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    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    이라크 개혁(1880-1920)에 대한 터키의 시도
    북아프리카 이슬람 원리주의 운동의 중요한 한 갈래로 여겨지는 사누시 종단의 오스만 제국의 술탄과의 관계, 나아가 1차세계대전에 이은 터키 독립전쟁 기간에 터키의 독립영웅 무스타파 케말 파샤와의 특별한 관계를 다루었다. 전세계 이슬람 세력을 결집하여 서구열강으로부터 오스만 제국를 지키려던 술탄 압둘 하미드의 범이슬람운동에 힘입어 세이크 사누시는 오스만 제국의 특별한 보호를 받으며 정치적 활동과 조세 징수에서 많은 특혜를 누렸다. 오스만 왕정이 멸망한 이후에는 케말 파샤에 협력하여 터키 독립전쟁을 도왔다. 이교도인 침략자를 성스런 이슬람 제국의 땅에서 몰아내는 것은 신성한 투쟁이라고 보았기 때문이다. 사누시의 이슬람 영향력을 지속해서 감시하고 통제해 온 영국의 방해로 결국 그의 이슬람 통합 여파는 크지 않았지만, 오늘날 그의 종교적 권위는 이미 1920년대 탄탄한 길을 다지고 있었다.
    Keyword: 사누시, 오스만 제국, 술탄 압둘 하미드, 범 이슬람 운동, 무스타파 케말
    Author: Cezmi ERASLAN
    Poblication Year: 2004
    Language: English
    Country: Turkey
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Science of Law
    A Study on the Philippine Adat Law
    The present rebellion in the Southern Philippines by the Bansa Moro could not be totally blamed on the Muslims. This is part of the centuries-old "attitudinal animosities" between brother Filipinos: Moros and Christians, brought by the "divide and rule" policy of outside colonizers- including the "inner colonials." Cultural understanding is tantamount to national progress. It is high time, that educators, scholars, lawlyers, and researchers of both the private and government entitles come together and do something that can bring about understanding among as. The Philippines is a country populated with various cultural communities. Obviiously, each has its own custom law. In order to shape the destiny of the nation's legal system, for it to be more appropriate and meaningful, the legal systems of the different cutural communities must be partly, at least if not totally, considered as part of Philippine jurisprudence. This, in part, can help combat cultural ignorance and bring about understanding.
    Keyword: Tausug Adat Law Southern Philippines Muslims
    Author: Wang-Jong Yoo
    Poblication Year: 2001
    Language: English
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Islam Philosophy
    A Study on the Discourse of Authoritarianism in Iran
    Political and economic reform in Iran began with Western political, economic and cultural penetration, and these reforms clearly had a double effect. On the one hand, there was an effort made for political reforms in democratic development, but on the other hand, the reaction to foreign penetration took the form of a turning to traditional culture as a way to keep the national identity. Therefore, the political transformations in Iran took on an equivocal shape, with democratic reforms and the culture of nationalism all mixed together. But democratic culture was unable to ally itself with traditional culture to create a new cooperative culture. Instead, these two cultures entered a coexistence of conflict, and Iranian political life of the contemporary period has resulted from that. Political reform was perceived as connected with imperialistic penetration, which provoked the reaction of traditional groups and their followers. For this reason,  returning to the tradition  became a big political and mental event in Iran, leading to the Islamic Revolution. Three main attitudes were found among Iranian intellectuals faced with Western culture and colonialism: 1) undisputed acceptance of all Western culture and civilization; 2) the alliance of Western material culture with Eastern intellectuality; 3) the acceptance of Western technology and economy depending on Islamic values. These three tendencies struggled with each other for a century. The Pahlavi shahs, with the exception of some values which were confirmed by the legitimacy of kingship and authoritarianism, were pursuing a full-scale reform in accordance with Western culture. Their dependence on foreign power and their political autocracy caused the growth of a reaction against Western cultural appearances. Jalal Al-e Ahmad, an intellectual and academic writer, published a book in 1962 called  Westoxication,  which was the beginning of a new paradigm, attacking the intellectual movement that had entered Iran along with the Constitutional Revolution as a kind of social disease. Al-e Ahmad said that in order to confront this disease, we have to return to the traditional culture, protected by the clergy. Dr. Shariati was another intellectual who wrote many books and made many speeches in that direction requesting a  return to ourselves.  Shariatis theories and writings turned some of the existing tendencies in the Islamic culture into political discourses. Nationalism and populism were the basic content of these movements, and these movements and thoughts in turn became the basis of the Islamic Republic Revolution.
    Keyword: Authoritarianism Iran political discourse Westoxication Westernism
    Author: Dal Seung Yu
    Poblication Year: 2002
    Language: English
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Islam Philosophy
    The Contemporary Moro Conflict in the Southern Philippines
    This study is focuses on the contemporary Moro conflict in the Southern Philippines. To achieve this goal, the study has proposed the grievances and demands of these Moro people, the successive Manila governments been responding to their demands, the alternatives which can be tried to resolve the crisis. Primary findings underscore the ethnic distinctness of the Moro people as a historical factor in the conflict. Corollary to this, is the role played by Islam in Moro people's lives plus their history of resistance against foreign cultures. The Moro Islamic Liberation Front, a hostage crisis perpetrated by the extremist Abu Sayyaf group, and a wave of bombings in Manila's main shopping malls - all these events helped to bring the Southern Philippines issue into focus, injecting gloom in the political outlook in the country. Violence is rife in the southern Philippines where Moro people are fighting for an independent homeland. This ongoing conflict in the Mindanao region has to be studied in the context of the social, cultural and economic issues of the region, as some of the worst-off areas in central and western Mindanao are inhabited by a sizeable Moro population.
    Keyword: Southern Philippines Mindanao Christian Filipino Muslims
    Author: Wang-Jong Yoo
    Poblication Year: 2002
    Language: English
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Science of Religion
    The Muslims in Hong Kong and their Religious Symbols
    The history of Muslims in Hong Kong, or we can say in this area, dates back to 7 th century AD, when the Holy Prophet Muhammad sent one of his companions to Canton, now Guangzhou, in China, thus started the Muslims religious and cultural life in this part of the world. The Muslims have their distinct religious and cultural values and norms and the Muslims of Hong Kong are no exemption. The Muslims of Hong Kong like other Muslims in other parts of the world have preserved their religious life and culture through their religious symbols. Amongst these religious symbols the most important and omnipresent are their worshiping places known as Mosques and their burial places known as graveyards. Mosques are not only the prayers’ places but also community gathering places where the Muslims are supposed to not only pray five times daily but also to discuss their worldly as well as religious problems. The graveyards are the last abode of Muslims, which are visited by the Muslims on all auspicious occasions for the remembrance of their dead family members as well as friends.
    Keyword: 무슬림
    Author: Syed Minhaj ul Hassan
    Poblication Year: 2015
    Language: English
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Folklore
    이슬람에서의 진(Jinn)과 민속신앙
    Islam is the union of politics and religion and consists of belief and behavior. That is to say, Islam is not only a system of belief(religion) but also a way of life covering politics, economies, society, etc., the human life in general and a high-levelled complex culture, and is a world of belief and practice containing both religion and mundane life. The fact that Islam is union of politics and religion and consists of belief and behavior can be construed that Islam consists of Shari'ah (Islamic Law) and belief, and the relation of the two is not clearly separated each other but retains a form of mutual complement. Accordingly, faith includes the law of Islam, and the law of Islam is grounded on belief. the role of Islamic Law is wider than the positive laws of other cultures, and is belief and ideology as well as law at the same time. Therefore, the trend of non-Islamic world to make the same use of the meaning of legislation of the positive law and the concept of Shari'ah by interpreting it as an Islamic law is the result of either the narrow interpretation of the concept of Shar'ah or the misunderstanding of wrong interpretation. Belief constructs Aqīdah (creed) and Aqīdah is the practical principle of Islamic law. Belief and behavior or Aqīdah and Sari'ah have such a corelation as tree and fruit, cause and effect, or prologue and epilogue have each other. Aqīdah means the belief in the absolute said and emphasized through the foreseers and prophets whom He sent to do so on His belief, the ideology of the one only God not permitting any belief in other gods and the original belief being aware of obedience in general to the owner of power. Therefore, Aqīdah in Islam is alpha and omega of the Muslims' belief and as well as a metaphysics based on the unquestionable said grounds (God's saying). Such belief can be divided into six beliefs; First, the belief in the one and only God as the Creator, second in such invisible beings as Angel, Satan and Jinn, third in the Scriptures, fourth in the foreseers and prophets, fifth in the Judgement Day and sixth in fate. This study aims at seeing into the definition. characteristics and role of those phrases about Jinn as described in the Qur'an and Hadīth in order to know the way of how the Muslims understand the being of Jinn, the one of the six belief as mentioned above. The Jinn did not appear first with the advent of Islam, but originally existed in Arab folk religion and its concept changed with the advent of Islam. Also the Jinn is surmised to have played a important role in absorbing the spirits of the areas and to have contributed a lot to the settlement of Islam. Therefore, the study is to see into the concept of Jinn in the Arab folk religion after looking into the same in Islam,. There appear a great number of devils in the such a novel as the Arabian Nights read a lot by the general public, the phrases where the devils confess themselves Jinn and expression where the Jinn converted at cetera. It very widely in the general public. The ideology of spirit which the Arabians had absorbed, assimilated and Islamized many of the neighboring different cultures in the course of becoming a general religion as the Islam spread all over the world, and also the spirit ideology of the areas was absorbed into and assimilated with the Jinn, contributed a lot to the settlement of Islam and is still present mixed with the concept of Jinn of the orthodox Islam in the general public.
    Keyword: Jinn, Folk Religion, Islam, Arab, Sharī'ah, Creed, Creation, Angel, Insanity, Poet
    Author: Won Sam Lee
    Poblication Year: 2003
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Islam Philosophy
    철학자들에 대한 알 가잘리의 비판과 그 정치적 배경
    Al-Ghazālī(1058-1111), the great Ash‘arite theologian, is well known as the author of Incoherence of philosophers(Tahāfut al-Falāsifa). In this work, he discussed twenty questions of philosophical doctrine in which he regarded philosophers as mistaken and misguided. Especially three of them he denounced as more serious than the others and tantamount to infidelity. The three doctrines are: the eternality of the world, God’s ignorance of the particulars , and the denial of bodily resurrection. He has completed the work in 1095. After about 10 years, he wrote Difference between Islam and Zandaqah(Fayṣal al-Tafriqa Bayn al-Islām wa `l-Zandaqah) to expound the legal ground upon which he condemned the philosophers to infidelity. Here we can say that al-Ghazālī was very sincere and consistent in the rejection of philosophy throughout his lifetime. This paper aims to understand the reason why al-Ghazālī attacked the philosophers. To do this job, al-Ghazālī’s main works such as Incoherence of philosophers and Difference between Islam and Zandaqa will be analyzed in detail. This paper consists of 5 parts: 1. Introduction, 2. Whom does al-Ghazālī exactly mean by the name ‘philosophers’?, 3. The pronouncement of infidelity and the three philosophical doctrines, 4. The pronouncement of infidelity and its political background. As conclusions, following points will be mentioned. First, In Incoherence of philosophers, al-Ghazālī’s attack was mainly focused on Ibn Sīnā. All of the three philosophical doctrines, upon which he denounced the philosophers as infidels, are Ibn Sīnā’s opinions appearing in his main works. Second, al-Ghazālī made attacks on Ibn Sīnā as a preparation to attack Ismā‘īlites. The Ismā‘īlites, as a main Shi‘ite sect, disapproved the ‘Abbāsid caliphs and maintained political rivalry with them between 10th-12th centuries. After they established the Fāṭimid dynasty in 969, they started to threaten the ‘Abbāsid government ideologically and militantly. Al-Ghazālī refuted the Ismā‘īlites and Ibn Sīnā at the same time, because both of them belonged to the same neo-platonist trend. Third, the Ash‘arite school , to which al-Ghazālī belonged, has been traditionally involved in defending the ‘Abbāsid government from the Ismā‘īlites. Al-Ghazālī’s attack on Ibn Sīnā was a part of his political attacks on the Ismā‘īlites.
    Keyword: Al-Ghazālī, Incoherence of philosophers, Ibn Sīnā, the Ismā‘īlites, Neo-platonism, The Theory of Emanation, Niẓām al-Mulk, Niẓāmiyah Madrasa, al-Azhar, Ikhwān al-Ṣafā
    Author: Jeoung Myoung Kim
    Poblication Year: 2003
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Women
    팔레스타인 여성과 이슬람 근본주의
    It has been usual that the men encourage or lead the women to participate in the ethical movements in many cases of colonial movements of the third world. Also, in the case of Palestine, the men stirred up the women's participation in the political affairs by the recognition of their role in the secular movement under the urgent situation of the national liberation movement. As the result, many Palestinian women's organizations were established to encourage women's social and political activities. Nevertheless, their radical statue is not changed nor developed. First, it is ascribed to the patriarchal system that has been prevailed in that society. Secondly, Palestinian Authority is not willing to deal with the gender problems, or even so, it has insufficient power to resolve the problems. And thirdly, Islamic fundamental movements in Palestine effect on the role, statue, and activity of Palestinian women. Islamic fundamentalism has settled down in Palestine since it has spreaded wide in Islamic world during 1970's. Islamic fundamentalists have made use of the matter of women to confirm their identity. Focusing on the matter of women's Ḥijāb, they could attract the people who have been tired of the secular government's policy. So, this paper will discuss Palestinian women's activities before the spread of Islamic fundamentalism, the appearance of Palestinian Islamic fundamentalism, Palestinian Islamic fundamentalism and the women, and the women's responses and views on Palestinian Islamic fundamentalism. And finally, it aims to study on the relation between Palestinian Women and Islamic fundamentalism to figure out the role of Islam in Muslim women's role and position.
    Keyword: Gender, Feminism, Palestinian Women, Muslim Women, Palestine, Islamic Fundamentalism, Palestinian Islamic Fundamentalism, Hamas, Ḥijāb, Intifada
    Author: Hee Sun Cho
    Poblication Year: 2003
    Language: Korean
    Country: Palestine
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Science of Religion
    중앙아시아에서 종교지도자의 기능과 역할
    The aim of this paper is to examine the function and role of clerics in Central Asian Islam with emphasis on Mullah, Sheik and Bibiotun. In Central Asia there are two categories of mullah: official ones and unofficial ones. The social status of the two groups is very different. The first group, who have diplomas, conduct their religious activities openly on a legal basis. The unregistered mullahs conduct their religious activities clandestinely. They are recruited from among the students of the underground maktabs. While the unregistered mullahs conduct their duties on an illegal basis, their should have jobs to lead their lives. Comparing to the former, the latter serve Islam very well on daily level, because they know very well what their people need irrespective of islamic knowledges. Sheiks have a very large influence on the population of Central Asia, because they are in constant contact with people. The sheiks' primary influence is on the female portion of society, since the majority of pilgrims to the mazars are women, who believe the keepers of the mazars without question. It is here that the main shaper of children gets the values that she then transfers to the younger children. In Central Asian Islam, it is not too much to say that bibiotuns play very important roles in spreading islamic knowledges to society. The bibiotuns' primary influence is on the female portion of society like the mullahs. The job of the bibiotun is to oversee all the female rituals in the mahalla. It is taken by a woman who has been specially prepared for the role. In addition to absolutely thorough knowledge of the rituals, she must know the norms of good Muslim behaviour. Candidates for the post of bibiotun are chosen from among girls seven to eight years old. who then go through the same preparation in the girls' maktabs as the boys who will become the future mullahs do in theirs. As our important future task, the function and role of bibiotun should be reexamined well through field work.
    Keyword: mullah, sheik, bibiotun, Central Asia, Islam, mahalla, muslim, Official Islam, Parallel Islam, mazar
    Author: Duck Chan Woo
    Poblication Year: 2003
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Arab History
    팔레스타인 이슬람운동의 현황과 전망
    The Islamic religious movement in Palestine is not how to confront Zionist barbarities; it is rather to ensure that the second Intifada (appropriately named the al-Aqsa Intifada) does not suffer the same fate as the first Intifada(1987-1993). Then, the sacrifices of the Palestinians were bartered away in Oslo, culminating in the infamous accords signed on the White House lawn in September 1993. The PLO, which had played little part in the first Intifada were imposed upon the Palestinian people to do the Zionists
    Keyword: Palestine, the Islamic Religious Movement, Palestine Muslim Brotherhood, Islamic Liberation Party, Palestinian Islamic Jihad, Hamas, the Palestinian popular uprising(the Intifada), the al-Aqsa Infifada, Palestinian Islamic fundamentalism, Palestinian Authority
    Author: Wang Jong Yoo
    Poblication Year: 2003
    Language: Korean
    Country: Palestine
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Women
    튀니지 가족법을 통해서 본 튀니지 현대 여성상
    Until now, from the perspective of the Western world, it is known that Muslim women in the Arab world are oppressed by Muslim men, Muslim Religious Laws, and a patriarchal society, and they cannot exercise any social or institutional rights By contrast, Family Law in Tunisia, which is characterized by monogamy, concentrates on respect for basic human rights, and is considered different from the laws of neighboring Arab Muslim countries. It is not too much to say that Tunisian women have become an ideal example of the improvement of Muslim women's rights in Arab countries, as a result of its Family Law. Like other Muslim women, traditional Tunisian women used to be considered so incompetent and weak that they could not work, and had to depend on men. The turning point for the transformation of these traditional Tunisian women was the Family Law which was enacted in 1956. Tunisia's Family Law can be said to be a product of Islamic reform movement from the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century. As Tunisians became increasingly interested in the issue of women, the Family Law was established. Tunisian reformist thinkers emphasized the gender equality of the original religion based on the Islamic scripture the Qurān, and the memoirs of the prophet Muhammad Ḥadīṯ. Thus, they demanded education and inheritance rights that women at that time were not allowed , together with the right to take part in society. In addition, the reformists emphasized the need to reinterpret Sharī'ah Law, (which had influenced the Muslim world for a long time), and reintroduced the notion of gender equality into Muslim philosophy, presenting an open attitude towards women. Responding to these movements, Tunisian Family Law was promulgated in 1956, and subsequently revised 6 times, as a result of changes of government and the development of society. The status and the rights of women in contemporary Tunisia have been improved
    Keyword: Muslim women, Tunisian woman ,Tunisia's Family Law, Sharī'ah Law, monogamy, Islam Reform Movement, Tunisian reformist,, gender equality, Inheritance right of the woman
    Author: Hyo Jung Kim
    Poblication Year: 2003
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Language
    요르단 구어체 아랍어의 변종과 음운적 특성에 대한 연구
    The purpose of this paper is to provide the classification of Jordanian Colloquial Arabic variations and its phonological features by way of surveying the linguistic situation in Jordan. Since Ferguson(1959) first proposed the English term "diglossia" modeling it on the French diglossie, there have been several attempts to describe the diglossic situation within the Arab world. But the concept of diglossia which refers to the coexistence of the High variety (MSA) and the Low variety (regional dialects) in a society has recently changed to the triglossic situation in which three Arabic varieties(including the Middle varieties) or more than it exist. In this respect, Jordan society also does not go beyond the triglossic situation. Likewise, Jordan society has the High variety (MSA) , the Middle varieties, and the Low varieties. Chapter 2 is simply a survey of the linguistic situation in Jordan in terms of the triglossic situation, and classifies Jordanian Arabic into three varieties - Madani, Fallahi, and Bedouin according to the regional and phonological distinctions. Chapter 3 provides a linguistic analysis of each of three varieties, focusing on the phonological distinctions such as preservation of the interdentals, voiced realization of the /q/ as /g/ , and preservation of the gender distinction in the second and third person plural of pronouns and verbs. In order to attain the goal the paper is designed to investigate Jordanian Colloquial Arabic spoken by educated groups and most particularly by the university students.
    Keyword: Sociolinguistics: Arabic Dialect
    Author: Jin Young Choi
    Poblication Year: 2003
    Language: Korean
    Country: Jordan
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Language
    안달루스의 아랍어-스페인어 상호관계 연구
    With the dominance of Islam among the Andalusian population, the Arabic language naturally began to spread until it soon became the common language of the different races that were being fused in the Andalusian crucible. Even Spainards who persisted in their adherence to Christianity soon assimilated Arab culture and adopted the language of their conquerors without reluctance. It is quite natural during this amply extensive period to observe considerable cultural and linguistic influence of Arabic on Spanish. What is interesting is the fact that the influence seems to be a two-way traffic of cultural and linguistic exchange though more in the direction of Spanish than in the direction of Arabic. However this did not mean that Spain had forgotten its Latin. In the case the Latin vernacular, this was spoken not only among Christians but also among Andalusian Muslims. This use of two languages in Andalusia is highly important, as we shall later see that it gave birth through Andalusian invention to a new genre of lyric poetry which was a mixture of Arabic and Latin vernacular- namely, the poetry of the muwashshah and the zajal, which were destined to exert a far-reaching influence on the literature of the Arab East as well as on that of Europe in the West.
    Keyword: Andalusia, Arabic, Spanish, linguistic influence, linguistic exchange, lyric poetry, muwashshah, zajal
    Author: Jong Wha Lee
    Poblication Year: 2003
    Language: Korean
    Country: Spain
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Arab History
    카와리지의 급진주의와 반정운동
    Khawarij is the first political sect in the Ummah al-Islamiyah(Islamaic community) which rose in opposition to the Ummayyad dynasty on issues of tradition and theory of Sunni caliphate system throughout Ummayyad period. By the time went, it became a religious sect that stood on speculiar dogmatic such as 'one who commits a big sin (kabirah) becomes nonbeliever(al-kafir)' with the gist of the belief inspiring by a idea of that 'the main idea of their religion is practice'. Their activism of strict belief on the teachings of Islam like 'do good and forbid bad' berates others as nonbelievers and produced extreme radicalism who believed that big sinners and apostates should be killed. As a result of this fanatic radicalism, most of their sects except al-Ibadyyah, who took a moderate road, had disappeared in the 8th century. Though it is true that their creed was extremely dogmatic, stressing on the strict harmony between belief and practice, but their teaching contributed to the theological development of other sects such as Sunni, Shi'a, Murji'a and Mu'tazila since then. In addition to this, their puritanic belief and radical thought influenced the movement and thought for the modern Muslim reformation.Their teachings are still fresh in mind of radical extremists struggling against secular regime with the anti-westernism and anti-secularism of Islamic fundamentalists such as Muslim brotherhood in the every corner of world today.
    Keyword: Khawarij, Radicalism, Islamic sects, Kabirah, l-Ibaddyyah, Fundamentalism, Muslim extremist, Fanatic Radicalism, al-Kafir, Anti-regime movement
    Author: Joo Young Sohn
    Poblication Year: 2004
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Arab History
    팔레스타인과 이스라엘의 분쟁에서 이슬람 원리주의 운동의 역할
    This study is designed to research on the role of Islamic Fundamentalism in the conflict between Palestine and Israel from the establishment of Israel in 1948 to the Agreement of Wye River. In Chapter Ⅰ, the purpose of this study is presented with some explanation of Intifada, the Road Map of Peace Process in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and the possibilities of a peaceful settlement between Palestinians and Israelis. This study is deeply concerned with the establishment of the Palestinian independent state and the nature of Islamic Fundamentalism in Israel. In Chapter Ⅱ, the theory of formation of Islamic Fundamentalism and its application is described. The theories of Marty, Appleby, John L. Esposito, Daniel Pipes, John Obert Voll, John Obert Voll, and Gilles Keppel are presented. Marty and Appleby presented crisis theory. John L. Esposito and Daniel Pipes presented success theory. John Obert Voll and Gilles Keppel presented evolution theory. But it is almost impossible to adopt only one theory to explain Islamic Fundamentalism. So it is important to understand exactly on the various movements of Islamic Fundamentalism and to analyse the Islamic Fundamentalism on the basis of evolution theory. In Chapter Ⅲ, the history of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and its background is presented. The history of the Jews in Europe, the emergence of political Zionism, the Balfour declaration, the Mandate for Palestine, British Administration, the Jew's immigration, the Jewish community in the World War Ⅰ and Ⅱ and the birth of the State of Israel were described. In Chapter Ⅳ, the activities of the Islamic Fundamentalism in Palestine are presented. The history of the Islamic Fundamentalism in Palestine, its process, the Intifada in 1987 and 1991, the internal competition and cooperation of the Islamic groups in Palestine, and their pragmatic attitude to establish the independent state of Palestine were mentioned. In Chapter Ⅴ, the nature of Islamic Fundamentalism in Israel ie presented. It contains the political environments of Israel, historical background of Islamic Fundamentalism in Israel, the formation of the Duruzs, its activities, the Islamic movements in 1970s - 1990s, the attitude on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and their pragmatic line(the acceptance of a two-state solution). In conclusion, it is said that the pragmatic line to solve the Israeli-Palestinian conflict peacefully is witnessed both in the Islamic Fundamentalism in Palestine and in Israel. The Arab-Israeli peace process will influence the development of the Islamic Fundamentalism in Palestine and Israel. The main trend in the Islamic Fundamentalism in Palestine and in Israel will be characterized by pragmatism. And the birth of the independent state of Palestine might result in the weakening of the radical Islamic movements in Palestine and Israel.
    Keyword: Palestine, Israel, Islamic Fundamentalism, Intifada, Duruz
    Author: Byung Ha Hwang
    Poblication Year: 2004
    Language: Korean
    Country: Palestine
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Arab History
    팔레스타인과 이스라엘의 분쟁에서 이슬람 원리주의 운동의 역할
    This study is designed to research on the role of Islamic Fundamentalism in the conflict between Palestine and Israel from the establishment of Israel in 1948 to the Agreement of Wye River. In Chapter Ⅰ, the purpose of this study is presented with some explanation of Intifada, the Road Map of Peace Process in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and the possibilities of a peaceful settlement between Palestinians and Israelis. This study is deeply concerned with the establishment of the Palestinian independent state and the nature of Islamic Fundamentalism in Israel. In Chapter Ⅱ, the theory of formation of Islamic Fundamentalism and its application is described. The theories of Marty, Appleby, John L. Esposito, Daniel Pipes, John Obert Voll, John Obert Voll, and Gilles Keppel are presented. Marty and Appleby presented crisis theory. John L. Esposito and Daniel Pipes presented success theory. John Obert Voll and Gilles Keppel presented evolution theory. But it is almost impossible to adopt only one theory to explain Islamic Fundamentalism. So it is important to understand exactly on the various movements of Islamic Fundamentalism and to analyse the Islamic Fundamentalism on the basis of evolution theory. In Chapter Ⅲ, the history of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and its background is presented. The history of the Jews in Europe, the emergence of political Zionism, the Balfour declaration, the Mandate for Palestine, British Administration, the Jew's immigration, the Jewish community in the World War Ⅰ and Ⅱ and the birth of the State of Israel were described. In Chapter Ⅳ, the activities of the Islamic Fundamentalism in Palestine are presented. The history of the Islamic Fundamentalism in Palestine, its process, the Intifada in 1987 and 1991, the internal competition and cooperation of the Islamic groups in Palestine, and their pragmatic attitude to establish the independent state of Palestine were mentioned. In Chapter Ⅴ, the nature of Islamic Fundamentalism in Israel ie presented. It contains the political environments of Israel, historical background of Islamic Fundamentalism in Israel, the formation of the Duruzs, its activities, the Islamic movements in 1970s - 1990s, the attitude on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and their pragmatic line(the acceptance of a two-state solution). In conclusion, it is said that the pragmatic line to solve the Israeli-Palestinian conflict peacefully is witnessed both in the Islamic Fundamentalism in Palestine and in Israel. The Arab-Israeli peace process will influence the development of the Islamic Fundamentalism in Palestine and Israel. The main trend in the Islamic Fundamentalism in Palestine and in Israel will be characterized by pragmatism. And the birth of the independent state of Palestine might result in the weakening of the radical Islamic movements in Palestine and Israel.
    Keyword: Palestine, Israel, Islamic Fundamentalism, Intifada, Duruz
    Author: Byung Ha Hwang
    Poblication Year: 2004
    Language: Korean
    Country: Israel
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Science of Religion
    종교 다원주의의 도전과 이슬람
    Issues of pluralism, democracy and Human Rights are of crucial importance to those Muslims who are in search for progressive Islam beyond 9/11, particularly to those who live in countries where Islam is a minority religious tradition. Historical Islam began as a minority tradition in a non-Muslim setting. When the Prophet Muhammad received the revelations in 610 CE, the people around him were largely tribal and polytheistic with christian and jewish minority. As with any new religious tradition, Islam would not have developed had it not been tolerant to other religions. Even after it became political and religious majority Islam was a tolerant religion. It was especially towards monotheistic religions such as Judaism and Christianity. Islam theology based on Qur'an identifies those religious tradition as the Providence of God. 'The People of the Book' as Christian and Juwish who dwell in Islamic countries were classified as dhimmis. They were under the social and economical protection of the government and enjoyed religious autonomy. But with the advent of modern society which is accompanied by humanism and secularism, the religious generosity of Islam lagged behind. Especially the Shari'a of ridda, 'apostasy' is contradictory the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Although islam recognizes other monotheistic religions such as Judaism, Christianity, it cannot embrace any new religious movements even they believe in the God. The question is what's the islamic view of religious pluralism. This article attempts to manifest the possibility of religious pluralism in islamic world.
    Keyword: Islam, Pluralism, Human Rights, New Religion, Religious Tolerance
    Author: Young Kyung Kim
    Poblication Year: 2004
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    인도네시아 4․5 총선거와 이슬람계 정당의 대연합 가능성에 대한 소고
    Indonesia is the biggest Islamic state in the world whose total population is 220 milion in 2003. During the last six decades in the modern government in Indonesia, Islamic parties have managed to create coalition governments. However, they have failed to organize their own strong government in long-term basis. During the Soeharto regime of 32 years, Islamic parties were forced to obey the military government. Fall of Soeharto regime immediately open the era of civil government. Therefore through the General Election on 7th June 1999, Abdurrahman Wahid, who was supported by Islamic PAN party, was elected as the first civilian president in Indonesia. But his presidential duration is very short due to the lack of harmony of power politics. Indonesia scheduled to have her 9th General Election on 15th April 2004 that contains very important meaning. There is no doubt that the coalition of non-Islamic parties including Megawati's PDI-P party and Akbar Tanjung's Golkar is more powerful than that of Islamic parties. But the economic dilemma under the Megawati government helped to reduce the nation-wide support for the PDI-P party. In the meantime, the second largest Golkar party has many presidential candidates. That means Golkar now is under the hard competition of leadership. In these circumstances, it is possible for Islamic parties led by Amien Rais to win the second round presidential competition, which is scheduled on 20th September 2004, if he succeeds to invite Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono as his running mate.
    Keyword: Indonesia`s General Election, Islamic Parties, Non Islamic Parties, Coalition Parties
    Author: Sueng Yun Yang
    Poblication Year: 2004
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    정치발전과 이슬람: 이스라엘 아랍 섹터의 사례연구
    Since the third wave of democratization of developing countries in the 1970s, the Western leading scholars in the field of the Middle Eastern studies have argued that the political underdevelopment in the Arab Muslim countries of Middle East originates from the religion of Islam without concrete empirical evidences. The aim of this paper is to explore the inter-relationship between political development and Islam in the Muslim sub-sector in Israel, defining the political development as an institutionalization of politics which pursues to advance the universal values such as freedom, equality and human rights, and the process of strengthening the capability of political system. This study focuses upon the question of whether the Islam as a religion and Arab Islamic movements in Israel have contributed or hindered to its political development by explicating. It examines interactions among the Israeli government's policy toward the Arab Muslim sector; its political system, consisted of mainly political parties of Israeli Arab sector; the domestic and international environment of the Israeli Arab political system. It also attempts to explore the changes in the values and attitudes of the constituents of the Israeli Arab society with the macro approach and micro politico-cultural approach. The Islamic movement of Israeli Arab sub-sector has been developed and increasingly become influential political actors in both of the level of local governments and the level of Israeli national politics with the tacit support of major Israeli national political parties, basing upon the social welfare institutions such as medical, educational and cultural organizations. After the Islamic movements had risen and become important actors, however, they have struggled for the strengthening of the identity of Palestinian Muslim and the political and economical equality of Arab Muslim Palestinians with the Israeli Jewish sector within the Israeli legal bounds. Their struggle and activities of the Islamic movements with the identity of Palestinian Arabs in the Jewish state have collided with the Israeli national regime of mainly Jewish identity. But their conflict resolution process has been institutionalized by Arab political parties in the Israeli Arab sector, the Palestinian national representative organization, human rights movements both of Israeli and Palestinian, Israeli Supreme Court, and the struggle and activities, and the institutionalization of the Islamic movements contributed to the strengthening of the Palestinian Muslim Arab identity, the increase of the capability of the Israeli Arab sub-political system. In this regard the Palestinian Islamic movements in the Israeli Arab sub-sector have played positive role for the political development of the Arab sub-sector political system.
    Keyword: Islam, Political Development, Israeli Palestinian Arabs, Islamic Movement in Israel, Israeli Arab sub-Political System, Israel Political System.
    Author: Young Chol Choe
    Poblication Year: 2004
    Language: Korean
    Country: Israel
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Economics
    이슬람 무이자 은행에 관한 연구
    A global network of financial institutions such as Islamic banks has started to take shape based on the principles of Islamic Economics. Islamic banking, based on the Quranic prohibition of charging interest, has moved from a theoretical concept to embrace hudreds of banks operating in more than 40 countries with 150 billion dollar deposits world-wide. Now Islamic banking is widely regarded as the fastest growing sector in the Middle Eastern financial market. The purpose of this paper is to explore and examine the foundation of prohibition of riba(interest) and its application to contemporary Islamic society : interest-free Islamic Banking. This paper consists of five parts. part 1 for introduction of this paper. Part Ⅱ deals with the general introduction(including objectives and principles) for Islamic economic system, basic purposes and operating principles of interest-free Islamic Banking. Part Ⅲ will be devoted to the detailed operating system of interest-free Islamic Banking. Part Ⅳ explicate the alternatives of prohibition of riba (profit & loss sharing system of Islamic interest-free bank) and some problems and prospects. Part Ⅴ for summary and conclusion. Interest-free banking seems to be of very recent origin. They have all recognized the need for commercial banks and the evil of interest in that enterprise, and have proposed banking system based on the concept of Mudarabaha, Musharaka, profit and loss sharing. The study revealed that adapting of interest-free Islamic banking system can be a good alternative to troublesome modern economic system and further attempts to adapt Islam to contemporary economic realities can be expected, as a Muslim might prefer to fix the contemporary economic problems by the Islamic ways. However, all efforts to deal with interest or other partial issues will not solve the problem of current Muslim societies, because it does not provide them with a system of their own which applies, represents and clarifies the Islamic philosophy. A partial application of Islamic ideas and policies have not been successful in most Muslim countries. To merely substitute interest on loans by other forms of interest or profit fails to offer a real alternative Finally, the study calls for more research to develope the concept and the instrument of Islamic financial system in order to be employed effectively in our economic life.
    Keyword: Islamic Bank, Interest-free bank, ushur-free bank, Profit & Loss Sharing System, Mudaraba, Musharaka, Murabaha
    Author: Deck Kyu Han
    Poblication Year: 2004
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Arabic Literature
    아도니스, 바야티, 사이얍의 시에 나타난 그리스신화
    Today some primary modern poets of free verse borrowed to use the several symbolic elements from the Greek myths and also from the Christian myths and the ancient Near-East myths. For the muslims who believe the only God Alla the use of the polytheistic Greek myths was properly denied for a long time. So the literary concern about the Greek myths was started from the nineteenth century under the influence of the French and the English literature. The Mahjar poets in America, actually most of them are christians, had used the Christian myths as a spring for their literature, but the use of the Greek myths was to be in fashion in Egypt. It was Abu Shadi that borrowed the style of the Greek myths in the Arab romantic poetry. He accepted the Greek myths from the poems of the English romantic poets, Shally and Keats and from the ones of the poets in Elizabethan era, Shakespeare, Spenser and Marlowe. In the thesis I will study how to express the Greek myths in the most famous Arab poets'(Adonis, Abd al-Wahab al-Bayyati and Badr Shakir al-Sayyab) poems. I will classify the contents in Sisyphus, Kerberos and Medusa. As a result of study I got the several things as follows. The above-mentioned poets used the symbols from the Greek myths in the negative. The image of Sisyphus condemned to ceaselessly rolling a rock to the top of a mountain, for Sayyab, were the painful Arabs and for Bayyati was the arab democrat expelled from his fatherland and wondered without any hopes. Meanwhile Sayyab used the Kerberos as the symbol of Iraqian communist to massacre his people, and used the Medusa as the light of the street lamp. In the poems of others except Sayyab and Bayyati I could not find the examples of the Greek myths. I think this is the proof of that the use of the polytheistic Greek myths in Arab world up to the present was denied as usual.
    Keyword: Adonis, Bayyati, Sayyab, the Greek myths, Sisypus, Kerberos, Medusa
    Author: Byung Pil Lim
    Poblication Year: 2004
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Folklore
    Study on the prophets in the Quran
    This paper deals with Adam and Hawwa in the Quran. They are the first man and the first woman created by Allah and lived in paradise. However, Iblis tempted them by saying that they could live for ever if they ate from that tree and would become like angels. They forget Allah's command and ate unintentionally from the tree, against Allah's command. But they soon came to regret their disobedience. They asked Allah for His forgiving. Allah forgave them and told them to go down to earth as vicegerency and live there for some time. At the same time Allah promised that they would be allowed to return to paradise as long as they and their children were obedient to Him in future. On the other hand Iblis was expelled from the paradise to earth because he disobeyed Allah's command to prostrate to Adam but he did not it on purpose. So, Adam and Hawwa came down to earth as vicegerency. On earth, they raised their children including Cain and Abel.
    Keyword: Allah, Adam, Hawwa, Iblis, Forgetting
    Author: Young Kil Choi
    Poblication Year: 2004
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Science of Religion
    Islam of Oman & its prospect
    It is not known when Oman was first settled but archaeological finds dating back to the 4th millennium BC. In 630 AD at the dawn of Islam the Prophet Muhammad sent a letter with 'Amr ibn al-'As to Jaifar and 'Abd, the two sons of al-Julanda ibn Mustansir who jointly ruled Oman from Sohar. The two brothers sent emissaries to meet the Prophet with their message that they embraced Islam and swore allegiance on behalf of their people. The Azd of Oman, after their early conversion, played a key part in the formative days of Islam when Basra in southern Iraq became an influential city and was the main base camp for Muslim conquests. It was here that the Ibadi doctrine which predominates in Oman was evolved. The Ibadis derive their name from Abdulla ibn Ibadi who appeared on the scene in about 683, growing up in the Caliph Mu'awiya's reign and dying in Abdul Malik ibn Marwan's(685-705). The Omanis adopted the doctrines of Ibadi Islam in the late 7th or early 8th century. Ibadi Islam in its earliest and strictest form was opposed to the idea of the Muslim community being ruled by a hereditary leader, which was to have repercussions throughout Oman's history. The Omani Ibadis elected their first Imam in 749, and a hereditary imamate emerged, which represented a break with strict Ibadi doctrine, lasting into the late 9th century. The Abbasids(750-1258) managed to suppress the imammate, but Oman itself managed to remain relatively free of Abbasid control. It also remained loyal to the Ibadi strain of Islam which is still dominant in the country today. In July 1970 Sultan Said ibn Taimur was overthrown by his only son, Qaboos, in a bloodless palace coup. He began to modernize his country. He affirmed his country's tradition of religious broadmindedness and vision in his National Day Speech in 1994. Condemning fanticism based on lack of correct knowledge among Muslim youth about their religion, which could lead to violence, discord and hatred, In an Omani Islamic society no distinction is made between the religious and the secular. But all matters specifically affecting Islam are now dealt with by the Ministry of Justice, Awqaf and Islamic Affairs. Other religions are tolerated and there are a number of Christian churches and Hindu temples in Oman. Oman will be changed in Islam by the government of Oman moderately.
    Keyword: Islam, Oman, Ibadi, Imam, Sultan
    Author: Kyung Keun Song
    Poblication Year: 2004
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Science of Religion
    The Islamic Movement of Yemen and Prospect
    Yemen is a country with deep Muslim traditions, but is often most mentioned for its relatively large Zaydi Shi'i group, even if this represents a minority in the country as a total. Yemen's north is the centre of Zaydism, the second largest group inside Shi'i Islam. Zaydism is known for putting less importance on the position of the Imam, than among the Twelver (Iran), perhaps because the Zaydis have enjoyed far more political and religious freedom than the other. The Zaydis have professed military and violent activities in this century (examples of this is the stubborn fight against the British colonialists in Aden and the occupation of the great mosque in Mecca in 1979). The people of Yemen have practically the experience of passing through a multitude of political ties, ideologies and government systems like no other state on the planet, from Marxism, democracy, Islamism, monarchy and a range of occupations (British, Ottoman to name a few). Their experience with Islamists had been soaked with support at times and total rejection at others, and today, it is at the point of rejection. The Islamists and the Islamic movements are at an end in Yemen. The international community represented by the United States will pinpoint and eradicate all whom they deem to be a terrorist, basically an Islamically oriented individual, and the government will gladly add to that list some of its own opponents that they deem to be a threat even if not an Islamist. It
    Keyword: Yemen, Zaydis, Sufism, Islamic movement, Islah
    Author: Wang Jong Yoo
    Poblication Year: 2004
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Women
    Islamic Family Law, Possibilities of Reform from a Women's Rights Perspective
    Among the four countries above the most consensus is observed in regard of the positive correlation between women's social status and development of the society. However the change of women's status in the family law depends on the social value. In Egypt and Morocco islamic identity is more emphasized, whereas the strong influence of western family law is most obvious in Turkey. In interview the Egyptians tend to resist the western influence with strong defence of their islamic family value. They believe the reformation of family law should be based on the interpretation of their religious code, which can be varied. Most of the Moroccan interviewee regard the bill of reformed family law in 2004 brings the islamic identity and promotion of women's status together. While in Egypt and Morocco the western influence on family law is generally denied, it is more accepted even with their strong identity as Muslim in Tunisia. Especially it appears that Tunisian government supports this moderate adoption of modern family law. In contrast the westernization of the family law is the only way of modernization in Turkey. But the westernized family law in Turkey seems to have conflict in reality, particularly in respect of kinship, rural life, and ignorance of uneducated women. In islamic value the promotion of women's right is limited to protection of motherhood and control of women's sexuality within the community. Muslims consider that the individualism in western family results in irresponsible sexuality, which endangers the value of community. For Muslims the marriage is a holly contract, in which fairness is more important than equality of man and wife.
    Keyword: Family law, Women's status, Islamic identity, Westernization, Fairness of gender
    Author: Hee Sun Cho
    Poblication Year: 2004
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Science of Law
    Research Study on Awareness of the Personal Status Law in Morocco
    The personal status law in Morocco was established and codified as follows: laws pertaining to marriage and the dissolution of that contract, December 22, 1857; laws pertaining to birth and its results, December 18, 1957; laws pertaining to legal qualification (legal capacity) and legal representation, January 25, 1958; gift laws, February 20, 1958; law of succession, April 3, 1958. These laws were legislated in accordance with the traditional Fiqh methodology. However with the advancement of society a portion of the personal status law was revised in 1993 as a result of a wide range of policies. The revision of the personal status law in 1993 stirred much controversy between those who supported the revision and those who were against it. The dispute continues even to this day. As a result, in 1999 the Morocco government began to formulate the family relationship institution and the form of personal status law in the direction of expanding the rights of women. In 2001 the royal advisory committee was formed for the personal status law. The policies for the advancement of women promoted by this committee have been promoted as a measure to protect society and the family. Presently the bill for the new personal status law has been completed and has been presented to the national congress. This study is a follow up of the "Islamic Personal Status Law, Possibilities of Reform from a Women's Rights Perspective - A Study through Changes of the Personal Status Law in Morocco." The study was conducted through interviews in the country. Replies given by the Moroccan intellects were analyzed to study the problems and awareness towards the personal status law in Morocco and to discover the characteristics of Moroccan society. The study was conducted from January 5th to the 25th, 2004 by interviewing nine people in Morocco engaged in various fields. Among those interviewed were intellectuals in various fields including an official from women organizations, a professor majoring in the Shariah, an official from the political party wielding influence in the legislature and advisor to the king on women issues. Those interviewed were selected from those classes related directly and indirectly to the establishment of the personal status law. This selection was conducted in hopes of getting an overall understanding of the characteristics of the Moroccan society through the perspectives toward the personal status law from a wide range of samples. In the interview comprehensive questions on the characteristics of the Islamic personal status law, the priorities for reform of the personal status law, the role of education and the state, the possibility of coexistence of traditional and universal human rights and detailed questions on marriage, divorce, child rearing, inheritance and other major items of the personal status law were presented. The interview was recorded and questions were asked in order of the questionnaire or were changed to avoid disrupting the conversation with the respondent.
    Keyword: Islamic Personal Status Law, Morocco, Moroccan Women, Women's Rights, Sharī'ah, Fiqh
    Author: Won Sam Lee
    Poblication Year: 2004
    Language: Korean
    Country: Morocco
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Science of Law
    A study for Tunisian family law toward its recognition
    Tunisian family law is considered as secularized compared other Islamic countries based on abrogation of polygamy and legalization of divorcing procedure. Tunisian Ulama claimed that their family law is revolution based on Ijtihad of Islam and hope to be discriminated with Turkish's that adopted European civil law and comes secularizing. The two axis of Tunisian family law and policy of women is, political organization including women council in politic party and other women's union. This study has been completed based on the study of documents of Tunisian family law with interview those organizations and from 22th. Jan. 2004 to 2nd. Feb. For collecting various view name interviewee from various side. Firstly name the people from governmental organizations and related people for checking the its idea of basis, and secondly name the management of women's union for analysing women's view. Additionally, name Ulama of Sharia for Islamic view, and professors and lawyer for getting the view based on their free position. The interview asks its general specification and limitation and the possibilities of revision based on the marriage, divorce, custody, alimony and succession which considered core idea of modern Tunisian family law. And survey its formal meaning and idea by asking the question that it comes from copy after western law or should be understood from religion way. Asking their view toward the marriage, is abrogation of polygamy violation of the Islamic law, the divorcing, is the divorcing law guarantee the equalities of the sexes for legally and actually and what's the social understanding for divorced women. For the parental prerogatives and custody we've asked their view whether their custody is burden for divorced women who on the work, and is there any political system for care those women. And for the succession that still keeps Islamic ideology, is there any possibilities of revision in a view of equalities of genders and the issues toward Tunisian women and limitation of family law and its revision. Finally, is there any idea for human right and women right as general idea in Islam.
    Keyword: gender, muslim women, Family law, Sharia, Tunisia, marriage, divorce, custody, alimony
    Author: Hyo Jung Kim
    Poblication Year: 2004
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    Emergence of Regence conflict in Post-Suharto Indonesia
    In Indonesia the very foundation of its post-Suharto national policy of 'Indonesian Unification' is being shaken to its very core: the Aceh and Papua regions have been involved in separate independence movements; and religious and ethnic tensions have been occurring in Moluccas, Kalimantan, and Celebes regions. Why is large-scale bloodshed continuing to occur after the fall of the Suharto regime? All of this appears to be spontaneous uprisings fueled by the strong resentment and dissatisfaction of the minorities op- pressed during the 32 years of iron-fisted rule of Suharto accompanied by the post-Suharto power vacuum, economic recession and a drive towards democratization. The regional conflicts naturally arose during the process of unifying many island-regions in the archipelago inhabited by a diverse eth- nic population into one country. Moreover, it became an intrinsic element of the Suharto regime's national policy implementation. Although inhabited by 60% of the nation's population, Java Island occupies a mere 6.7% of the entire national land area. Therefore, concen- trated economic development for Java Island and the subservience of re- gional governments and public institutions outside Java to the Javanese population have sown the seeds of discontent into the region's political elite. More- over, the expanded immigration policy implemented for the sake of balanced development of the entire archipelago and regional military defense strategy has caused economic and religious conflicts between the natives and im- migrants of different cultural backgrounds. Although the natives were strongly displeased with the immigration policy, they had to keep silent about the regime's implementation of the
    Keyword: regional conflict in post-Suharto, Aceh, Papua,Celebes, Moluccas, separate independence movements
    Author: Dae Sik Je
    Poblication Year: 2004
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Economics
    An Interpretation on Economic Value of the Zakat
    Economic concept of Islam does not particularly concern itself with those causal relations which Neo-Classical treats as objective and scientific laws and tendencies. Whereas the economic system and behavior in Islamic society are entirely based on the Islamic axioms and criteria founded in the Sharia. The object of this paper is to analysis the Zakat tax system, one of ideal and real phenomenon of the Islamic economic tradition. In order to distinguish one economic system from another, it need to focus on and compare the fundamental elements. The Zakat is different from the Kharaz, Jizya and Ushr on the way of management, that is discussed in this paper. The characteristics of the Zakat system could be distinguished by: (i) a rational macro distribution structure; (ii) a co-ordinating mechanism based on the tax system; (iii) the promotion of proper economic behavior through moral incentives as well as collective incentives. In the conclusions, the Zakat system would be identified as an proper experience in the form of religion provides a framework by the aid of people to another according to the Shria, which is divine basic Islamic law. An economic system, whether theoretically articulated and recorded or traditionally practised over the centuries, is a right function of how society organizes itself to address the basic economic problems of what is to be create the economic justice. In the process of the satisfying the economic balance, all the factors in the Zakat interact through organizations and institutions that may developed typical Islamic tax system.
    Keyword: Islamic Economy, Islamic Tax System, Zakat
    Author: Joong Kwan Kim
    Poblication Year: 2004
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Economics
    Economic Globalization and Develpoment in Saudi Arabia
    The purpose of this paper is to examine the process of economic globalization of Saudi Arabia and analyze the performance. This paper consists of four chapters. Continuing from the introduction, in the second chapter, this paper investigates the distortion of Saudi economy since the 1980's that it is inevitable for Saudi economy to accept the economic globalization. In the third chapter, this paper analyzes the process and performance of domestic structural reform and open policy which can be the major measures for the economic globalization. And this paper briefly measures the globalization level of Saudi Arabia with some quantitative indicators. And for the conclusion, this paper evaluates the overall globalization process and its performance and indicate tasks and prospects. Entering the 80's low oil price period, Saudi Arabia revealed problems which indicates typical low growth structure due to stagnation in the oil sector, chronic budget deficit, enlargement of inefficiency of stated-owned enterprises, distortion of labor market, and the protection policy of domestic industry and people. Under this circumstance, in the mid 90's, the Saudi government positively adopted the globalization strategies advised by IMF which is based on neo-liberalism economics. According to these globalization strategies, Saudi government is implementing a strong structural reform and open policy such as reduction of government subsidies, expansion of privatization of state-owned enterprises, labor market reform and stimulation of domestic market opening. This paper evaluates that this globalization strategy has not revealed visible accomplishments, due to the failure of cutting back subsidies, poor progress of privatization process, slow saudization, retaining a variety of the barriers of trade and investment. Finally this paper suggests that it is essential to carry out strongly globalization strategy such as structural reform suitable to market economy and removing the barriers of trade and investment in order to find a way out of continuous stagnation,
    Keyword: Economic Globalization, Structural Reform, Privatisation, Saudization, Open Policy, Government Subsidies
    Author: Geon Jang
    Poblication Year: 2004
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Language
    A Study on the developments of Yemenite spoken Arabic and the phonological features of San‘ā’ dialect
    Recent studies by Ingham(1982) accord to the classification of the dialects in the Arabian peninsula into three groups: North-east Arabian dialects(dialects of the Najd), South-west Arabian dialects(dialects of Yemen, Hadramaut and Aden), West Arabian dialects(dialects of Hiagazi and Tihama). According to this division, Yemenite dialects belong to South-west Arabian dialects. The dialect map of Yemen is complicated because the geographical fragmentation of the area has produced a great deal of dialect variation. Behnstedt(1985) distinguished the following main areas : the Tihama dialects; the k-dialects, the dialects of the central plateau(the dialect of San‘ā’); South-east dialects(mahriyah, shaḥriyah, suqturiy, taʕizz). This paper aims at investigating the developments of Yemenite spoken Arabic and analyzing its phonological features focusing on San‘ā’ dialect. The reason why San‘ā’ dialect has become a subject of this study is that San‘ā’ dialect represents the mixed zone between the eastern and western dialects. In the second chapter, we'll make a diachronic approach to the developments of Yemenite spoken Arabic. Yemenite spoken Arabic is divided into dialects derived from the old Yemenite languages such as Minean, Sabean, Qatbanean, Himyaritic and dialects influenced by dialects of Higaz. This chapter will deal with the historical developments of two kinds of dialects respectively. In the third chapter, we'll make a synchronic analysis of the phonological features of San‘ā’ dialect focusing on the Bedouin features of San‘ā’ dialect such as the voiced realisation of the /q/, the retention of the interdentals, and the gender distinction in the second and third person plural of the verbs and the pronouns as well as the deletion of hamzah, the variations of the /ḍ/ and the diphthong, the contraction of the long vowel, and the deletion of the short vowel.
    Keyword: Yemenite spoken Arabic, the Tihama dialect, the k-dialect, the dialect of San‘ā’, The phonological features of San‘ā’ dialect
    Author: Jin Young Choi
    Poblication Year: 2004
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    아라파트 이후 중동평화와 미국의 대중동정책:
    This study researches and analyzes current changes of Middle East Politics after the Palestinian and the Iraqi general elections of 2005 January. Re-elected Bush Administration oughts to renew peace process based on "a road map" between Arab and Jews in order to keep its Pax-Americana position in the Middle East. Both of all areas, Iraq and palestine are suffering by armed insurgent threats of violence, for example, suicide car-bombings. Palestinian Hamas and Iraqi Sunni muslims are fearing of depriving their political power from their peoples. Therefore, Hamas has joined the PLO in wishing a political role for formulation of a collective Palestinian national leadership that would lead the Palestinian people in the absence of its enduring symbol. A logical justification for the proposed leadership is the prevention of chaos and lawlessness and possibly a destructive power struggle. Palestinian people wants a united national leadership after free election in which all palestinians have participated first time. But there are uncertainty of chaos after Iraqi general elections because of geopolitical conflicts rooted in old history. The post-Iraqi election, Iraqi people has not to think a united leadership because of country devide, the south Shi‘ite, the north Kurd and the middle Sunni societies. The Middle East Peace needs the United States' positive mediator and Israeli concessions.The study proposed the concept of valuable criteria of conflicts as researching mechanism of political struggle. The paper explained that political values of area politics make new changes after introducing the first free election in the Middle East. There are no solution of social chaos in the Middle East. The free election system is not solution of conflicts in the area. This study try to examine the process of passing phenomenon in the Middle East.This study is composed of five chapters; first chapter considers geopolitical background of Middle East politics as introduce. Chapter Ⅱ examines the Palestinian autonomy and the Oslo Accord for its military operations to keep its occupied arab territories, specially, Jerusalem city. This chapter is the first to employ rigorous research to analyze all sides of official negotiations over Israeli- Palestinian territorial disputes, and to compare with Iraqi War of 2004 and American national interests. Chapter Ⅳ focuses on new Mahmoud Abbas leadership in the post Arafat ear. The second term of Bush administration considers a cooperation with EU and Russia to arrange new order of Middle East. The political environment of Middle East is to show strong constraints of Islamic Fundamentalism and anti-American attitude. The final chapter reviews general values of political criteria and reassesses the Middle East Policy led by USA and Israel.
    Keyword: Middle East Peace, Palestinian uprising, the Oslo Accord, Palestinian autonomy, Israeli security, settlement policy, Iraqi war, American interest, Mahoumd Abbas, leadership, fundamentalism, Islam, election
    Author: Hong, Soon-Nam
    Poblication Year: 2005
    Language: Korean
    Country: Palestine
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Islam Philosophy
    이슬람 부흥주의와 이슬람의 이데올로기화
    어느 무슬림 공동체든지 그 사회 내부에 이슬람 부흥주의 운동을 추진하는 개인이나 조직이 존재한다는 것은 의심할 여지가 없다. 일부 권력을 쥔 실용주의 무슬림들은 권세유지와 이권을 지키기 위한 방편으로 이슬람을 이용하였고, 반대편에 선 무슬림들은 집권층이 이슬람을 겉모양만으로 상징화하면서 불의와 부정의 통치를 하는 데 저항하며 반정투쟁을 벌렸다. 그리고 서구로부터 수입된 세속적 이데올로기에 기초한 실용주의자들의 근대화 프로그램들의 실패는 그 대안으로 이슬람 이데올로기화운동이 등장하게 하는 주요인으로 작용하였다. 그러나 우리가 주목해야 할 것은 현대 이슬람 부흥주의와 이슬람의 이데올로기화가 과거 어느 때보다 광역화․다양화하였을 뿐 아니라 활기와 생명력이 넘치며 무슬림세계 어느 곳에서든지 지속적으로 발전해 가고 있다는 점이다. 그 결과 이슬람의 이데올로기화 운동은 어느 특정의 무슬림 조직, 단체에서의 활동목표나 운동이 아니라 대중화․보편화한 대중적 통용어로 인식되고 있다. 사실상 독실한 무슬림이면 누구나 꾸란과 이슬람원리를 쫓으려 하고 ‘순수한 이슬람’으로의 회귀를 원하기 때문에 무슬림은 모두가 원리주의자들이고 이슬람주의자들이라 해도 과언이 아닐 것이다. 이슬람원리주의운동, 이슬람의 이데올로기화에 서구인들이 적대해야 할 이유는 없을 것이다. 원리주의운동은 기독교전통에서도 찾아볼 수 있는 종교적 현상일 뿐이다. 서구인들이 이러한 종교운동의 확산에 민감한 반응을 보이는 것은 지나친 자기방어의식이라는 것이 현대 무슬림세계 이슬람 학자들의 일반적 견해이다.
    Keyword: 이슬람 이데올로기
    Author: Sohn Joo-Young
    Poblication Year: 2001
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Islam Philosophy
    이스마일파(Ismā‘īlīs)의 생성 및 발전과정 연구
    역사적으로 이스마일리즘은 나중에 열두이맘 시아파가 된 조직의 지류로 시작한 것 같다. 그러나 오히려 열두이맘 시아파를 이스마일리즘의 지류로 보거나 정치적 성향이 가미된 것으로 볼 수도 있다. 정치적 시아신앙은 누군가 정치 정의를 옹호하는 것을 추구했다. 이 누군가는 알리의 후손 중에서 중근동의 이원론에서 넘쳐나온 교리를 가지고 있어야 하는데 이것의 가장 순수한 형태가 바로 이스마일리즘이다. 시아파는 몇몇 알리의 직계 후손들을 인간과 하나님 사이의 중재자라고 믿고 있다. 이맘에 대한 열두이맘 시아파의 개념과 이스마일파의 개념에는 신학 관점에 있어 상당한 차이점이 있지만 순니파들은 그것을 결코 받아들이지 않았다. 그들에게 이맘이라는 단어는 오직 예배 주관자만을 뜻한다. 영지주의 이원론(Gnosticism-Dualism)의 형이상학은 우주를 절대 실재의 “그림자”로 해석했기 때문에 이스마일파는 학문 연구를 왕성하게 추구하였다. 이스마일파는 모든 종교의 내적이고 비밀스러운 진리의 후계자가 자신들이라고 생각했기 때문에 대부분의 순니 추종자들 보다 다른 신앙에도 많은 호기심을 보여왔으며 더욱 깊이 있게 다른 신앙들을 살펴보았다. 순니파는 대개 다른 종교들을 멀리서 바라보고 그 종교들을 거의 전적으로 이슬람의 평가 기준으로 해석하는데 만족하였다. 더구나 이스마일파는 그리스도교 신앙에 관해 잘 알고 있었다. 그리스도교에는 보이지 않는 영적 진리와 화신의 교리가 있어 이스마일리즘과 아주 비슷한 점과 차이점을 분명하게 제시해 주었다. 이러한 사실들은 이스마일파와 그 밖의 영지주의 이원론의 관점이 다른 종교들을 잘 꿰뚫어 보고 있었음을 설명해 준다. 이스마일파의 특정 체계적 서술은 순니 이슬람에는 아주 유용했고 많은 사상가들이 인용했다. 그들 가운데 몇몇은 누르 무함마디(Nūr Muḥammadī, “무함마디의 빛”)와 사흘 알 투스타리(Sahl al-Tustarī’)의 우무드 알 누르(‘umūd al-nūr, “빛의 기둥”)와 같은 사상들이 실제로 어디서 나왔는지에 관계없이 그 창의적 사상 자체에 경탄을 보내었다. 바스라에서 340/951년 무렵에 세웠던 조직체인 순수 형제단(Ikhwān al-Safā’)의 글에서 밝혔듯이, 이스마일파는 모든 사상들에 문을 열어 놓았기 때문에 이슬람 안에 있는 헬레니즘 사상에 동화되고 순응하는 것을 촉진시켰다.
    Keyword: 이스마일파 시아파
    Author: Kim Jong-Wee
    Poblication Year: 2001
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Business Management
    동남아에서의 이슬람은행
    동남아에서의 이슬람금융의 정착과 확산현상을 우리는 우리의 전통 문화와 금융에 대한 외부효과로 인식하여야 할 것이다. 우리도 우리의 전통금융에 대한 새로운 논리와 기법을 개발하여 전통토착 금융의 얼과 뿌리를 계승보전하고, Citibank와 Chase 은행이 이슬람 금융을 도입 운영하여 금융세계화를 추진하는 것처럼 우리도 이슬람권과의 공존과 경제공영을 위해, 나아가 한국금융의 세계화를 위해 이슬람금융에 대한 이해를 가속하고 이슬람 금융의 도입을 서둘러야 할 것이다.
    Keyword:
    Author: Shim Ui-Sup
    Poblication Year: 2001
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Women
    중앙아시아의 이슬람과 여성
    중앙아시아 여성들의 지위는 어떤 수준에 있는가라는 질문은 매우 광범위해 용이하게 답할 수 없다. 이곳 여성들의 사회적 지위는 이 지역에서 지금까지 형성되어 온 융합된 문화 속에서 규정될 수 있다. 중앙아시아 여성조차 자신의 가치관에 따라 그 지위와 정체성을 다양하게 평가하고 있다. 보수적인 무슬림 여성들은 현상에 익숙해져 여성의 사회진출과 활동에 의미를 별로 부여하지 않을 뿐 아니라 여성의 활동이 가사에 국한되는 것이 바람직하다고 주장하는 반면 진취적인 여성들은 이슬람과 유목민의 전통이 여성의 활동을 과도하게 제한한다고 비판한다. 심지어, 중앙아시아의 진보적 여성들은, 서구의 페미니스트들도 국가별 특성, 상이한 전통과 문화적 상대성 등을 고려하여 이슬람권 여성의 지위 개선을 권장하는 데 소극적 입장을 취해 왔다고 평가한다. 이 지역 여성의 지위는 각 국가별 인종 구성비, 지역적 특성과 전통적 관습 등에 따라 변할 수밖에 없어서 국가별로 상이하게 나타난다. 보수적 이슬람 성향이 나타나는 우즈베키스탄 농촌 지역에서는 카자흐스탄에 비해 여성의 생활과 교육 환경이 열악하다. 참고로, 여성의 교육수준과 사회진출에 관한 통계자료를 찾는 과정에서도 우즈벡 여성에 대한 자료에 접근하는 과정이 어려워 카자흐스탄의 자료만큼 객관성이 있는 자료를 확보할 수 없었다. 엄격한 가부장제에서 비롯되는 여성성에 대한 차별, 여성에게 균등한 교육기회의 차단, 여성이 소유한 잠재력의 발견과 활용의 제한이라는 측면에서 중앙아시아 무슬림 여성의 지위신장이 서구와 일부 아시아 국가들의 그것과 비교해 볼 때 일정 범위에 머물고 있음을 인정해야 할 것이다.
    Keyword: 중앙아시아 여성 사회적 지위
    Author: Kim Dae-Sung
    Poblication Year: 2011
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Arab History
    현대 이집트의 건국자, 무함마드 알리에 대한 연구
    많은 사가들은 무함마드 알리는 실패할 운명이었던 산업화에 너무 많은 재화와 생명을 퍼부었다고 한다. 그러나 그는 그가 계획하지도 않았고, 결코 그가 한 일에 대해 알지 못함에도 불구하고 진정코 이집트를 이집트화 하였다. 그는 이집트와 그 주민을 자신의 권력을 강화하고 유지하는 도구로 생각했다. 그러나 그는 현대 이집트의 아버지가 되었다. 하지만 그는 첫 이집트 민족주의자는 아니었다.
    Keyword: 현대 이집트 건국자 무함마드 알리
    Author: Song Kyung-Keun
    Poblication Year: 2001
    Language: Korean
    Country: Egypt
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Islam Philosophy
    레바논 히즈불라
    이란과 시리아에게 히즈불라의 가장 큰 자산가치는 무력투쟁능력이다. 시리아는 히즈불라를 이스라엘 괴롭히기에 적절히 이용할 것이다. 시리아가 레바논통합을 포기하지 않는 한, 시리아는 히즈불라를 레바논 세력균형 게임에 중요한 자산으로 이용할 것이다. 히즈불라 지도자들은 대미관계 개선을 희망해 왔다. 지난 9. 11사태 직후, 히즈불라의 사무총장인 나스룰라( Nasrullah)는 9.11테러를 전 세계의 무고한 사람들을 죽인 사건이라고 비난했다. 미국은 9.11 테러 이후, 美國內 히즈불라의 자산을 동결시키는 한편, 레바논 정부를 압박하여 레바논 정부가 국내 히즈불라의 자산을 동결하도록 종용하고 있다. 이에 대해 레바논 정부는 국제테러와의 전쟁을 택한 유엔 안보리 결의 1373에 동의하지만 히즈불라의 저항과 히즈불라의 사회사업활동이 적법한 것임을 내세워 미국의 요구를 거부하고 있다. 미국의 테러보복공격 대상이기도한 히즈불라의 미래는 미- 이란관계, 시리아- 이스라엘 평화회담개최, 레바논의 정치 안정과 경제개혁여부에 달려있다고 보나 레바논 정치. 경제발전 그리고 위에서 지적한 국제관계개선이 가까운 장래에 이뤄지지 않을 것으로 보인다.
    Keyword: 쉬아파 운동 히즈불라 이스라엘 레바논
    Author: Lee Jong-Taek
    Poblication Year: 2001
    Language: Korean
    Country: Lebanon
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    세계화에 대한 아랍의 적응과 대응에 관한 연구
    아울러 세계화에 대하여 국가의 자율성의 범위 내에서 행하고 있는 아랍의 대응을 살펴보았는데, 먼저 아랍의 세계화에 대한 대응논리는 아랍국가들이 갖고 있는 이슬람을 세계화논리와 타협시키는 것이었다. 이러한 타협에 입각하여 세계화와 타협한 아랍국가들은 적절히 세계화에 적응하는 가운데서도 그 국가들이 처한 대외적 환경의 개선을 꾀하고 위상을 높이면서 현실적인 대응을 하고 있었다. 특히 이집트와 사우디 아라비아에서 보여주는 바와 같이 자발적 경제개혁과 아랍자유무역지역, 지중해 아랍자역무역지대의 설립추진 같은 신지역주의 정책이 현실적으로 대응수단으로 되고 있다. 한편으로 세계자본이 행하는 과정 속에 놓여 있는 사우디 아라비아를 비롯한 아랍걸프 산유국들의 경제는 향후 지속적으로 석유가로 자국경제를 보존하려하기에 석유가를 적정가로 올리려는 시도를 한다. 이러한 가운데 세계체제의 패권국인 미국을 비롯한 선진국들은 생산품의 자유무역과 금융자본. 기술수출 등에서 잉여를 남기고 이익을 보존하면서 자본축적을 달성하려한다. 이러한 구조 속에서 석유가 생산되고 있지 않는 한국을 포함한 개발도상국과 후진국들은 원유가의 인상분을 떠맡으면서 한편으로는 선진국들에게 자국의 잉여를 이전시키게 되는 악순환을 반복할 가능성이 있을 수 있다.
    Keyword: 아랍 세계화 유인 메카니즘 국가 역할
    Author: Kum Sang-Moon
    Poblication Year: 2001
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Arabic Literature
    아랍어가 西歐語에 끼친 영향에 관한 고찰
    지금까지 본 연구에서는 유럽의 언어 가운데 영어, 프랑스어, 스페인어에 존재하는 아랍어 계통의 어휘를 주로 고찰해 보았다. 아랍어에 기원을 둔 외래어의 수는 언어에 따라 혹은 연구자의 입장에 따라 상당히 많은 차이를 보였으나 그 가운에 공통적으로 생각되는 약 100개의 어휘를 집중적으로 고찰해 보았다. 본 연구에서는 주요 유럽어(영어, 프랑스어, 스페인어)의 차용에 대해 전반적으로 고찰하였으나 이후 각 국가의 특수성을 고려하여 각 언어에 존재하는 외래어가 보다 세부적으로 연구되어야 할 것으로 생각한다. 유럽어에 차용된 아랍어는 원 뜻 그대로 차용된 것들이 대부분이나 상당수의 어휘들에는 의미변화가 발생되었다. 스페인어에 차용된 아랍어 계통의 어휘에는 아랍어 정관사 알(al-, 또는 ar-)이나 강을 나타내는 /guad/가 붙은 단어가 있는 것, 도시를 나타내는 /medina/, 성채를 나타내는 /qalat/ 등이 그대로 존재하는 것 등은 스페인어의 아랍어 차용이 직접 이루어졌다는 것을 반증한다. 반면 프랑스어나 영어와 같이 간접적으로 차용이 이루어진 경우에는 아랍어의 음운이 많이 변형된 상태로 나타났다. 여러 개의 언어를 거쳐 차용되면 될수록 원음이 그만큼 더 상실된다는 것을 보여주는 것이라 생각된다.
    Keyword: 서구어의 아랍어 차용 배경 영어 프랑스어 스페인어
    Author: Jung Kyu-Young
    Poblication Year: 2001
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Economics
    아랍세계의 공기업 개혁과 경제발전
    중동경제는 이상 비대해진 공공부문의 실적악화와 방만한 정부지출로 인한 재정적자의 심화, 사회주의 복지제도로 인한 국민들의 근로의식 약화, 그리고 임금과 고용조건을 둘러싼 노사간 갈등 등으로 심각한 경제중병에 처해 있으나 위기 때마다 막대한 석유판매대금의 유입으로 위험한 고비를 넘겨왔다. 그러나 중동 전반에 걸쳐 이러한 만성적인 중병의 근본적인 치료의 필요성은 널리 인식되고 있으나, 개혁에 따른 정치․사회적 충격에 대한 두려움과 개혁저지세력의 집요한 반대 등으로 소기의 성과를 거두지 못하고 있는 실정이다. 이러한 사회적 분위기를 감안해 볼 때, 향후 개혁의 목표는 사회보장제도의 골격을 유지하면서 실업과 재정적자 문제를 동시에 해결하는 것이 되어야 할 것이다. 이를 위해 임금인상 억제와 과잉고용해소가 이루어지는 가운데 사회보장제도의 개혁, 노동시장의 유연성 확대와 각종 규제완화를 통한 시장기능의 강화, 고용촉진, 공기업의 민영화, 국가재정의 건실화를 위한 노력이 있어야 할 것이다. 국민들의 근로의욕을 고취하고, 각종 보조금과 수당을 과감히 감축하고 기업들에게 다양한 고용 인센티브를 제공함으로서 중동지역의 모든 국가들이 가지고 있는 어려움 중의 하나인 재정적자와 실업문제를 해결할 수 있을 것이다. 또한 정부는 경쟁촉진과 시장기능의 강화를 위해 각종 규제를 대폭 완화함으로서 경제 자유화에 앞장서야 할 것이다. 그러나 중동지역의 경제개혁이 성공하기 위해서는 무엇보다도 경제개혁에 대한 강한 국민적 공감대와 지지, 정부의 과감한 결단력, 정책의 일관성, 노사간의 신뢰회복 등 정치․사회적 밑받침이 무엇보다도 절실히 필요할 것이다.
    Keyword:
    Author: Han Duck-Kyu
    Poblication Year: 2001
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    중동내 반미(反美)정서의 배경과 성향
    Since the U.S has taken the hegemonic role in the international politics, anti-Americanism has been showing up throughout the world in different types. Anti-Americanism is not only coming out from countries which is formally hostile or neutral to the U.S, but it also seems to be a general phenomenon in the developing countries and in the developed countries. Anti-Americanism in the Middle East sometimes involves ideology and sometimes resorts to means of violence. Therefore anti-Americanism in the Middle East and the Islamic World regarded as threatening and challenging to the U.S. The Aim of the study is to understand the reason why anti-Americanism in the Middle East is revealing more serious than in other regions and the prospect of future. For these purposes, I would like to review the background factor of anti-Americanism that has rooted in relationship between the Middle East and the U.S. and analyze the phenomenon and types of anti-Americanism. Though anti-Americanism in the Middle East has revealed on extension line with anti-Westernism, it started from the time since the U.S. has begun to exert hegemonic influence on this area. It has directly been fueled by the U.S government's policy to the Palestain-Israel conflict, and also the political, military and economic role in this area which is based on America's interest. These factors reacted as the Palestain Liberation Movement, and the anti-establishment movement or the Islamic revivalism movement in many of the Middle East countries. These movements basically involved the anti-Americanism more or less in the different times. Anti-Americanism in the Middle East is not wholly due to Islam, but it is a single phenomenon which is rising from the Islamic movement. An explanation for violence of anti-Americamism in Middle East can be found from the fact that radical Islam organization or terrorist groups make use of violence in order to achieve their own objects. The direction of anti-Americanism in the Middle East seems to depend on how the pending problems between the Middle East countries and the U.S. will be settled.
    Keyword: 중동 반미 정서 공산권 이슬람
    Author: Moon Eun-Young
    Poblication Year: 2002
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Islam Philosophy
    팔레스타인 이슬람 저항운동단체 하마스
    Hamas, which is the acronym for Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya (the Islamic Resistance Movement) in Arabic, was born of the first intifada in the 1980s as a wing of the Muslim Brotherhood movement in Palestine. This study explores the formation process of Hamas, its ideology, objectives and strategies, and relates them with the Palestinian and Israeli peace process. Hamas has expanded and strengthened its organizations and influences through its increasing control over the religious institutions of the waqf (religious endowments), the mosques, and educational and social organizations. Concerning Palestine, Hamas denies the Israel's right to exist in Palestine because it argues that the land of Palestine is an Islamic trust (waqf) and Jihad is a duty for Muslims to expel the Jewish regime out of the land. It, therefore, recognizes neither the Oslo Peace Process nor the "Self-rule" of the Palestinian Authority. Hamas, with other radical movements such as Islamic Jihad, has initiated the military and armed actions and terror attacks against Israel. While Hamas has made great gains, becoming a major political force in Palestinian society, it has problems and challenges. It has benefited from being opposition and the failure of the PLO in the peaceful settlement with Israel. One of the most difficult but crucial problems is how to justify its denial of co-existence with Israel and bloody terror attacks against innocent civilians, and convince the Palestinian people and the world.
    Keyword: 하마스 이념 이슬람 운동 무슬림 형제단 투쟁단체
    Author: Choe Young-Chol
    Poblication Year: 2002
    Language: Korean
    Country: Palestine
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Islam Philosophy
    인도 무갈 시대 이슬람 성자(聖者) 세밀화(細密畵)의 기원과 발달
    Ⅰ. Introduction Ⅱ. The Origin of Islamic Saints Miniatures 1. Sufism and the Worship of Muslim Saints 2. The Influence of Persian Miniatures Ⅲ. The Development of the Islamic Saints Miniatures 1. The Patron of the Mughal Court for Sufism and Art 2. The Prevalence of Sufi Literature 3. The Influence of European Paintings Ⅳ. Conclusion This thesis aims to pioneer the study of Islamic art for the first time in Korea and thus introduce it to the Korean academic world. Although Islamic art is exquisite and splendid, it has been absolutely disregarded in Korea. Generally speaking, figural representation such as the depiction of human and animal forms has been prohibited by Islam. However, this research intends to support how much the Islamic painting of the Mughal Empire(1527-1825) flourished and bloomed, especially during the 100 years from Akbar, the Great Emperor to Shah Jahan, and specifically deals with the miniatures of Islamic saints. This thesis suggests the origin and development of the Islamic saints miniatures of the Mughal court within the contexts of religion, art, history, and society. It was originated under the circumstances of Sufism and Persian paintings. Moreover, it developed under the royal patronage and protection of art followed by the influence of Sufi literature and European paintings. In conclusion, Islamic saints miniatures in the Mughal court are a wonderful example, proving the magnificence and great development of Islamic paintings. Although Islam currently still proscribes figural representation such as in the extreme case of iconoclasticism of Bamiyan Buddhist cave in Afganistan by Taleban, Islamic paintings do exist in beautiful features. In addition, it is hoped that this thesis is to establish a further foundation for Islamic art studies in Korea.
    Keyword: 인도 무갈 시대 이슬람 성자화 수피즘 페르시아 유럽 회화
    Author: Oh Jung-Eun
    Poblication Year: 2002
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Arabic Literature
    꾸란 어휘의 알 이드감(al-ʔIdghām)현상 연구
    The ancient Arabic scholars laid a significance on the exact recitation of the Holy Quran and it leaded to the formation of a distinct science "al-Tajwīd". The theory of the Tajwīd was completed in the early times by some scholars who had focused on the exact recitation of the Quran. Even now, modern Arabic phonetic scholars follow up their theories on the Tajwīd without addition and deletion. The Tajwīd was classified into four parts, al-ʔiẓhār, al-ʔidghām, al-ʔiqlāb, and al-ʔikhfāʔ by ancient Arabic scholars. This paper aims to study al-ʔidghām among the four parts, which is one of the most important subject in reciting the Holy Quran. This paper includes introduction, meaning of al-ʔidghām and reason, sorts of al-ʔidghām , condition of al-ʔidghām and objection, opinion of modern Arabic phonetic scholars on al-ʔidghām, difference between al-ʔidghām and assimilation, and conclusion.
    Keyword: 알 이드감 현대음성학의 동화현상실현조건 제약 꾸란 어휘
    Author: Park Jae-Yang
    Poblication Year: 2002
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Arabic Literature
    현대표준아랍어와 팔레스타인 구어체 아랍어의 비교 연구
    Ferguson(1959) prescribed the character of Arabic community as 'Diglossia', coseistence situation of two varieties in a community (written language and spoken language). Also in Palestinian community, modern standard Arabic and Palestinian dialect are both axis that have carried the each functional role. The Palestinian speakers use the two varieties according to the various factors, for example age, educational background, hometown and speech condition and so forth. For understanding the linguistic situation in Palestinian, we have to understand not only the linguistic character of two varieties, but also their socio linguistic feature. I will try to analysis the linguistic character of Modern Standard Arabic and Palestinian colloquial Arabic in order to compare the two varieties in this study. Why I choose the palestinian dialect in this study is that it have considered the one of the prevalent dialects in Levant area. According to Kees Versteegh(1997), the Palestinian dialect is classified into Syria-Lebanon dialect with Jordanian dialect. And I carried the field research in this area in 2000 and collected the research material.
    Keyword: 음운론 형태론 통사론 팔레스타인 아랍어
    Author: Yoon Yong-su
    Poblication Year: 2002
    Language: Korean
    Country: Palestine
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Islam Philosophy
    중세 이슬람 정치사상과 칼리파제
    The real situation of the medieval Abbasid caliphate was quite different from the ideal of the caliphate which was characterized by the principle of equality of religion and state. In their heyday, the early Abbasid caliphs neglected their religion while pursuing secular political power. But especially after losing their political power at Baghdad, they had sustained titular caliphate with religious authority only. However muslim petty monarchs in local areas showed their oathes of allegiance(bai'a) to their caliph for their legitimacy on kingship based on the traditional islamic recognition that the caliphate should be established by Shari'a. Muslim jurists such as al-Mawardi and al Ghazali had tried to verify the inappropriate relationship between the lines of theory and practice and they established the juristic theory make this relationship continue. The political thought of the medieval muslim jurists had gradually inclined to realism though they had kept their stances on caliphate theory in the issue of state and religion. It is inevitable that they had to compromise with the political reality which had been revealed already, despite their eagerness to keep the practice of caliphate. As a result, the Islamic caliphate could survive while sustaining the dignity and supremacy of Shari'a. However the fall of the Abbasid caliphate was a turning point in the stream of Islamic political thought on the issue of secular political power and religion. The political thought that stressed realism began to have an influence while keeping the political power of state as it was. This political thought was called "siyasa as-shari'a (the politic on Shari'a)" by Ibn Taymiyya which was considered legitimate. He said that the state was still Islamic as long as it was governed by Shari'a. And whoever governs state according to Shari'a and walks through pious religious path could be called Caliph. Ibn Taymiyya considered the Caliph a legitimate ruler as long as the political system was based on realism without affecting the fundamental structure of Islamic principles. An advocate more progressive than Ibn Taymiyya for such a political theory was Ibn Khaldun. He said that the monarch was permissible and agreeable system if it wholly depended on Shari'a. This is the same as the Shari'a politic by Ibn Taymiyya and a copy of his theory. He divided politics into religious politics(siyasa diniya) and rational politics(siyasa 'aqliya), the former belonging to Islamic politic and a government based on the Gods law, Shari'a, and the later a political system ruled by secular qanun legitimized by human reason. Religious politic emphases the merit of the caliphate system both in this world and beyond while rational politic stresses the merit of the monarchy in this current world only. To him, Islam, as a religion, is the best regulation and foundation for the political system of state. A uniformed assertion from these Islamic jurists concluded with politics based on the Shari'a. This is not only the backbone of the political thought of medieval Islam, but also became common sense pervading Muslim world today. Indeed it is not flattering that these muslim jurists had created the form of rational political theory which modern Islamic states should be adapted, applied and followed.
    Keyword: 칼리파제 압바스조 초기 샤리아 정치론
    Author: Sohn Joo-Young
    Poblication Year: 2002
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Islam Philosophy
    예언자 무함마드의 다처관에 관한 연구
    At his age of twenty-five, Prophet Muhammad married widow Khadijah who was fifteen years older than he. There are no historical materials which show that Muhammad had concubines or a second wife during the twenty-five years with his first wife. However, it is believed that he had eleven or twelve wives after losing his first wife, died at the age of sixty-five. Some of orientalists and missionaries of other religions in the west described the prophet as a sexual pervert who adopted polygamy system for his sexual appetite. Muslims, on the other hand, insist that his polygamy at that time was the indispensable example for educational, political, legislative and social purposes under the special circumstances. Due mainly to religious prejudice, the dominant Western perspectives on the polygamy of Muhammad have been biased. In fact, the polygamy of Muhammad was based on realistic consideration and multi-dimensional purposes, not on his sexual perversion. According to the program, The Expedition of The Earth, broadcasted by KBS 2, on December 22, 2002, the king of Swazilan, 34 years old, has nine wives. To get a new wife every year, he selects one girl among 25,000 girls, age of 13 to 18 who gather to the royal place from the whole country. It is said that the polygamy of this kingdom has contributed to the peace of this country and among the tribes for two century. In this sense, the polygamy of prophet Muhammad before the 14th century might be more reasonable than that of Swaziland in terms of it's purpose and propriety
    Keyword: 예언자 무함마드 아이샤 메디나 알라 하나님
    Author: Choi Young-Kil
    Poblication Year: 2003
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Islam Philosophy
    이슬람법의 현실적 적용에 관한 연구
    In this paper, I will present apply of Sharī'ah on the basis of 9.11 tragedy. In order to understand Islamic view on 9.11 tragedy. We must understand principle of Islam at first. and then We must understand apply of Islamic law. because Islamic law(Sharī'ah) is rightly considered to be the most important method of research ever devised by Islamic Thought. Indeed, as the solid foundation upon which all the Islamic disciplines are based, Islamic law not only benefited Islamic civilization but contributed to the intellectual enrichment of world civilization as a whole. It will not be out of place to note here that the methods of analogical reasoning developed within the framework of Islamic jurisprudence constituted the methodological starting-point for the establishment and construction of empiricism, which in turn is considered to be the basis of contemporary civilization. In the first and second section of this paper, I will introduce meaning of apply of Shar?'ah. In the third section, I will present methodology of apply. In the fourth section I will present and appraise methodology of apply on the basis of 9.11 tragedy.
    Keyword: 이슬람법 9.11 미국 테러 현실적 적용방법 이즈티하드 합의 지하드
    Author: Lee Won-Sam
    Poblication Year: 2003
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Arabic Literature
    아가한 건축상과 남아시아 현대 이슬람 건축의 이해
    The Aga Khan Award for Architecture is one of the endeavors led by the Aga Khan IV, the hereditary Imam of Nizari Ismailis who form the second-largest branch of Shia Islam. Initiated in 1977 and awarded every three years, the last Award was presented in 2013, with its prestige rivalling the annual Pritzker Architecture Prize. However, while the Aga Khan Award for Architecture rewards projects which demonstrate architectural excellence and respond to their social, economic, technical, physical, and environmental challenges, it also emphasizes a heightened awareness of the roots and essence of Muslim culture, as well as the potential to stimulate related developments elsewhere in the Muslim world. This article examines the awardees of South Asia, focusing on three examples: the Mughal Sheraton Hotel, Agra; Sher-e Bangla Nagar or the National Assembly Building, Dhaka; and the Grameen Bank Housing Program of Bangladesh. Through these examples, I argue that the Award has been responsive to the history and plights of South Asian Muslims; however, I argue its emphasis on Mughal heritage has discouraged further development and understanding of contemporary Islamic architecture and its vocabulary in South Asia.
    Keyword: 이슬람 건축
    Author: 구하원
    Poblication Year: 2015
    Language: Korean
    Country: Israel
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    중앙아시아 자디드 운동과 러시아 혁명
    The primary focus in this article is the intellectual and political trajectory of Central Asian intellectuals, the ``Jadids," from 1917 to 1920. Through a close reading of several key texts by Jadids, we seek to outline the Jadids`` shift from reform to revolution in this period. The revolution marked a turning point in the history of Central Asian Jadidism. Three years following 1917 were the period of intense upheaval during which the entire social and political order in the former Russian empire was reconstructed in a multifaceted struggle of various social groups. For the Jadids these period was transformative of both their world view and their strategies. They succeeded in becoming active agents in the contests over the reestablishment of state order in Central Asia, in which the future of Central Asia was defined. When the exclusionary policies of the Tashkent Soviet changed under pressure from the central government, a remarkable concatenation of circumstances allowed the Jadids to first enter, and then briefly take over the new institutions of power being created by the Soviet regime in Turkestan. Although the attempt was unsuccessful, the state had come to play a significant role in Jadid strategies. Although the Jadids continued to blame ignorance for the ills of their society, and struggles in the realm of culture and education remained at the forefront of their agenda, they had realized that new methods were required in the new era. Years of exhortation had produced scanty results. As Soviet attitudes changed, the Jadids came to see the state not as an enemy but as an instrument of change. The new regime was quite different from the old, and presented its own opportunities and constraints. Jadid strategies accordingly shifted in the years after 1917. The revolution provided the chance for a politicized and radicalized cultural elite to win control of the destiny of the nation. Since autumn 1917, earlier Jadid exhortations to seek admonition from the "civilized" nations of Europe gave a way to a bitter anti-imperialism. This anti-imperialism had its own revolutionary logic, one in which class was replaced by nation and which shared fully in the iconoclastic mood of the moment. The Jadids found much to admire in the Bolsheviks and their methods.
    Keyword: 자디드 운동, 러시아 혁명
    Author: 손영훈
    Poblication Year: 2015
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    아랍의 봄'과 사우디아라비아의 정치개혁
    This paper reviews the political reform processes in Saudi Arabia since 1990s mainly focusing on the period under the King Abdullah``s rule. And then it analyzes the responses and political reform efforts of the Saudi government after the ‘Arab Spring.’ It also discusses the petition movements for the political reform in Saudi Arabia which have intensified after the Arab Spring and explores the consequences for the Saudi political reforms. The author argues that Islamists and liberal elites demanded political reforms such as political liberalization, expansion of participation and political openness after the 9/11 in 2001 and the Saudi government had responded to the pressure positively taking an incremental political liberalization strategy with the carrot and stick policy. One of the symbolic liberalization measures was the municipal election, held in 2005. This study found that Saudi ruling family``s response to the ``Arab Spring`` was a preemptive counter-revolutionary strategy which combined a harsh repression of political challengers and co-optation with a package of social welfare subsidies and financial inducements. The first positive response of the Saudi ruling family to the political reform pressure after the ``Arab Spring`` was the municipal elections, held on 22 September 2011. And in September 2011, King Abdullah granted women the right to vote in the 2015 municipal election. As another positive measure to the political reform pressure, the King Abdullah appointed 30 women to the previously all-male 150 members Majlis al-Shura (Consultative Council) in January 2013. In the concluding chapter, the author argues that the factors which have contributed to the relative political stability in Saudi Arabia, compared to Tunisia and Egypt, are 1) vast government financial reserves of the Saudi government, 2) the effectiveness of the state``s coercive apparatus, 3) well-developed patron-client networks, 4) division of the reform camp between liberals and Islamists, 5) conservative and religious education system, and 6) traditional and conservative ethical norms of the Saudi society. He also argues that the positive factors for the political liberalization are as follows: 1) the currents of political liberalization process in Saudi Arabia since 1990s even though it is incremental, 2) the strengthening trend of the functions of Majlis al-Shura (Consultative Council), 3) the growth of Saudi civil society such as human rights NGOs, 4) the growth of the horizontal communications means of the social networking space, and 5) influx of human and material resources and information from the international community.
    Keyword: 아랍의 봄
    Author: 최영철
    Poblication Year: 2015
    Language: Korean
    Country: Israel
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Economics
    Panzar and Rosse H-통계 모형으로 살펴본 GCC 은행산업 경쟁 현황 분석
    This paper examines the level of market competition in the emerging GCC banking industry that is leading the world economy. In addition, it explores the growth and competitiveness of the islamic and commercial banks in the GCC. In doing so, this paper, in practice, employs the PR H-statistics model as well as 11 peer group analysis in identifying the level of market concentration in the GCC banking industry. The main finding of this research is that both the islamic banking industry and the commercial banking industry are competitive. This result corresponds to the Gini index of net income, total asset, operating income to turnover, and market capitalization, which are measured by the Lorenz curve tool. As such, the author strongly recommends Korean domestic banks to take the simultaneous strategy in employing ‘exploitation’ and ‘exploration’ approaches. The former concerns the resource commitment aiming at the increase in banks’ profitability in foreign markets. The latter emphasizes the significance of seeking the potential growth engine for the future beyond the current survival in markets.
    Keyword: 은행사업
    Author: 양오석
    Poblication Year: 2015
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Language
    현대 아제르바이잔어에서의 시간관련 표현 연구
    This paper suggests that aspect is more basic category in Azerbaijani than tense. In summary, Azerbaijani appears to have five distinct markers for aspect: the perfect of direct experience {-di}1, the perfect of indirect experience {-mis}1, the progressive {-(y)ir}, the prospective {-(y)AcAQ}, and the habitual/iterative {-(A)r}. These considerations lead to the view that the present tense receives zero marking in Azerbaijani. This proposal is certainly one which needs further investigation, particularly in view of the formal asymmetry between the past and the non-past is aspect marking, with there being no aspectually unmarked present tense in Azerbaijani. In conclusion, I hope that this paper, in raising some questions as well as answering some, has revealed the necessity for more systematic analyses of the thense-aspect-mood system in Azerbaijani within a perspective not determined by the categories of the Indo-European languages, in order to explain the intricacies of a most interesting system.
    Keyword: 아제르바이잔어
    Author: 연규석
    Poblication Year: 2015
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Science of Religion
    코란 한역 비교 연구 2
    This is a part of the study of Koran translated to Korean. This study concentrates on some problems in the versions translated from Arabic to Korean. The problems happened from the differences between Arabic and Korean, especially in the structure or the range of the meaning of the word. To study these, this article is composed as following. 1. Introduction 2. Comparison between the 4 translated Koran in Korean 3. Translation in Korean 4. Conclusion
    Keyword: 코란
    Author: 이영태
    Poblication Year: 2015
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Language
    타우피크 알하킴의 제3 언어에 관한 연구
    The Egyptian playwright Tawfiq al-Hakim was known as an advocate and founder of the Third Language in modern Arabic play. This type of language was, for al-Hakim, a compromising solution for the standard Arabic Fusha, and the colloquial Ammiyah. In al-Safqa, published in 1956, al-Hakim clarified that the Arab theater faced a major challenge because of the disparity between Fusha and Ammiyah. He thought that Fusha, the written Arabic, was too formal that it could not convey the vividness of everyday life of ordinary people. Ammiyah was more lifelike than Fusha and was able to comprehend the character``s personal traits, social status and education, but it fell under geographic and temporal limits. Al-Hakim proclaimed that what he called the Third Language would fill the gap, since it would be understood as Fusha when reading, and as Ammiyah when pronouncing. Al-Hakim moved forward further through his play al-Warta which was printed in 1966. The paper described the issues of diglossia in Arab society and the use of colloquial languages in modern Arabic literature, particularly in the dialogue of the novel and play. The paper excerpted sentences from above-mentioned plays of al-Hakim to compare the features of the Third Language with that of Fusha and Ammiyah. The paper pointed out that al-Hakim``s Third Language had its own merits; easier and simpler than Fusha. The language, however, lacked naturalness, because it had been a fruit of the writer``s intention and deliberation. It would be hard to say that al-Hakim``s experiment was a success, for he could not find companions who share the mission, but his Third Language should be recognized as a positive initiative to reach a balance between social reality and literary means.
    Keyword: 타우피크 알하킴의 언어
    Author: 박재원
    Poblication Year: 2015
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Italian Literature
    유럽에서의 "천일야화" 번역 과정 연구
    This paper studies on the history of process of 『The Thousand and One Nights』 translations in Europe. In the 17th century, Europe began to concern about orient as a romantic region. So, many of Europeans traveled orient, and they recorded customs, traditions and cultures of their visiting countries. They wrote books about orient and introduced to Europeans. In this time, the most important book, which has influenced on European was『The Arabian Nights』. Antoine Galland(1646-1715) was the first European translator of 『The Arabian Nights』. He published the first two volumes of 『Les Mille et une nuits』in 1704 and the twelfth and final volume in 1717. And then in England two writers translated 『The Arabian Nights』by English language. They were Edward William Lane(1801-1876) and Richard F. Burton(1821-1890). Lane translated Bulaq version of 『The Thousand and One Nights』and published『The Arabian Nights』in 1838-1841. Burton translated CalcuttaⅡ version and published『The Arabian Nights』in 1885 by the ten volumes and he added six volumes in 1886-1888. In France, Joseph Charles Mardrus translated Bulaq version and North Africa version of 『The Arabian Nights』and published sixteen volumes in 1899-1904. In Spanish Andalus was considered to bridge of transformation of arabian literature into Europe in medieval ages. So 『The Arabian Nights』 was circulated in medieval Europe by the name of 『Sendebar』. This book was generally known as the『Libro de los enganos』in spanish version, and the latin version by 『Libre de septem sapientibus』.
    Keyword: "천일야화" 번역
    Author: 이종화
    Poblication Year: 2015
    Language: Korean
    Country: Italy
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    사우디아라비아 석유정책이 제2차 석유파동에 미친 영향
    It is generally believed that the increasing political instability in Iran in late 1978 and the consequent Islamic Revolution in 1979 caused the second oil shock in the world oil market. Although these political events in Iran increased the instability of the world oil market, their impact on skyrocketing oil prices was limited. When we look into the world oil market during this period in detail, it was Saudi Arabia, which gave market forces opportunities to agitate the world oil market by skyrocketing oil prices. In the first half of 1979, Saudi oil policy was deviated from its long-term economic interests in maximizing oil wealth through price moderation mainly due to short-term political exigencies. During this period, Saudi Arabia had two main political concerns, the political unrest in Iran and the conflict in Yemen. The Saudi government needed to appease the new Iranian government and tried to show its amicable attitude towards its oil policy. On the other hand as the skirmishes between the Yemen Arab Republic and the People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen erupted into a full scale war by February 1979, diplomatic cooperation from Iraq and Syria was needed to achieve the cease-fire. Furthermore, Saudi Arabia tried to press the US to change its controversial foreign policy in the Middle East based on the Camp David Accords. All these political considerations in early 1979 reflected on Saudi Arabia’s oil policy by reducing its oil production and raising oil prices. However, politically motivated Saudi oil policy aggravated a tighter world oil market and the consequent rising oil prices in the spot market with the growing influence of market forces over the world oil market mainly contributed to the second oil shock.
    Keyword: 석유정책, 석유파동
    Author: 송상현
    Poblication Year: 2015
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    이슬람국가와 알-카에다의 이념적 그리고 전략적 차이
    The ‘establishment’ of Khalifa system by Islamic State (IS) will generate long-term instability in the Middle East. IS is an Sunni extremist organization which has a clear difference with the conventional Jihadist groups like al-Qaeda. IS and other Islamist groups have a similar ultimate goal of building an Islamic state, but they have different strategies and methodologies. The major targets of Osama bin Laden's al-Qaeda is ‘far enemy,’ i.e., the West led by the US and Israel, IS has prioritize ‘near enemy’ rather than 'far enemy’ cleansing the Muslim community. While Al-Qaeda seeks a ‘defensive jihad’ to protect the Islamic world from the threat posed the West, IS has combined the ‘defensive’ with ‘offensive jihad.’ IS has resorted to a strategy of building Islamic state to remove non-Islamic elements in the Middle East. This study explores how much ideology and strategy between al-Qaeda and IS are different. Despite the fact that the two radical Islamist organizations have utilized the religion of Islam to justify their activities and atrocities, this research assumes that IS, which declared the establishment of Khalifa state, has more assertively put the emphasis on its territorial domination and governance than al-Qaeda did. In order to demonstrate the ideological and strategic difference between the two organizaton, this study analyzed the speeches made by the main leaders of the two groups, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi and Osama bin Laden. The texts in the speeches of the two leaders were analyzed through the KH Coder. The result of the analysis showed considerable differences in word usage and co-occurrence networks.
    Keyword: 테러
    Author: 서경민
    Poblication Year: 2015
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Politics/Diplomatic Science
    영국의 팔레스타인 위임통치와 시온주의프로젝트
    This article analyzes the Zionists Project of British Mandate to elucidate the cause of the current Israeli/Palestinian Conflicts. During the Mandate period(1920-1948), The British government created the racial discrimination in Palestine as supporting the Jewish-Zionists, Immigrants and excluding Muslim?Christian-Arabs, Natives. The British government and Zionists were the major collaborators to control Palestine as keeping and strengthening the racial discrimination policies. In the result, the current unstable political structure in Palestine was established by British Mandate policies. The purpose of British Zionists Projects was for British to control the strategic location, Palestine and they expressly presented the construction of the Jewish State for Jewish people as the goal. During the Mandate period, Muslim?Christian-Arabs, Natives continued to resist the Zionists Projects involving Jewish massive immigration to Palestine and organized the strong Arab Revolts. As the response to the Arab Revolts, the British Mandate organized the Haycraft Commission of 1921, the Shaw Commission of 1930, the Peel Commission of 1936 and announced Churchill White Paper of 1922, the Passfield White Paper of 1930, MacDonald White Paper of 1939. In this process, there were some advances and retreats of Zionists Projects. But finally, in 1948 Zionists incapacitated Palestinian Arab Natives nearly completely and achieved the goal of Zionism, the construction of the Jewish State, Israel in Palestine.
    Keyword: 위임통치, 시온주의프로젝트
    Author: 홍미정
    Poblication Year: 2015
    Language: Korean
    Country: Israel
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Economics
    아랍 지역 마케팅 환경 및 전략에 관한 연구 - 마케팅 사례를 통한 분석 -
    With the growth of the Arab economy, the interest of the Arab Region has increased in South Korea In addition, many South Korean companies are advancing to the Arab region, and this is also increasing the interest of the marketing environment and strategy in the Arab region. However, research on the marketing environment and the strategy to the Arab region still lacks in South Korea. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to present an improvement plan for future marketing activities in the Arab region by collecting various examples of companies in Arab region and by analyzing the success or failure causes of the cases. To collect the stories, we analyzed many marketing cases on various industries such as electronics, fashion, cosmetic, service, culture, and retail. And through these examples, we derived the problems and studied the solutions. We hope this paper to be a small cornerstone of the studies of Arab regions’ marketing environment and strategy.
    Keyword: 마케팅
    Author: 이일영
    Poblication Year: 2015
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Language
    A Modern Approach to al-Malakah al-Lisāniyyah in Ibn Khaldun
    본 연구의 목적은 이븐 칼둔의 언어연구에서 중요한 부분을 차지하고 있는 al-Malakah al-Lis?niyyah 즉 ‘언어적 자질 또는 능력’을 현대적으로 재해석하는 것이다. al-Malakah al-Lis?niyyah 는 이븐 칼둔이 그의 저서 『역사 서설』에서 언어습득과 관련하여 제시한 개념으로, 언어의 습득은 외형적인 행위로 보이지만 그것을 가능하게 하는 것은 언어적 자질 즉, al-Malakah al-Lis?niyyah 에 의한 반복적 연습으로 이루어진다는 개념이다. 이븐 칼둔은 인간사회에서 문화가 형성되는 것은 사회 구성원들의 al-Malakah 즉 '특정 자질‘이 지속적 연습 또는 교육을 통해 기술craft 의 형태로 발전됨으로써 가능하다고 보았고 이를 바탕으로 우월한 형태의 국가가 형성된다고 주장했다. 그는 al-Malakah 를 정신적 형태로 간주했고 인간의 본유적인 자질로 보았다. 그의 이러한 주장이 현대에서 주목을 받는 것은 현대 언어학의 언어습득 이론과 공통점을 공유하기 때문이다. 현대 언어학은 언어습득이 본유적 언어 능력을 바탕으로 특정 언어사회에서 반복되는 습관행위 즉, 후천적 교육을 통해 가능하다고 보고 있다. 이러한 주장은 촘스키Chomsky의 언어습득 이론에서도 잘 나타나 있다. 촘스키는 언어습득과정을 보편적 언어능력을 바탕으로 각 언어의 개별문법을 습득하는 것으로 간주했다. 본 논문에서는 이븐 칼둔의 al-Malakah al-Lis?niyyah 의 개념을 현대 언어학의 언어습득과정을 통해 비교함으로써 그 공통성을 입증하는데 주력할 것이다. 특히 이븐 칼둔의 언어에 대한 관점과 이를 통한 al-Malakah al-Lis?niyyah의 개념에 대한 정확한 정의를 현대 언어학적 측면에서 고찰하고 그의 언어관을 조명하고자 한다.
    Keyword: 이븐 칼둔
    Author: 최진영
    Poblication Year: 2015
    Language: Korean
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies
    Arabic Literature
    꾸란 정음법 연구
    이런 꾸란 언어에 쓰인 고전아랍어는 음운 규칙이 체계적이면서 규칙적으로 변한다는 것을 알았다. 따라서 이런 음운 규칙을 학습자에게 습득시킨다면, 꾸란 독경 시 오류를 최대한 줄일 수 있을 것이다. 또한 꾸란 정음을 반복해 연습한다면 아랍어 학습자들의 발음향상에 큰 효과가 있을 것으로 사료된다. 본 논문에서 다룬 꾸란 의 음운 규칙들은 현대 표준아랍어나 방언학의 음운 현상에도 적용 할 수 있다. 고․현대아랍어의 음운비교 연구와 꾸란 정음학 중 다루지 않은 단․장모음 현상 등은 다음 기회에 다루고자 한다.
    Keyword: 꾸란의 정음 독경 소리 체계 자음들의 음맥현상
    Author: Park Jae-Yang
    Poblication Year: 2001
    Language: Arabic
    Country: Mediterranean
    Institute: Korean Association of Islamic Stidies

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