Arab Muslim refugees to Europe is causing even a conflict between European countries as it is interlinked with Islamophobia. This study attempts to analyze the phenomenon of Islamophobia that is spreading with the change of the Arab world particularly after the appearance of ISIS. This phenomenon has expanded, if for no other reason, due to the 911 terrorism in 2001, the ISIS's indiscriminate terrorism after 2003 and the activities of Lone Wolf, an independent terrorist organization sympathetic to them, and the ignorance that the Western society and non-Islamic countries hostile to the Islamic world show toward Islam. And the appearance of the fear of and hostility to Islam and Muslims in Europe is caused by a combination of the rapid increase in Muslim population, the European economic crisis and increase in unemployment, the European failure in immigrant integration policy, the right conservative and the ultraright party's irrational expression of discontent with the Muslims for their electoral strategy, and the biased distorted, and exaggerated reports of international media.
    Keyword: Islamophobia ISIS, Xenophobia, Terrorism Non-Arab Muslims, Islamic world, Muslims' Immigration, Cultural Conflict . 이슬람포비아, 제노포비아, 인종주의, 이슬람국가(ISIS), 테러리즘, 이슬람세계, 무슬림이민, 문화갈등
    Author: 이성수
    Poblication Year: 2019
    Language: Korean
    Country: Syria
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Economics
    한국 주요 수출품목의 GCC 시장 내 수출경쟁력 분석
    The purpose of this study is to provide basic research data on the export competitiveness for Korea's major exports to resolve sluggish exports to the GCC countries. This paper analyses market share and market comparative advantage index of Korea, USA, China and Japan. The results show that USA and Japan are still in intensifying competition with Korea and the rise of China has become a menace to Korea. We need to do various market survey to increase our export competitiveness and continue the Korea-GCC FTA negotiation in order to promote trade. Meanwhile Saudi Arabia which exercises political leverage in the region is more interested in regional bilateralism than the multilateralism of the GCC nowadays. With the current situation, it is hard to be optimistic over the resumption of negotiations so the Korean government should be prepare alternative measures for bilateral economic cooperation.
    Keyword: Korea, Gulf Cooperation Council(GCC), Export Competitiveness, Market Share, Market Comparative Advantage Index. 한국, 걸프협력기구, 수출경쟁력, 시장점유율, 시장비교우위지수.
    Author: 정혜선
    Poblication Year: 2019
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Science of Religion
    이슬람 세계의 순교 해석과 변용 분석
    This article examines martydom in Islam focusing on: 1) comparing Quran verses that deal with martyrdom; 2) re-categorizing other studies of martyrdom in Islam and; 3) Islamic extremist's using of martyrdom. It also studies the martyrdom concepts used by Islamic Extremist and analyzes that their approach to martyrdom is the result of taking only a fraction of the entire concept of martyrdom. The modern concept of martyrdom in Islamic world is very different with historical one. Extremist believes that throwing someone's life is one of the vest forms of martyrdom to be with God because they apply the concept to the war circumstances. However, their idea does not match the traditional concept of martyrdom in Islamic world. This article focuses on various but organized concepts of martyrdom of Islamic world.
    Keyword: Martyr, Martyrdom, Islam, Islamic Extremist, Quran. 순교, 이슬람, 이슬람 극단주의, 꾸란
    Author: 이수정
    Poblication Year: 2019
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Science of Religion
    한국 개신교 선교단체의 타끼야 인식
    This study researches the Korean Protestant missionary group’s perception of Taqiyya doctrine. Korean Protestantism perceives Taqiyya doctrine as a method to arouse Islamophobia within Korean society. In other words, they understand that Taqiyya doctrine is a ‘camouflagic strategy not to expose the status of Muslims’, and they perceive that Muslims penetrate Korean society through this doctrine for the purpose of spread of Islam. However, simply understanding Taqiyya doctrine as a ‘camouflagic strategy not to expose the status of Muslims’ is originated from lack of knowledge, ignorance, and prejudice towards Islam. Thus, this study aimed to understand Taqiyya doctrine, and also to dispel some Korean Protestants’ worries about that this doctrine would be used as a missionary strategy for the purpose of Islamization of Korea. ChapterⅡ of this thesis handled the understanding of the concept of ‘Taqiyya’. Even though some Protestants and missionary groups against Islam regard ‘Taqiyya doctrine’ as a ‘camouflagic strategy to hide their doctrine and identity’, it would be necessary to understand the accurate concept of ’Taqiyya’ and the historical background of this doctrine aiming to hide their identity and protect their religion. ChapterⅢ handled Taqiyya mentioned by Quran and Hadith. The belief in Taqiyya and the attitude to accept it are different in each denomination of Islam. Even though Taqiyya is a doctrine mostly used in Shia, Sunni also shows some responses to Taqiyya. ChapterⅣ handled Taqiyya understood by Korean Protestantism. Some Protestants, and ministers and people related to missionary groups who are worried about the spread of Islam in Korea perceive Taqiyya as one of the Islamic missionary methods in Korea, and they are spreading wrong information through mass media like internet and religious media for the purpose of spreading Islamophobia within Korea. However, in the aspect of thoughtlessly delivering wrong information to the public without accurate explanation of Taqiyya doctrine, it would be necessary to understand it correctly. This study suggests to seek for the coexistence by perceiving Islamophobia rooted in Korean society not in the exclusive attitude toward a specific religion, but in the mutually-cooperative attitude, by improving the understanding of Islam in the multicultural and globalized Korean society.
    Keyword: Taqiyya, Quran, Hadith, Sunni, Shia, Korea Protestant, Islamophobia, Mutual cooperation. 타끼야, 꾸란, 하디스, 순니, 시아, 한국 개신교, 이슬람 혐오증, 상 호협력.
    Author: 조정현
    Poblication Year: 2019
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    이슬람국가(IS)의 이중적 이념 구축
    Even if the Islamic State(IS) has virtually disappeared some remnants are likely to continue terror attacks throughout Iraq and Syria, and in the Middle East and Western societies. Moreover, the ideology prevailed by this organization, Daeshism, seems to influence other radical Islamist groups for some time. Thus, it is imperative that academia and policy-makers grasp the reality and function of the idea of IS. This study attempts to explore how the ideology of IS is formed and what function it has through examination of Dabiq internet Magazine produced by this organization. This study assumes that IS has a tendency of political rebellion unlike al-Qaeda. Therefore, in order to understand the reality of IS, it is necessary to explore its ideology through functionalism from a deeper and multifaceted approach. To analyze the radicalism of IS in the "dual process model of ideology and prejudice" proposed by Chris G. Sibley and John Duckitt, this study examines the hypothesis that IS constructs a dual idelological system of mobilization and otherization, and uses it politically. In order to demonstrate the dual ideological system of IS and its functions, this study analyzes 4 issues of Dabiq. The co-occurrence of words and word clusters in KH Coder clusters program will be used to explain the dual ideological formation process of the main subject words in the IS publicity materials. If the IS entity is understood more specifically by understanding the process of formation of this ideology, it will be positively possible for the international community to prevent and respond to the rise of similar organizations in the future.
    Keyword: The Islamic State, Mobilization, Otherization, Functionalism, Terrorism, Daeshism, Iraq, the West, Arab, the United States, Secularism, Persia. 이슬람국가(IS), 동원, 타자화, 기능주의, 테러리즘, 다에쉬즘, 이라 크, 서방, 아랍, 미국, 세속주의, 페르시아.
    Author: 서정민
    Poblication Year: 2019
    Language: Korean
    Country: Syria
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    이란 외교 정책의 정체성 연구
    After the Islamic Revolution in 1979 understanding Iranian foreign policy has been a difficult subject for both foreign policy scholars and experts. They have usually been surprised by the Islamic Republic of Iran’s behavior because they could not explain and predict its action and reaction in the context of mainstream foreign policy approaches. The aim of this study is to analyze the formation process of Iranian foreign policy behaviour toward the US through constructivist approach. The main argument of this study is that in order to understand Iranian foreign policy behaviour, the meaning and identity of the Islamic Revolution must be analyzed and understood more deeply. The purpose of this study is to explain that the basic idea and meaning structure of the Islamic Revolution was formed on the basis of dar al-Islam and dar al-Kufr, so it is different from the ideology of the US. This concept has emerged as a major conflict factor, defining the confrontation between Iran and the US as a hostile relationship.
    Keyword: Iran, US, Islamic Revolution, Constructivism, Identity, Foreign Policy. 이란, 미국, 이슬람 혁명, 구성주의, 정체성, 외교 정책.
    Author: 유달승
    Poblication Year: 2019
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Israel History
    이슬람 역사에서 종파주의 관련 용어의 등장 배경
    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the historical background of sectarian terms in Islam used in online. As the conflicts in Iraq, Syria, and Yemen have increased, hostile expressions based on sectarianism are increased sharply in online, SNS, and media channels. After following the Syrian civil war and IS's violent activities in Iraq and Syria, some derogatory anti-Shi'ite terms have appeared. They are Rafidha, Hizb al-Shaytan, Majus, Nusayri, and Safawi. And some hostile anti-Sunni terms also have appeared. They are Wahhabi, Takfiri, and Umawi. However, the use of hostile sectarian anti-Shi'a and anti-Sunni terms is not a new phenomenon, they have deep historical backgrounds. Since 2011 Arab Spring, the number of Arabs using online social networks has grown dramatically from 60 to 81%. It means they can discuss and communicate each other in online on the politics, Muslim societies, and religion. Most of the anti-Shi'a sectarian terms are related with the history of Rafidha, Nusayri(or Alawite), and Safawid, and most of the anti-Sunni sectarian terms are related with the history of Wahhabism and Umayyid. The future of sectarianism in the Middle East will be decided by increasing amount of counter-sectarian rhetorics.
    Keyword: Sectarianism, Counter-sectarianism, Anti-Sunni, Anti-Shi'ite, Rafidha, Nusayri, Safawi, Wahhabi, Umawi. 종파주의, 반종파주의, 반순니파, 반시아파, 라피다, 누사이르, 사 파위, 와하비, 우마위
    Author: 황병하
    Poblication Year: 2019
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Etc language Literature
    북부 아랍어와 남부 아랍어에 대한 역사적 고찰
    The Arabic language is generally divided into northern Arabic and southern Arabic. The northern Arabic includes western Ḥijāzi and eastern Najdi dialects, while the southern Arabic includes the ancient Yemeni languages and modern dialects. The Ḥijāzi dialects were used as the urban dialects in Mecca and Medina and the Najdi dialects included Bedouin dialects. The urban dialects during the Islamic conquest have rapidly changed compared to the Bedouin dialects, which have lost its own grammatical rules. On the other hand, the Bedouin dialects relatively maintained a linguistic purity because they were geographically isolated. It seems that the language of the Koran and the pre-Islamic poems were more related to Eastern than to Western Arabic considering that the Najdi dialects have the linguistic characteristics of the classical Arabic, such as the adaptation of the spelling of the hamzah, the glottal stop, the preservation of the declension, a voiceless sound of /q/, the presence of interdental sounds, the use of passive form, and the use of the duals and so on. The southern Arabic is divided into the ancient Yemeni languages and the modern Yemeni dialects. The ancient Yemeni languages like the Minaean, Sabean disappeared, while the Himyarian has developed into the modern Yemen dialects. The Himyarian was influenced by the northern Arabic language, and the linguistic features of the Sanaa dialect belonging to the Himyarian language prove this well. The aim of this paper is historically to study northern Arabic and southern Arabic by investigating the language situation and the phonetical & morphological differences or similarities between them.
    Keyword: Northern Arabic, Southern Arabic, Western Ḥijāzi Dialects, Eastern Najdi Dialects, The Language of the Koran, Pre-Islamic Poem, Codification, Language Situation, Hamzah, Declension , Ancient Yemeni Languages, Modern Yemeni Dialects. 북부 아랍어, 남부 아랍어, 서부 헤자즈 방언들, 동부 나즈드 방언들, 코란의 언어, 이슬람 이전 시가, 성문화, 언어상황, 함자, 어미변화 , 고대 예멘어, 현대 예멘 방언들.
    Author: 최진영
    Poblication Year: 2019
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Science of Religion
    코란과 하디스에 언급된 지하드의 의미
    The meaning of Jihad should be seen from the point of view of Shariah, not political or religious interests. Because Sharia is a guideline, a moral, a custom, a law and norms of Muslim life, and the Jihad is also a part of Shariah. The first source of Shariah, the Koran, has 30 Jihad-related passages, and the meaning of the Jihad mentioned here is a comprehensive and conceptual concept, such as struggle or effort for Islam and Muslim community (Umma) in the way of Allah. A number of related passages in Shariah's second source, Hadith (Sunni Bukhari Hadith and Shia al-Kafi) are summarized. As a result of analyzing these, it can be interpreted as Holy War as a few, and in many cases it can be seen as confirming the concept of Jihad of the Koran. Interpreting Jihad as a Holy War is more negative than positive. Inside Islam, extremists tend to use Jihad as a means to justify their actions. Outwardly, it uses Jihad to make Islam mistake it as a religion of violence or to make Muslims aware of it as a fanatic. Therefore, it seems desirable to interpret the Jihad as a comprehensive and conceptual concept like in the Koran.
    Keyword: Jihad, Koran, Hadith, Bukhari, al-Kafi. 지하드, 코란, 하디스, 부카리 하디스, 알카피 하디스.
    Author: 임병필
    Poblication Year: 2019
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    이븐 타이미야의 반(反) 몽골 파트와가 현대의 극단적 이슬람주의에 미친 영향
    The purpose of this paper is to analyze fatwas issued by Ibn Taymiyya(1263–1328) against Mongol rulers and troops. And this paper would like to examine how modern extreme Islamists used his views to justify their violence or terrorism against Muslims. It is known that between about 1299 and 1313 Ibn Taymiyya issued three fatwas against the Mongols of the Ilkhanate. In his fatwas Ibn Taymiyya argued that even though the Mongol rulers claim to be Muslims themselves, they cannot be seen as true believers because they do not comply with Islamic laws. And on this basis he came up with a legal interpretation that proclaiming jihad against them is legally legitimate. Ibn Taymiyya’s fatwas regarding the Mongols established a precedent for modern extreme Islamists such as Sayyid Qutb, Muḥammad ‘Abd al-Salām Faraj, al-Qaeda, and the Islamic State(IS). They used the logic in Ibn Taymiyya’s fatwas on the Mongols to claim that it is legally justified to kill “un-Islamic” Muslim rulers or to destroy their regimes.
    Keyword: Ibn Taymiyya, Ghāzān Khān, Anti-Mongol Fatwa, Ilkhanate, Mamluk dynasty, Sayyid Qutb, Muḥammad Faraj, al-Qaeda, Islamic State(IS). 이븐 타이미야, 가잔 칸, 반몽골 파트와, 일칸국, 맘루크조, 사이드 쿠틉, 무함마드 파라즈, 알카에다, 이슬람국가(IS).
    Author: 김정명
    Poblication Year: 2020
    Language: Korean
    Country: Syria
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Science of Law
    사우디아라비아 보호자법 완화정책과 폐지논쟁에 관한 연구
    Saudi Arabia’s guardianship law has drawn global attention as the number of women who flee from their country to seek asylum are increasing. While Saudi women support abolition of the guardianship law, asserting that the law oppresses women’s rights, the government introduced various new policies to ease the law since 2017 within the frame of the Saudi Vision 2030’s reform policy. However, despite the new policies, a guardian’s permission is still customarily needed in Saudi Arabia. Unlike audi women and the government’s position toward law, the religious elites and tribal people oppose abolition of the law, claiming that it contradicts the tradition and customs of Saudi Arabia. Considering the disputes and debates around the guardianship law within Saudi Arabia, the purpose of this study is to examine and analyze the four parties’(women, government, religious elites, and tribal people) controversial positions towards the law based on a literature review as well as to suggest the future direction that Saudi society would take under the Saudi Vision 2030.
    Keyword: Saudi Arabia, Saudi Women, Women’s Movement, Guardianship Law, Tribalism, Wahhabism. 사우디아라비아, 사우디 여성, 여성운동, 보호자법, 부족문화, 와하비즘.
    Author: 엄익란
    Poblication Year: 2019
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    The Pragmatic Attitude of the Wahhabi ‘Ulama toward Their Saudi Rulers
    The story of the establishment of Saudi Arabia goes back to the religiopolitical alliance between Muhammad Ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab and Muhammad Ibn Sa‘ud, which started with an encounter between these two influential men in 1744. It is widely accepted that the religious zealotry of the Wahhabis was one of the major driving forces in the conquest of the Arabian Peninsula by providing the Āl Sa‘ud with political justification in the name of jihad. However, the more mainstream Wahhabi leaders accepted the decisions of the Saudi political leadership in the process of establishing the kingdom, and became further subordinate to the ruling family. The pragmatic attitude of the Wahhabi ‘ulama toward their political leadership has been strengthened during the 20th century. The pragmatic tendency of the Wahhabis toward their rulers goes back to the time of the collapse of the second Saudi state; a collapse caused by quarrels over the succession to the throne led in turn to civil war and conflict between rival claimants. All this led to the collapse of the state in 1891 and the conquest of Najd by the Rashid family of Ha’il. In addition oil wealth generated in the 20th century has played an important role in making the Saudi ruler superior to the ‘ulama.
    Keyword: Saudi ‘Ulama, Wahhabism, First Saudi State, Second Saudi State, Oil Rent. 사우디 울라마, 와하비즘, 첫 번째 사우디 국가, 두 번째 사우디 국가, 석유 렌트.
    Author: 송상현
    Poblication Year: 2019
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Art & Physical Education
    다큐멘터리 「코레 아일라」와 영화 「아일라」 비교 분석
    The documentary 「Kore Ayla」 and the film 「Ayla: The Daughter of War」 reproduce a story of a Turkish veteran Süleyman and that of Ayla who was orphaned by Korean War, taking them as their common theme. These are special works that visualize the developing process of photographs into a documentary and subsequent films. The film 「Ayla: The Daughter of War」 is based on the documentary 「Kore Ayla」, a documentary about humanism that transcends nationalities of Turkish veteran and an orphaned Korean girl. The two different genres take on different format, plot, and techniques. The biggest difference is that while「Kore Ayla」 focuses on the story of Süleyman and Ayla after the war as it is a special project for commemorating sixty years of Korean War, 「Ayla: The Daughter of War」 focuses their story in the moment of Korean War. 「Kore Ayla」 mainly deals with the process of the characters’ separation and reunion after sixty years’ time, rather than how they were during the war. On the other hand「Ayla: The Daughter of War」 covers their story from the humanistic point of view. The plot is enriched with some fictional episodes which is the distinctive trait of a film. Also, there are various characters featuring around them. Both the documentary and the film records photographs and stories of Süleyman, who practiced the true love for humanity beyond race, nationality, and religion. Thus, 「Kore Ayla」 and 「Ayla: The Daughter of War」 are considered meaningful contents in that they offered a chance to deliver and share the impacts of Korean War on mankind with posterity.
    Keyword: 「Kore Ayla」,「Ayla: The Daughter of War」, Documentary, Film, Turkey, Korean War, Humanism. 「코레 아일라」,「아일라」, 다큐멘터리, 영화, 터키, 한국전쟁, 휴 머니즘.
    Author: 이난아
    Poblication Year: 2019
    Language: Korean
    Country: Turkey
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Arabic Literature
    이슬람화 이전 투르크 구비문학의 특징과 갈래분류에 관한 연구
    Turkic literature (Türk Edebiyatı) is a long-standing common cultural heritage shared by Turkey and the countries of Central Asia based on oral traditions. In Turkic culture, oral traditions are not only the literary poetry of rhyme and rhythm but are also the basis for modern folk songs, funeral songs, plays, games, and the like. Prior to Islamization, oral literature was conveyed by shamans (Kam) in religious rituals (dinitöreni), festivals (şölen), hunting ceremonies (sığır), and rites of passage, based on celestial thought and shamanism. The shaman was a political leader, priest, artist, therapist (doctor), and mentor; in other words, he(she) led the tribe, of which he(she) was the focal point. As Islam gradually consolidated its power in tribal nations, the original functions of shamans weakened. The shaman was later transformed into an ozan, performing only some of the functions of a bard, storyteller, and narrator. As literature has passed through the era of mythology, which has a shamanic nature, recording history in mysterious terms, an era of literature functioning only in the artistic realm has arrived. Oral traditions have subsequently been written down and passed down, as with the changing process of oral literature. Pre-Islamic Turkic oral literature reflects the Turks' view of the universe, the world, humans, life, and death, and is a valuable resource for examining their faith, tradition, and customs. More specifically, before the arrival of Islam, celestial thought (Göktanrıcılık), shamanism, totemism (wolf, deer, eagle, etc.), animism, Buddhism, and Manichaeism had considerable influence on the Turkic tribes. In particular, the Turks' main beliefs (animism) were principally beliefs in natural spirits, along with ancestor worship (atalar kültü). The objects of worship include the sun (güneş), moon (ay), stars (yıldızlar), planets (gezegenler), yer-sub (god of mother earth, god of nature), fire (ateş), water (su), mountains (orman), trees (ağaç), land (toprak), stones (taşve kaya), and the like. This traditional belief influenced the whole nomadic life and was incorporated into the oral literature through the magical power of the language. As such, oral literature is at the heart of Turkic culture. Therefore, understanding their oral literature will help us understand their culture and literature, while giving us further insight into the multicultural aspects of modern society.
    Keyword: Turkic folklore, Turkic oral literature, Turkey, Central Asia. 투르크 민속, 투르크 구비문학, 투르크 신앙, 터키, 중앙아시아.
    Author: 양민지
    Poblication Year: 2020
    Language: Korean
    Country: Turkey
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    국내 정치 역학과 수니-시아파 담론갈등
    Sectarian conflicts in the Middle East has become more acute recently. On the basis of a instrumentalist and constructivist and institutional approach, this study attempted to comparison between domestic and regional variables to understand of which variable has been more associated with sectarianism. Among the most important regional political transformers in the 21st century, this paper dealt with the Iraq War, the Arab Spring and Syrian civil war, and the conclusion of the Iran nuclear deal. As for the domestic political variable, the appointment of Saudi Arabia's crown prince was selected as the most important political transformer in Saudi political stability or regime survival. To compare the four domestic and regional transformers, frequencies of news articles containing all three search terms - Shia, Iran and Saudi Arabia - were quantitatively measured via Google News. A time series analysis applied to the irregular variation of the significant political variables confirms the hypothesis of the study that domestic political stability and regime survival have a more significant causal relationship with the Sunni-Shiite conflict than the regional political variables.
    Keyword: the Middle East, Dynamics of Politics, Discourse Conflicts, Sunni, Shia, Sectarian Conflicts. 중동, 정치 역학, 담론갈등, 수니파, 시아파, 종파갈등.
    Author: 서정민
    Poblication Year: 2020
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    불완전 주권과 중동의 정치 불안정
    Considering that the concept of sovereign state emerged in Western society, this study attempts to explain how incomplete sovereignty could exacerbate political instability in the Middle East. The aspects of incomplete sovereignty of the Middle East can be defined as the absence of non-interference in the internal affairs, hybridization of security, and emergence of the separatist movement. In particular, the case study of the Syrian civil war revealed how these elements could have severe consequences in the political situation in Syria. In light of the significance of sovereignty, further research is needed to examine various effects of incomplete sovereignty on Middle Eastern politics.
    Keyword: Non-interference in the Internal Affairs, Separation Movement, Incomplete Sovereignty, Hybridization of Security, Political Instability, Middle East. 내정 불간섭 원칙, 분리주의 운동, 불완전 주권, 안보 복합화, 정 치 불안정, 중동.
    Author: 김강석
    Poblication Year: 2020
    Language: Korean
    Country: Syria
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Etc language Literature
    빈칸 채우기(cloze-test) 활동이 아랍어 학습자의 읽기 능력에 미치는 영향
    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of teaching reading using cloze-test activities on Arabic learners’ reading ability and their attitude toward Arabic reading learning. The subjects for this study were divided into two groups: an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group read Arabic texts using a cloze-test which involved completing an Open Ended Cloze-test and Ctest. The control group read Arabic texts using a traditional grammar-translation method. To examine their improvement of Arabic reading ability, learners took Arabic ability test before and after the experiment. To examine the learners’ attitude toward Arabic reading learning were asked to fill out a questionnaire before and after the experiment. The results of this study were as follows: First, using the cloze-test, especially the C-test technique was found to be effective in improving learners’ Arabic reading ability. Second, using the cloze-test improved learners’ Arabic reading ability at all levels for intermediate level learners. The most significant difference was seen among the high proficiency learners using the cloze-test technique. Third, using the cloze-test had a positive influence on learners’ attitude toward Arabic reading learning.
    Keyword: Cloze-test, Arabic Reading Ability, Open Ended Cloze-test, C-test, Interest and Attitude, Confidence, Satisfaction. 빈칸 채우기, 아랍어 읽기 능력, 개방규칙 빈칸 채우기, C-테스트, 흥미도 및 태도, 자신감, 만족도 .
    Author: 문지영
    Poblication Year: 2020
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    트럼프 대통령의 ‘평화 · 번영 정책’과 세속주의 기반 PA와 샤리아 기반 하마스의 공동 대응
    US President Trump, based on the ‘American First’ foreign policy, announced the Middle East peace policy on January 28, 2020, “Peace to Prosperity: A Vision to Improve the Lives of the Palestinian and Israeli People.” The key to the ‘Peace to Prosperity’ policy is the ‘realistic two-state solution,’ which is the path to the two states that the United Nations resolved in 1947, the ‘Survivable Palestinian State,’ under some conditions that the United States and Israel decided to comply with. However, as a whole, the ‘Peace to Prosperity’ policy has a 'Israel bias'. This paper discusses the main contents of President Trump's ‘Peace to Prosperity’ policy and the current joint responses of the PA and Hamas. Palestinians are struggling for a lone anti-Israeli independent state building, with major Arab countries, such as Saudi Arabia and the UAE, supporting ‘Peace to Prosperity’ policy among Arab League member states. PA and Hamas, in a “competition and cooperation” relationship, agreed to struggle for independent state building against Israel, but there is no special armed terrorism against Israel yet. President Trump said it was a ‘Peace to Prosperity’ policy vision, but for Palestinians, it seems to be a nightmare, not a ‘vision’.
    Keyword: peace to prosperity, deal of the century, realistic two-state solution, a viable Palestinian state, America First, conceptual map, land swaps. 번영 위한 평화, 세기의 협상, 현실적인 두 국가 해결책, 생존 가능 한 팔레스타인 국가, 미국 우선주의 정책, 개념지도, 토지 교환.
    Author: 정상률
    Poblication Year: 2020
    Language: Korean
    Country: Palestine
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    정치 체제와 정권생존
    The Arab Spring has various implications on the Middle Eastern regime survival. The Jasmin revolution that has influx from Tunis to Yemen brought the subversion of regimes and the civil uprising. Although Gulf monarchies have shown its resilience in several events such as the wave of Pan-Arabism and the Iranian revolution of 1979 as well as Iran-Iraqi war in 1981, the Arab Spring and people’s demand for democracy was a huge threat to the Gulf monarchy system. This research argues the similarity of regime type plays a critical role in creating a strong alliance of Gulf monarchies which has become the strong shield of the wave. Thus, this research aims to evaluate what kind of conventional elements has been discussed to affect the monarchies’ resilience against internal and external threat. Moreover, for the accurate assessment, this research limits the time period from the 2011 to 2014 since the regime change occurred predominantly during these 4 years through election or upheaval. Based on the alliance theories of International relations, the main variants that has dealt in precedent research on Gulf monarchies regime security was analyzed. Rentierism, legitimacy of its government, tribalism as political and regional culture and institutional differences. Add to this point, the formation of the alliance and ideological solidarity which represented as the establishment of Gulf Cooperation Council and Peninsula Shield Forces, and military intervention with Saudi Arabia and PSF to Bahrain was brought as case study to this research. Through these case studies, the importance on similarity of regime type in regime survival of Gulf monarchies was studied. The regime type and ideological solidarity were the key factor that the gulf monarchies have successfully formed its alliance during the Arab Spring. Therefore, understanding of relationship between two variants will help us understanding the regime survival of Gulf monarchies, while giving us further insight into the same types of regime’s survival in other region.
    Keyword: Gulf Monarchies, Regime Survival, Rentierism, Tribalism, Legitimacy, GCC. 아랍의 봄, 이념동맹, 동맹국가, GCC, 걸프 협력기구, 연합방위군, 정권생존.
    Author: 이수진
    Poblication Year: 2020
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Economics
    이스라엘 천연가스 수출을 위한 협력
    Why has Israel recently been active in strengthening cooperation with Arab countries led by the UAE, especially the Khalifa Haftar forces in eastern Libya? One of the key reasons is to build hubs for exporting the natural gas produced in Eastern Mediterranean gas fields of Israel's offshore, including the Leviathan and Tamar gas fields, and to secure a safety net for export gas pipelines to Europe. But Israel's gas exports and reserves are not high compared to other countries in the region. Thus, in the long run, Israel appears to dream of the hub of regional gas pipeline passages beyond its neighbors. The cooperation and struggle of the countries to export Israeli natural gas produced in the Eastern Mediterranean will provide an important clue to understand the complex political landscape of the Middle East as a whole. This paper is to identify the complex political landscape in the Middle East, which is activated around inter-state cooperation for Israel's natural gas exports.
    Keyword: Israel, Natural Gas, UAE, Greece, US. 이스라엘, 천연가스, UAE, 그리스, 미국.
    Author: 홍미정
    Poblication Year: 2020
    Language: Korean
    Country: Israel
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Etc language Literature
    ‘알 자지라(al-Jazīrah)’와 ‘알 아라비야(al-‘Arabiyyah)’ 뉴스 텍스트의 언어학적 특징 비교 연구
    This research aims to analyze the linguistic features of the news texts of al-Jazīrah and al-‘Arabiyyah in terms of phonology, syntax, semantics, vocabulary, vocabulary coinage as a typical standard language of modern Arab society. Generally speaking, the media is divided into two categories: written media and spoken media, while written media refers to newspapers and magazines, spoken media refers to television and radio broadcast etc. Considering this importance, we will analyze the linguistic features of news Arabic focusing on al-Jazīrah and al- ‘Arabiyyah, which are regarded as the representative spoken media in the Arab world. Al-Jazīrah is the largest Arab satellite news broadcaster since its foundation in November 1996 and is called CNN in the Middle East. Al-‘Arabiyyah is located in Dubai, and is the news channel established in March 2003, broadcast in modern standard Arabic to a pan-Arab audience. In this research we will look at the overview of al-Jazīrah and al-‘Arabiyyah and analyze the linguistic features of the news texts of the two medias in terms of phonology, syntax, semantics, vocabulary, and coinage. And also we will study the effects of these linguistic features on the development of modern standard Arabic.
    Keyword: al-Jazīrah, al-‘Arabiyyah, News Arabic, Media, Modern Standard Arabic, Literary Arabic, Spoken Arabic. 알 자지라, 알 아라비야, 뉴스 아랍어, 미디어, 현대 표준 아랍어, 문어체 아랍어, 구어체 아랍어.
    Author: 윤은경
    Poblication Year: 2020
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Arabic Literature
    안달루스 시인 이븐 카파자의 시에 대한 연구
    Ibn Khafāja, who became the natural poet by singing the most poems about nature among the Andalusian poets, sang the beauty of Andalus until his life. He was heavily influenced by the Arab traditional poem ‘Al-Qasīḍah’ and tried to follow the traditions of previous poets. Along with this, he tried to build a poem with a structure and meaning different from that of Arab traditional poems, and unlike traditional poems with a spatial background called desert, his spatial background was Andalus with a beautiful natural environment. Ibn Khapāja sang the beauty of Andalus nature in his poems, the love of lovers, the friendship of friends, and the joy of drinking wine. However, as he grows older, he also writes poems contemplating his own life approaching death, the loneliness he feels after letting go of his friends and feelings of passing away. In particular, in 'Al-qasīḍah Al-bā`iyah', one of his representative works, he concentrates on the traditional theme of 'Raḥīl' and sings a description of the mountain. For Ibn Khafāja, this mountain is personified and is a mountain that protects oneself by talking to one another. He sings of hope and sings of a life of traveling alone to a new destination. This tendency is characteristic of the poems of Ibn Khapāja, which is quite different from the traditional Arab poetry.
    Keyword: Ibn Khafāja, 'Al-qasīḍah Al-bā`iyah', Natural poetry, Andalusian poet. 이븐 카파자, 알까씨다 알바이야, 자연 시, 안달루스 시인.
    Author: 이종화
    Poblication Year: 2020
    Language: Korean
    Country: Spain
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Science of Religion
    현대 이슬람의 종파 간 갈등과 생존 전략 연구
    This study researches the conflict between Sunnites and Shi’a in modern Islam and their surviving strategy focusing on the process of conflict’s expansion between them, the political antagonism between them, their surviving strategy, and the future of sectarian conflict. It also examines the process of establishing Shi’a identity and its political pragmatism, competition of sectarian initiative between them, and upsurging sectarian conflict between them and fixation of their polarization. As for the current sectarian polarization, both sects must be blamed. Arab Sunnite states blame Shi’a Iran, and Iran also blames the United States, Israel, and Arab Sunnite states, above all Saudi Arabia. Since the Arab Spring Iran has tried to enlarge Shi’a Crescent Belt and fed sectarian conflict flames in Iraq, Syria, and Yemen. Saudi Arabia regards Iran’s foreign policies as sectarian and expansionist. Iran regards the rise of Sunnite Islamism, jihadism, and Wahhabism organizations, including IS and al-Qaeda, as a reason of its political intervention into Syria and the current situation of sectarian polarization in Iraq, Syria, and Yemen. After demolition of IS, the sectarian conflicts has become more severe. So the longer these sectarian conflicts endure, the stronger the sectarian polarization will be.
    Keyword: Sunni, Shi’a, Sectarianism, Saudi, Iran, Polarization. 순니파, 시아파, 종파주의, 사우디, 이란, 양극화.
    Author: 황병하
    Poblication Year: 2020
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    이븐 타이미야가 순니파 이슬람 무장단체의 반(反)시아 이데올로기 형성에 미친 영향
    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the works and fatwas of Ibn Taymiyya(1263–1328) against Shi‘a sects such as Ithnā ‘ashariyya, Ismā‘iliyya, and Nuṣayriyya. This paper also seeks to examine how modern extreme sunni militant groups used his anti-Shia discourse to justify their violence or terrorism against Shia Muslims. It is well known that Ibn Taymiyya is one of the medieval Sunni scholars most widely consulted by modern-day Islamists to justify their sectarian violence. And he used very rigid concept of takfir to legally rule that Shiites are unbelievers and apostates. He also called them rāfiḍa, ghulāt, munāfiq, mushrik, mu‘āwin to emphasize the negative aspects of Shi'ites. And it can be seen that his views on Shi‘ites are repeatedly used in al-Zarqāwī’s speech and Dabiq, the ISIS’s propaganda magazine.
    Keyword: Ibn Taymiyya, Shia, Rafida, Ghulat, Takfir, Islamic State(IS), Dabiq. 이븐 타이미야, 시아, 라피다, 굴라트, 타크피르, 이슬람국가(IS), 다비크
    Author: 김정명
    Poblication Year: 2020
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Arab History
    미국과 이란 간 불신과 갈등의 역사
    Due to a United States drone air strike near Baghdad International Airport on January 3rd, 2020, Qasem Soleimani, commander of the Quds Forces, was assassinated along with nine other people including Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis, commander of the Iran-backed Kata’ib Hezbollah militia. The military operation was condemned by the Iranian government and many superpowers because Soleimani was not a non-state actor such as Osama bin Laden, but a state actor. Despite anticipated international condemnation and opprobrium, the Trump administration resolutely embarked on taking controversial and dangerous military action against Iran. Soleimani’s killing by the U.S. government sharply escalated tensions between the U.S. and Iran and stoked fears of military conflict, which in the end did not take place. This study will look into the historical context of bilateral relations between the U.S. and Iran. This historical approach will help the reader understand that this military operation did not simply occur with the escalation of political tensions between the two countries. It was the result of a long history based on distrust and antagonism between the U.S. and Iran since 1953.
    Keyword: Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis, Iranian Nuclear Deal, Iranian Revolution, Mohammad Mossadegh, Qasem Soleimani. 무함마드 모사데크, 아부 마흐디 알-무한디스, 이란 혁명, 이란 핵 협상, 까심 솔레이마니.
    Author: 송상현
    Poblication Year: 2020
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    걸프의 정권 안보와 이스라엘-UAE·바레인 관계 정상화
    There are various perspectives in explaining the Abraham Accords signed at the White House in September 2020. Not a few Western and domestic scholars are likely to analyze the peace mood between Israel and the Arab world on the basis of the reestablishment of a regional political order of building an anti-Iran alliance. But the study is based on the hypothesis that domestic political factors play a crucial role in the recent Gulf states’ surprise peace treaty with Israel. To that end, this study conducted three types of quantitative and qualitative analysis in order to find out the real background behind the normalization of Israel-UAE and Bahrain relations: measuring the number of news articles related with the Accords from Google News; measuring the frequency of nouns, proper nouns, and adjectives from selected eight sample research articles; and drawing co-occurrence of words of the collected data above. The above three analyses show that the Arab-Israeli detente has a more significant causal relationship with the independent variables of regional security rather than domestic regime security.
    Keyword: Regime Security, the Gulf Countries, Normalization of Relations, Israel, UAE, Bahrain. 정권 안보, 걸프국가, 관계 정상화, 이스라엘, UAE, 바레인.
    Author: 서정민
    Poblication Year: 2020
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Art & Physical Education
    한국의 지분적립형 주택과 이슬람의 유사 거래
    The hopes and burdens of getting my own home exist not only in Korean society but all over the world. Real buyers who dream of becoming future homeowners will mostly use mortgages or mortgage loans to finance their home purchases. Meanwhile, in the Islamic areas, Ribā(interest) transactions are prohibited under Islamic law Sharīʿah, so Muslims cannot use the Western way of raising funds while paying interest. Muslims can finance for their house through the Islamic Bank. At this time, the 'al-ʾijārah(lease) completed by ownership' method is used. Recently, the Seoul Metropolitan Government and the government announced plans to supply 'sharing house ownership' as part of their real estate measures. This method is considered a new one that has never been presented before. This study seeks to compare the structure of 'sharing ownership of house' in Korea and 'al-ʾijārah completed by ownership' in Islam to present the similarities.
    Keyword: Homeowner, al-ʾIjārah(lease), Islamic Finance, Real Estate Measure, Sharing Ownership. 주택 소유주, 이자라(임대), 이슬람 금융, 지분적립, 부동산 정책
    Author: 김동환
    Poblication Year: 2020
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Arabic Literature
    이집트 소설을 통해 본 사회문제와 2011년 시민혁명의 전조
    This study set out to analyze the work of Egyptian novelists, dealing with social issues in Egypt during the Mubārak regime and the citizens’ consciousness changes and social movements before the people’s revolution in 2011. For the purpose of research, the investigator selected ʿAlāʾ al-Aswānī’s The Yacoubian Building, Khālid al-Khamīsī’s Taxi, and Muḥammad Salmāwī’s Butterfly Wings among novels set in Egypt under Mubārak’s rule. This study analyzed these three novels based on the sociology theory of literature, which states that the situations of a society during a certain period can be figured out through literary work from that period. Following that sociology theory of literature by Georg Lukacs, which states that a writer’s ideas, experiences, and views were reflected in his or her work, the investigator examined the creative worlds of the three writers and analyzed the content of their novels. Conclusion shows the following findings based on these discussions: Egypt had prominent social issues, such as the oppression of human rights, This study set out to analyze the work of Egyptian novelists, dealing with social issues in Egypt during the Mubārak regime and the citizens’ consciousness changes and social movements before the people’s revolution in 2011. For the purpose of research, the investigator selected ʿAlāʾ al-Aswānī’s The Yacoubian Building, Khālid al-Khamīsī’s Taxi, and Muḥammad Salmāwī’s Butterfly Wings among novels set in Egypt under Mubārak’s rule. This study analyzed these three novels based on the sociology theory of literature, which states that the situations of a society during a certain period can be figured out through literary work from that period. Following that sociology theory of literature by Georg Lukacs, which states that a writer’s ideas, experiences, and views were reflected in his or her work, the investigator examined the creative worlds of the three writers and analyzed the content of their novels. Conclusion shows the following findings based on these discussions: Egypt had prominent social issues, such as the oppression of human rights, control of the press, prevalence and fixedness of corruption, and polarization and inequality among the social classes, under the dictatorial regime based on the analysis results of the three pieces of literature. The citizens’ disillusionment about mundane rule, expectations for an Islamic system, and civil social movement for democratization depicted in the work is considered signs for the people’s revolution of 2011.
    Keyword: Egypt’s Social Issue, Egyptian Revolution of 2011, The Yacoubian Building, Taxi, Butterfly Wings. 이집트 사회문제, 2011년 이집트 혁명, 『야쿠비얀 빌딩』, 『택 시』, 『나비의 날개』.
    Author: 김경호
    Poblication Year: 2020
    Language: Korean
    Country: Egypt
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Etc language Literature
    을종본 회회관역어 어휘편 천문문(天文門)에 대한 고찰
    The Hui-hui-guan-yi-yu(回回館譯語) is the Persian volume of Hua-yi-yi-yu, the "Chinese-Barbarian Dictionary" of the Bureau of Translators which was compiled during the Ming - Qing period. The purpose of this study is to analyze the Persian phonology in the 15th century in historical linguistic perspective as well as the characteristics of the Hui-hui-guan-yi-yu, especially concentrating on the first category of the volume. The findings from the analysis of the Hui-hui-guan-yi-yu show that those who transctibe or copy the volume do not have fluency in Persian language. Moreover, every vowel has been distinctively transcribed based on the consonants it precedes. The pronunciation of those vowels has been changed compared to the present pronunciation and it regularily shows vowel lowering, which can be the evidence for sub-categorization of New Persian. In addition, this document shows the different usage of the vocabulary in 15th century and the present.
    Keyword: Hui-hui-guan-yi-yu(回回館譯語), version B, Persian, 15C, the category of “Astronomy”(天文門). 을종본 회회관역어, 페르시아어, 15세기, 천문문
    Author: 곽새라
    Poblication Year: 2020
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Etc Humanities Science
    중앙아시아 이슬람 세계의 천문학
    This study explores the relationship between Islam and astronomy and the achievements of astronomy in the Islamic world in Central Asia in the 9-15th centuries. First, the well-known scholars in science and astronomy during 9-10th centuries are introduced, then the Timur Empire’s Islamic astronomy(15th) and modern astronomy of the independent Uzbekistan are explored respectively in order to understand how the Uzbekistan government tried to restore national and ethnic identity. Islamic astronomy was able to make a remarkable development as many religious practices in Islam (eg, worship toward Mecca, knowing the beginning and end of Ramadan by lunar calendar) were deeply linked to the astronomical thinking of understanding the movement of celestial bodies. From 9th up to 15th some scientific academies and various scientific fields including astronomy have been established in Islamic Central Asian and this academic traditions have contributed to great achievements such as a huge astronomical observatory called the Ulug‘bek Observatory and the Zij of Ulug'bek during the reign of King Ulug‘bek, of Timur Empire of 15th century. After Uzbekistan's independence from the Soviet Union, the Islamic Timur Empire provided historical legitimacy for the rule of the new Uzbekistan government, and the existence of Islamic astronomical heritages were used as a key propaganda for restoring national and ethnic identity and enhancing self-esteem. Today, the Ulug‘bek Astronomy Institute (UBAI) and the Maidanak Observatory are the central axes of astronomy in Uzbekistan, a representative symbol and core medium that connects the past and present of Islamic science in Central Asia. The UBAI, which has scientific assets accumulated in the long history of astronomy, and the Maidanak Observatory, which has the best observation conditions in the world, show the future of the astronomy in Uzbekistan.
    Keyword: Central Asia, Islam, astronomy, national identity, Timurid dynasty, Ulug‘bek observatory. 중앙아시아, 이슬람, 천문학, 티무르 제국, 국가민족 정체성, 울루그 벡 천문대.
    Author: 이지은
    Poblication Year: 2021
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    중동 지역 내 미중 전략경쟁구조 분석
    This paper analyzes the structure of strategic competition between the US and China over the Middle East. First of all, China is expanding the scope of its cooperation with the middle east based on energy resources, industrial cooperation, and infrastructure construction through the Belt and the Road Initiative(BRI). As China is forming a combined maritime network with the Middle East by connecting West Indian Ocean, Red Sea, Persian Gulf, and Mediterranean Sea, the US influence has continued to decrease with in the region. The US dependence on Middle Eastern energy resources have waned after the Shale Revolution which had lead to a certain degree of power vacuum in the Middle East. However, as the BRI successfully expands its connectivity in the Middle East, Trump administration has signed an “Abraham Accords” to form a value chain of its own. By utilizing tradition alliance as an axis, the state of Israel, the US is trying to reengage as a Security –Economic patron in the region. Therefore, along with the analysis on the structure of strategic competition between the US and China over the Middle East, this paper examines whether the Red Sea initiative in the Middle East can be linked to China's BRI and the US's Abraham Accords. Furthermore, this paper seeks to provide the comprehensive perspective on the possible dynamics of BRI, the Abraham Accord, and the Red Sea Initiative in the future.
    Keyword: International Relations of Middle East, US-China Strategic Competition, Abraham Accords, Red Sea Initiative, BRI. 중동 국제관계, 미중 전략경쟁, 아브라함 협정, 일대일로, 홍해구상.
    Author: 이창주
    Poblication Year: 2021
    Language: Korean
    Country: Israel
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Economics
    터키 경제 불확실성에 관한 예측 모델 비교
    The main purpose of this article is to identify the optimal predictive model for predicting the economic uncertainty of emerging economies in Turkey. To do this, after obtaining a comprehensive set of related data, the final prediction model was selected by comparing predictive power between three models, such as a linear regression tree model, a decision tree model (bagging tree, random forest), and a neural network model, through a cross-validation technique. Key variables in a model include exchange rates, interest rates, stock markets, bond markets, economic atmosphere, counterparty risk, emerging country risk, and strategic import dependence. A series of economic indicators data for quantitative analysis used data from specialized database companies such as Thomson Reuters Datastream, Worldscope, Bankscope, and Osiris. The main finding is that the predictive power of the random forest model showed a relatively low MSE value compared to other predictive models, indicating its suitability as an optimal prediction model.
    Keyword: Economic Uncertainty, Prediction Model, Linear Regression Tree, Decision Tree, Neural Network Model. 경제 불확실성, 예측 모델, 회귀트리, 의사결정트리, 인공신경망 모델.
    Author: 양오석
    Poblication Year: 2021
    Language: Korean
    Country: Turkey
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Etc language Literature
    아랍어 명사구 이동에 대한 연구
    The focal point of this paper is to make a minimalist study on NP-movement in Arabic constructions such as passive construction, raising construction, and topicalized construction. In addition, this study is going to explain the characteristics of each NP-movement, and the cause of the movement by the check theory as well as establishing X-bar schema by virtue of VP-internal subject hypothesis. It will be argued that the NP-movement in the passive construction must be moved to the SPEC1 position in order to be checked for the nominative case from Tense of Inflection. In the case of the NP- movement in the raising construction which contains raising verb and modal verb, it will be proved that the upward NP-movement from SPEC1 to SPEC2 within the IP domain is not accepted, but NP-movement is generated through the left dislocation to SPEC3 position in the CP domain. Finally, in the topicalized construction, the NP-movement takes the shape of the upward movement from SPEC1 to SPEC2. It will be analyzed that the NP is shifted by the focus rule, which is considered as the semantic rule, not the syntactic rules. At this time, the subject NP is checked for incomplete nominative case, which shows that Arabic T-quality is weak as opposed to English strong T-quality. Recently, the transformational-generative theory has evolved from the minimalist theory to the optimistic theory in order to ultimately build up the universal grammar that satisfies the universal qualities of individual languages to the fullest, while satisfying the external basis of individual language phenomena. In other words, the goal of the universal grammar is to maximize the explanatory adequacy in principles while maintaining the objective adequacy for individual languages. Therefore, the theory of Arabic grammar should satisfy the maximization of the explanatory adequacy in the framework of the universal grammar.
    Keyword: Minimalist Theory, NP-Movement, Passive Construction, Raising Construction, Topicalized Construction, Minimal X-bar Structure, Head, Complement, Specifier, Inflection, Complementizer, VP-internal Subject Hypothesis. Raising Verb, Empty Pronoun(pro), Upward NP-Movement from SPEC1 to SPEC2, Left Dislocation to SPEC3, Focus Rule. 최소주의 이론, 명사구 이동, 수동구문, 인상구문, 주제화 구문, 최 소 핵계층구조, 핵, 보충어, 지정어, 굴절소, 보문소, 동사구내 주 어가설, 인상동사, 공범주 주어(pro), SPEC1에서 SPEC2로의 상 향이동, SPEC3로 좌측전위, 초점규칙.
    Author: 최진영
    Poblication Year: 2021
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Etc language Literature
    입력 중심과 출력 중심 형태초점접근법에 따른 아랍어 문법 학습 비교 연구
    The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of focus on form approach: input-based and output-based activity, input-output combined activity on intermediate level learners’ Arabic grammar proficiency. Focus on form approach, which has been long studied as an alternative instruction method that can enable balanced learning of accuracy and fluency of the respective language, is a learner-focused proactive instruction method that overtly draws learners’ attention to linguistic elements as they arise incidentally in lessons in which the overriding focus is on meaning or communication(Long, 1991). The results of the study are as follows. First, it was found that inputbased activity, output-based activity, input-output combined activity focus on form approach and the traditional rule-explaining activity all improved the achievement from a short-term point of view for Arabic grammar teaching methods. Also, among the four activities, it was found that focus on form approach, which implements both input and output based activity, had the biggest effect. Such result shows that input and output-based activity are both needed for drawing attention to and to learn target grammar elements, and that learners can better learn the target grammar when both activities are combined. Second, input-based activity, output-based activity and input-output combined activity focus on form approach showed significant results in the long-term efficacy of Arabic grammar learning. Among them, the experiment group that performed both input and output activities had the biggest significant effect from a long-term learning perspective.
    Keyword: Learning of Arabic Grammar, Focus on Form Approach, Inputbased Instruction, Output-based Instruction, Input-output combined Instruction. 아랍어 문법 학습, 형태초점접근법, 입력 중심 교수법, 출력 중심 교수법, 입ㆍ출력 중심 교수법 .
    Author: 문지영
    Poblication Year: 2021
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Etc language Literature
    칼릴라와 딤나와 라퐁텐 우화의 공통이야기 연구
    This article is a comparative study of Kalīlah wa Dimnah and La Fontaine Fable regarding plot, animal character and event, narration and teachings, religious background and historical background. As for Kaīllah wa Dimnah, it gives animal character’s role through its behavior and proceeds narration by rapid speed and offers much teachings. And it usually maintains religious thoughts of its original text, Panchantantra and sometimes adds islamic tenets, and it criticizes king’s dictatorship and his inability. While La Fontaine Fable gives animal character’s role through writer’s explanation in simple plot and controls narration speed and offers selective teachings. And it contradicts Hinduism of its original text, Bidpai Fable and emphasizes Christian tenets. and it criticizes hypocrisy of administrators or clergies, and the people’s sufferings as well as international affairs. In modern era Arab poets accepted La Fontaine’s excellent literary technique and regarded it as a model of fable poem.
    Keyword: Kalīlah wa Dimnah, La Fontaine Fable, Bidpai Fable, Pilpay Fable. 칼릴라와 딤나, 라퐁텐 우화, 비드파이 우화, 필파이 우화.
    Author: 이동은
    Poblication Year: 2021
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Arabic Literature
    키르기스 문학에 나타난 근대적 여성상 모색
    The increasing pace of globalization has significantly affected our lives in many profound ways. One of the consequences of globalization is the rise of intermarriage, i.e., the marriage between couples of different nationalities or different social, economic, religious, or racial backgrounds. Globalisation and multiculturalism break down cultural boundaries and barriers, and the diversity has also been prominent in literature. Amid this global trend, world-reowned literary works are also introduced in Korea. Worldwide, various literary works chose their topics or subjects from their own culture. These literary works reflect various values, traditions, and hardship through the formation of a nation and changing times. The most popular Kirghiz writer in Korea is Chinghiz Aitmatov, a novelist who introduced Kirghiz literature to the world. Aitmatov became famous during the era of the Soviet Union and the Soviet regime recognized his outstanding literary talent, which made his work a global asset. After the collapse of the Soviet regime and Kyrgyzstan’s independence, he became one of the most beloved writers, not only in his country, but also in other Turkic Nations. In particular, he has established himself as a world-class writer by describing the life of the community he lived and belonged to. In Chinghiz Aitmatov’s works, the life and history of the Kirghiz people are intertwined, and they have the elements such as human and nature, community and history, individual and community, individual and war, war and community, love and nature. One of Aitmatov’s significant works is the novel Jamila and this work reflects author’s literary point of view and his will. The novel is about a married woman, Jamila, who had an affair and left the village with her partner. In the novel, Jamila represents a woman who escaped from the customs in those days when women were the object of possession and domination. Jamila is well worth mentioning as a symbol of a modern woman who sought freedom and liberation in that she was a subjective person who resisted the custom of kidnapping and obtained the love she wanted. This story is a reflection of using love to defy the existing customs and societal expectations as Jamila is a woman who rejects her husband who does not love her, seeks happiness through another person who she wants, and a woman who takes charge of her own life, defying the societal and custom pressure of the time. Based on the novel, Jamila is a woman who writes her history, resists old customs, practices what she truly believes without looking back, and places the greatest value on the spiritual rather than the material.
    Keyword: Kirghiz Literature, Chinghiz Aitmatov, Jamila, Modern Women’s Image, Custom, Free Will, Marriage, Love. 키르기스 문학, 칭기즈 아이트마토프, 자밀라, 근대적 여성상, 관 습, 자유의지, 결혼, 사랑.
    Author: 이난아
    Poblication Year: 2021
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Science of Law
    이슬람의 배상(디야)에 대한 샤리아 규범
    Diya is an indemnity that the victim or his family receives in exchange for forgiveness instead of revenge on the perpetrator in the same way when a person is killed or injured. These norms existed as customary laws from the pre-Islamic era, but since the advent of Islam, they have established themselves as specific and detailed Sharia norms suitable for the real life of the Muslim community. Sharia's first source of law, the Qur'an, in Chapter 4, verse 92, ordered victims of Muslims and Dimmi to pay Diya in case of accidental murder. The Koran's command was absolute, but it was a principle revelation, so the Muslim community needed more diverse and specific norms. It is Hadith, Sharia's second source of law, which has met these needs of the community. Hadith contains more than 230 verses related to Diya (Aql, Arsi). Later, as the Islamic world became vast, the community needed more and more diverse and specific norms, and it was the law school that satisfied these demands.
    Keyword: Diya, Koran, Ḥadith(Sunnah), Sunni four Islamic law schools, Shariah. 디야, 코란, 하디스(순나), 순니 4 대 법학파, 샤리아.
    Author: 임병필
    Poblication Year: 2021
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Science of Religion
    21세기 중앙아시아 다종교공동체와 종무제도의 특징 및 한계
    Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan have some features of Multi-ethnic and Multi-confessional communities since establishing of Soviet Central Asian Republics. With this back ground both countries share same structure of Management system of Religious Affairs. In the vertical structure of Religious executive system the official Islam play important role of community with tight relations between governmental Department and The Spiritual Association of Muslims as middle connecting bridge with Muslim communities. Except Islam, other Religious communities are under direct control with related govenmenatl Department: Kazakhstani Ministry of Information and Social Development and Uzbekistani Minstry of Justice.
    Keyword: Central Asia, Multi-Confessionalism, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, The Spiritual Association of Muslims. 중앙아시아, 다종교주의, 우즈베키스탄, 카자흐스탄, 이슬람종무청.
    Author: 김상철
    Poblication Year: 2021
    Language: Korean
    Country: Turkey
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Social Welfare
    자카트의 난민 구호 활용 사례 연구
    During the last 10 years (2010 - 2019) through the Arab Spring, in the Middle East & North Africa region, the Syrian civil war is ongoing. Conflicts and security issues have risen again in Afghanistan, Libya, Iraq and Somalia, and Yemen has seen massive refugee incidents. Continuous financing is essential for the protection and support needed for refugees to adapt and resettle in other areas. Some experts suggested that Zakat, one of Muslims' top five obligations, would be an alternative funding solution. Considering that the majority of the world's refugees are Muslims, the Muslim community & Zakat will be a strong source of funds for aid organizations that need continuous refugee support. Through the Refugee Zakat Fund in 2019, UNHCR provided 2.1 million beneficiaries in 13 countries including Yemen, Lebanon, Iraq, Jordan, Egypt, Mauritania, Niger, Bangladesh, India and Pakistan in 2020. This study seeks to see if non-Muslim groups, such as UNHCR, use Islamic Zakat funds for refugee relief conform to Islamic law Shariah.
    Keyword: Arab Spring, Zakat, Refugee Relief, Muslim, UNHCR. 아랍의 봄, 자카트, 난민구호, 무슬림, UNHCR.
    Author: 김동환
    Poblication Year: 2021
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    문화예술행사 사례 분석을 통해 본 한-중동 문화외교 추이
    This study attempts to compare the cases of cultural and artistic events in order to define changes of cultural diplomacy between South Korea and the Middle East. Firstly, it considers the importance of cultural diplomacy and previous research on that. This research examines the cultural and artistic events by country in the Middle East, using the World Korean Wave Status Report which was published by the Korea Foundation in 2016 and 2019. It shows that the frequency of cultural and artistic events and the characteristics of the events changed based on the tone and policies of the government. The other result shows that topics of the events to be held have diversified as the awareness of South Korea and its interest has increased. Thirdly, not only the government but also the actors who host the event have become diverse, such as the government of counterpart and private organizations. Since this study focuses only on Korean events held in the Middle East, further research is needed to understand the positions of both South Korea and the Middle East.
    Keyword: Public Diplomacy, Culrural Diplomacy, Soft Power, Korea and Middle East, Cultural Exchange. 공공외교, 문화외교, 소프트파워, 한국과 중동, 문화교류.
    Author: 김은지
    Poblication Year: 2021
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Sociology
    중세 이슬람 지리 속 신라의 남하와 이것이 무슬림들의 동남아시아 인식에 미친 영향
    This paper aims to trace the changing value of Korea, particularly the Silla Dynasty(57 BC? -935 CE), in medieval Islamic Cartography by examining textual and cartographic sources in Arabic. At the earliest stage of Islamic geography, Korea located on the opposite side of the end of China at the Muslim maritime route. However, it gradually moved southward towards Africa and became confused with Southeast Asian islands. This paper introduces first the visible influence of geographic notions of the medieval Islamic world about the Southeast Asian places in their geography about Korea, then move to discuss the possible transmission of the Islamic perceptions of Korea to to those of several Southeast Asian islands. This paper ultimately discusses the Islamic integration of the Hindu geography of Southeast Asia and the Islamic geography of Korea that later resulted in establishing the theological geography of Muslims by paralleling Korea and the Canary Islands to present the harmonious globe created by God.